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1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

Narbonne
Narbonne
(French pronunciation: ​[naʁ.bɔn]; Occitan: Narbona, Occitan
Occitan
pronunciation: [naɾ.ˈbu.nɔ]; Latin: Narbo, Classical Latin: [ˈnar.boː]; Late Latin: Narbona) is a commune in southern France
France
in the Occitanie
Occitanie
region. It lies 849 km (528 mi) from Paris
Paris
in the Aude
Aude
department, of which it is a sub-prefecture. Once a prosperous port, and a major city in Roman times, it is now located about 15 km (9.3 mi) from the shores of the Mediterranean Sea. It is marginally the largest commune in Aude, although the prefecture is the slightly smaller commune of Carcassonne.

Contents

1 Geography 2 Etymology 3 History

3.1 Narbonne
Narbonne
loses its river and port 3.2 Narbonne
Narbonne
Cathedral 3.3 Building of the Canal de la Robine

4 Population 5 Sights 6 Sport 7 Transport 8 Personalities 9 See also 10 International relations

10.1 Twin towns — Sister cities

11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links

Geography[edit] Narbonne
Narbonne
is linked to the nearby Canal du Midi
Canal du Midi
and the Aude
Aude
River by the Canal de la Robine, which runs through the centre of town. Etymology[edit] The town's original name is very ancient. The earliest known record of its original name is by the Greek Hecataeus of Miletus
Hecataeus of Miletus
in the fifth century BC. In ancient inscriptions the name is sometimes rendered in Latin and sometimes translated into Iberian as Nedhena. History[edit] Narbonne
Narbonne
was established in Gaul
Gaul
by the Romans in 118 BC, as Colonia Narbo Martius, colloquially Narbo. It was located on the Via Domitia, the first Roman road
Roman road
in Gaul, built at the time of the foundation of the colony, and connecting Italy
Italy
to Spain. Geographically, Narbonne was therefore located at a very important crossroads because it was situated where the Via Domitia
Via Domitia
connected to the Via Aquitania, which led toward the Atlantic through Tolosa and Burdigala. In addition, it was crossed by the Aude
Aude
River. Surviving members of Julius Caesar's Legio X Equestris
Legio X Equestris
were given lands in the area that today is called Narbonne.[citation needed] Politically, Narbonne
Narbonne
gained importance as a competitor to Massalia (Marseille). Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
settled veterans from his 10th Legion there and attempted to develop its port while Marseille
Marseille
was supporting Pompey. Among the amenities of Narbonne, its rosemary-flower honey was famous among Romans.[2] Later, the province of Transalpine Gaul
Gaul
was renamed Gallia Narbonensis after the city, which became its capital. Seat of a powerful administration, the city enjoyed economic and architectural expansion. At that point, the city is thought to have had 30,000–50,000 inhabitants, and may have had as many as 100,000.[3]

Umayyad troops leaving Narbonne
Narbonne
to Pépin le Bref, in 759.

According to Hydatius, in 462 the city was handed over to the Visigoths
Visigoths
by a local military leader in exchange for support, as a result Roman rule ended in the city. It was subsequently the capital of the Visigothic province of Septimania, the only territory from Gaul to fend off the Frankish thrust after the Battle of Vouille
Battle of Vouille
(507). For 40 years, from 719, Narbonne
Narbonne
was part of the Umayyad Empire
Umayyad Empire
with a strong Gothic presence. The Carolingian
Carolingian
Pepin the Short
Pepin the Short
conquered Narbonne
Narbonne
from the Arabs in 759 after which it became part of the Carolingian
Carolingian
Viscounty of Narbonne. He invited, according to Christian sources[citation needed], prominent Jews from the Caliphate
Caliphate
of Bagdad to settle in Narbonne
Narbonne
and establish a major Jewish
Jewish
learning center for Western Europe.[4] In the 12th century, the court of Ermengarde of Narbonne
Narbonne
(reigned 1134 to 1192) presided over one of the cultural centers where the spirit of courtly love was developed.

Narbonne
Narbonne
in the late 19th century

In the 11th and 12th centuries, Narbonne
Narbonne
was home to an important Jewish
Jewish
exegetical school, which played a pivotal role in the growth and development of the Zarphatic (Judæo-French) and Shuadit (Judæo-Provençal) languages. Jews had settled in Narbonne
Narbonne
from about the 5th century, with a community that had risen to approximately 2000 in the 12th century. At this time, Narbonne
Narbonne
was frequently mentioned in Talmudic works in connection with its scholars. One source, Abraham ibn Daud of Toledo, gives them an importance similar to the exilarchs of Babylon.[5] In the 12th and 13th centuries, the community went through a series of ups and downs before settling into extended decline. Narbonne
Narbonne
loses its river and port[edit]

In the old town

Narbonne
Narbonne
itself fell into a slow decline in the 14th century, for a variety of reasons. One was due to a change in the course of the Aude River, which caused increased silting of the navigational access. The river, known as the Atax in ancient times, had always had two main courses which split close to Salelles; one fork going south through Narbonne
Narbonne
and then to the sea close to the Clappe Massif, the other heading east to the etang at Vendres close to the current mouth of the river well to the east of the city. The Romans had improved the navigability of the river by building a dam near Salelles and also by canalising the river as it passed through its marshy delta to the sea (then as now the canal was known as the Robine.) A major flood in 1320 swept the dam away. The Aude
Aude
river had a long history of overflowing its banks. When it was a bustling port, the distance from the coast was approximately 5 to 10 km (3 to 6 mi), but at that time the access to the sea was deep enough when the river was in full spate which made communication between port and city unreliable.[contradictory][6] However, goods could easily be transported by land and in shallow barges from the ports (there were several: a main port and forward ports for larger vessels; indeed the navigability from the sea into the etang and then into the river had been a perennial problem!)

Narbonne
Narbonne
circa 1780

The changes to the long seashore which resulted from the silting up of the series of graus or openings which were interspersed between the islands which made up the shoreline (St. Martin; St. Lucie) had a more serious impact than the change in course of the river. Other causes of decline were the plague and the raid of Edward, the Black Prince, which caused much devastation. The growth of other ports was also a factor. Narbonne
Narbonne
Cathedral[edit]

Part of the unfinished section of the Cathedral Saint-Just-et-Saint-Pasteur.

Narbonne
Narbonne
Cathedral, dedicated to Saints Justus and Pastor, provides stark evidence of Narbonne's sudden and dramatic change of fortunes when one sees at the rear of the structure the enormously ambitious building programme frozen in time, for the cathedral—still one of the tallest in France—was never finished. The reasons are many, but the most important is that the completed cathedral would have required demolishing the city wall. The 14th century also brought the plague and a host of reasons for retaining the 5th-century (pre-Visigothic) walls. Yet the choir, side chapels, sacristy, and courtyard remain intact, and the cathedral, although no longer the seat of a bishop or archbishop, remains the primary place of worship for the Roman Catholic population of the city, and is a major tourist attraction. Building of the Canal de la Robine[edit]

From the sixteenth century, eager to maintain a link to important trade, the people of Narbonne
Narbonne
began costly work to the vestiges of the Aude
Aude
River's access to the sea so that it would remain navigable to a limited draft vessel and also serve as a link with the Royal Canal. This major undertaking resulted in the construction of the Canal de la Robine, which was finally linked with the Canal du Midi
Canal du Midi
(then known as the Royal Canal) via the Canal de Jonction
Canal de Jonction
in 1776. In the 19th century, the canal system in the south of France
France
came into competition with an expanding rail network, but kept some importance due to the flourishing wine trade. Hence, despite its decline from Roman times, Narbonne
Narbonne
managed to hold on to its vital but limited importance as a trading route, particularly in more recent centuries. Population[edit]

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1793 9,050 —    

1800 9,086 +0.4%

1806 9,464 +4.2%

1821 9,940 +5.0%

1831 10,246 +3.1%

1836 10,762 +5.0%

1841 11,907 +10.6%

1846 11,427 −4.0%

1851 13,066 +14.3%

Year Pop. ±%

1856 14,300 +9.4%

1861 16,062 +12.3%

1866 17,172 +6.9%

1872 17,266 +0.5%

1876 19,968 +15.6%

1881 28,134 +40.9%

1886 29,702 +5.6%

1891 29,566 −0.5%

1896 27,824 −5.9%

Year Pop. ±%

1906 27,039 −2.8%

1911 28,173 +4.2%

1921 28,956 +2.8%

1926 29,841 +3.1%

1931 31,909 +6.9%

1936 30,047 −5.8%

1946 29,975 −0.2%

1954 32,060 +7.0%

1962 33,891 +5.7%

Year Pop. ±%

1968 38,441 +13.4%

1975 39,342 +2.3%

1982 41,565 +5.7%

1990 45,849 +10.3%

1999 46,510 +1.4%

2008 52,252 +12.3%

The Cloister of the Archbishop's Palace

Sights[edit]

The cathedral dating from 1272 The Palais des Archevêques, the Archbishop's Palace, and its donjon with views over Narbonne Musée Archeologique, an archaeological museum in the town centre The Roman Horreum, a former grain warehouse, built underground as a cryptoporticus Remains of the Via Domitia
Via Domitia
in the city center The canal, Canal de la Robine, running through the centre of the town The Halles covered market operates every day. The busiest times are Sunday and Thursday mornings. The nearby limestone massif known as La Clape and the beach at Narbonne
Narbonne
plage

Sport[edit] Narbonne
Narbonne
is home to the rugby union team RC Narbonne
RC Narbonne
founded in 1907. They play at the Parc des Sports Et de l'Amitié (capacity 12,000). They wear orange and black. Transport[edit] The Gare de Narbonne
Gare de Narbonne
railway station offers direct connections to Paris, Barcelona, Toulouse, Marseille
Marseille
and many regional destinations. An extensive local system of buses and routes operated by Citibus.fr allow for easy public transport within Narbonne
Narbonne
and surrounding communities. Travellers wishing to connect by plane arrive by airports in nearby Béziers, Carcasonne, Perpignan, Toulouse
Toulouse
or Montpellier, as Narbonne
Narbonne
does not have an airport. Personalities[edit]

Léon Blum
Léon Blum
was born in Paris
Paris
but was elected as Deputy for Narbonne
Narbonne
in 1929, re-elected in 1932 and 1936. Makhir of Narbonne, medieval Jewish
Jewish
scholar Bonfilh, was a Jewish
Jewish
troubadour from the city. Kalonymus ben Todros (d. ca. 1194) was a Provençal rabbi who flourished at Narbonne
Narbonne
in the second half of the twelfth century Saint Sébastien, third-century Christian
Christian
saint and martyr Dimitri Szarzewski, rugby player Charles Trenet, singer and songwriter Guillaume Barthez de Marmorières (1707-1799), civil engineer. Rabbi Moshe ben Yosef Head of the Talmudic Academy of Narbonne
Narbonne
in the 12th Century Anaïs Napoleón, photographer

See also[edit]

Bierzo Edict Corbières AOC Communes of the Aude
Aude
department

International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in France Twin towns — Sister cities[edit] Narbonne
Narbonne
is twinned with:

Aosta, Italy[7] Grosseto, Italy Salford, England[8][9] Weilheim, Germany

References[edit]

INSEE

^ The forms "Narbonian" and "Narbonensian" are sometimes encountered, particularly in reference to ancient Narbo and Narbonnese Gaul. ^ Maguelonne Toussaint-Samat (Anthea Bell, tr.) The History of Food, 2nd ed. 2009:23. ^ 1 ^ Trigano - The Conventionalism of social Bonds and the Strategies of Jewish
Jewish
Society in the Thirteenth Century; Byrd - The Jesus Gene: A messianic Bloodline, the Jews and Freemasonry accessdate=2012-02-16 ^ Jewish
Jewish
encyclopedia. ^ Mediterranean Beaches and Bluffs: A Bicycle Your France
France
E-guide by Walter Judson Moore, 2015 ^ Annuaire-Mairie.fr. "Ville d'Aoste" (in French). Retrieved 2013-06-18.  ^ "British towns twinned with French towns". Archant Community Media Ltd. Retrieved 2013-07-11.  ^ Salford City Council. "Salford's twin towns". Salford.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 17 December 2007. Retrieved 4 May 2008. 

Michel Gayraud, Narbonne
Narbonne
antique des origines à la fin du IIIe siècle. Paris: De Boccard, Revue archéologique de Narbonnaise, Supplément 8, 1981, 591 p. Histoire de Narbonne, Jacques Michaud and André Cabanis, eds, Toulouse: Privat, 2004. L’ Aude
Aude
de la préhistoire à nos jours (under the direction of Jacques Crémadeilis), Saint-Jean-d’Angély, 1989. Les Audois : dictionnaire biographique, Rémy Cazals et Daniel Fabre, eds., Carcassonne, Association des Amis des Archives de l’Aude, Société d’Études Scientifiques de l’Aude, 1990.

Further reading[edit]

"Narbonne", A Handbook for Travellers in France
France
(8th ed.), London: J. Murray, 1861  "Narbonne", The Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.), New York: Encyclopædia Britannica, 1910, OCLC 14782424  "Narbonne", Southern France, including Corsica (6th ed.), Leipzig: Baedeker, 1914 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Narbonne.

Official website (in French) 3D stone from Roman era(in English)

v t e

Communes of the Aude
Aude
department

Aigues-Vives Airoux Ajac Alaigne Alairac Albas Albières Alet-les-Bains Alzonne Antugnac Aragon Argeliers Argens-Minervois Armissan Arques Arquettes-en-Val Artigues Arzens Aunat Auriac Axat Azille Badens Bages Bagnoles Baraigne Barbaira Belcaire Belcastel-et-Buc Belflou Belfort-sur-Rebenty Bellegarde-du-Razès Belpech Belvèze-du-Razès Belvianes-et-Cavirac Belvis Berriac Bessède-de-Sault La Bezole Bizanet Bize-Minervois Blomac Bouilhonnac Bouisse Bouriège Bourigeole Le Bousquet Boutenac Bram Brézilhac Brousses-et-Villaret Brugairolles Les Brunels Bugarach Cabrespine Cahuzac Cailhau Cailhavel Cailla Cambieure Campagna-de-Sault Campagne-sur-Aude Camplong-d'Aude Camps-sur-l'Agly Camurac Canet Capendu Carcassonne Carlipa Cascastel-des-Corbières La Cassaigne Cassaignes Les Cassés Castans Castelnaudary Castelnau-d'Aude Castelreng Caudebronde Caunes-Minervois Caunettes-en-Val Caunette-sur-Lauquet Caux-et-Sauzens Cavanac Caves Cazalrenoux Cazilhac Cenne-Monestiés Cépie Chalabre Citou Le Clat Clermont-sur-Lauquet Comigne Comus Conilhac-Corbières Conilhac-de-la-Montagne Conques-sur-Orbiel Corbières Coudons Couffoulens Couiza Counozouls Cournanel Coursan Courtauly La Courtète Coustaussa Coustouge Cruscades Cubières-sur-Cinoble Cucugnan Cumiès Cuxac-Cabardès Cuxac-d'Aude Davejean Dernacueillette La Digne-d'Amont La Digne-d'Aval Donazac Douzens Duilhac-sous-Peyrepertuse Durban-Corbières Embres-et-Castelmaure Escales Escouloubre Escueillens-et-Saint-Just-de-Bélengard Espéraza Espezel Fa Fabrezan Fajac-en-Val Fajac-la-Relenque La Fajolle Fanjeaux Félines-Termenès Fendeille Fenouillet-du-Razès Ferrals-les-Corbières Ferran Festes-et-Saint-André Feuilla Fitou Fleury Floure Fontanès-de-Sault Fontcouverte Fonters-du-Razès Fontiers-Cabardès Fontiès-d'Aude Fontjoncouse La Force Fournes-Cabardès Fourtou Fraisse-Cabardès Fraissé-des-Corbières Gaja-et-Villedieu Gaja-la-Selve Galinagues Gardie Generville Gincla Ginestas Ginoles Gourvieille Gramazie Granès Greffeil Gruissan Homps Hounoux Les Ilhes Issel Jonquières Joucou Labastide-d'Anjou Labastide-en-Val Labastide-Esparbairenque Labécède-Lauragais Lacombe Ladern-sur-Lauquet Lafage Lagrasse Lairière Lanet Laprade Laroque-de-Fa Lasbordes Lasserre-de-Prouille Lastours Laurabuc Laurac Lauraguel Laure-Minervois Lavalette Lespinassière Leuc Leucate Lézignan-Corbières Lignairolles Limousis Limoux Loupia La Louvière-Lauragais Luc-sur-Aude Luc-sur-Orbieu Magrie Mailhac Maisons Malras Malves-en-Minervois Malviès Marcorignan Marquein Marsa Marseillette Les Martys Mas-Cabardès Mas-des-Cours Massac Mas-Saintes-Puelles Mayreville Mayronnes Mazerolles-du-Razès Mazuby Mérial Mézerville Miraval-Cabardes Mirepeisset Mireval-Lauragais Missègre Molandier Molleville Montauriol Montazels Montbrun-des-Corbières Montclar Montferrand Montfort-sur-Boulzane Montgaillard Montgradail Monthaut Montirat Montjardin Montjoi Montlaur Montmaur Montolieu Montréal Montredon-des-Corbières Montséret Monze Moussan Moussoulens Mouthoumet Moux Narbonne Nébias Névian Niort-de-Sault Ornaisons Orsans Ouveillan Padern Palairac Palaja La Palme Paraza Pauligne Payra-sur-l'Hers Paziols Pécharic-et-le-Py Pech-Luna Pennautier Pépieux Pexiora Peyrefitte-du-Razès Peyrefitte-sur-l'Hers Peyrens Peyriac-de-Mer Peyriac-Minervois Peyrolles Pezens Pieusse Plaigne Plavilla La Pomarède Pomas Pomy Portel-des-Corbières Port-la-Nouvelle Pouzols-Minervois Pradelles-Cabardès Pradelles-en-Val Preixan Puginier Puichéric Puilaurens Puivert Quillan Quintillan Quirbajou Raissac-d'Aude Raissac-sur-Lampy La Redorte Rennes-le-Château Rennes-les-Bains Ribaute Ribouisse Ricaud Rieux-en-Val Rieux-Minervois Rivel Rodome Roquecourbe-Minervois Roquefère Roquefeuil Roquefort-de-Sault Roquefort-des-Corbières Roquetaillade Roubia Rouffiac-d'Aude Rouffiac-des-Corbières Roullens Routier Rouvenac Rustiques Saint-Amans Saint-André-de-Roquelongue Saint-Benoît Saint-Couat-d'Aude Saint-Couat-du-Razès Saint-Denis Sainte-Camelle Sainte-Colombe-sur-Guette Sainte-Colombe-sur-l'Hers Sainte-Eulalie Sainte-Valière Saint-Ferriol Saint-Frichoux Saint-Gaudéric Saint-Hilaire Saint-Jean-de-Barrou Saint-Jean-de-Paracol Saint-Julia-de-Bec Saint-Julien-de-Briola Saint-Just-et-le-Bézu Saint-Laurent-de-la-Cabrerisse Saint-Louis-et-Parahou Saint-Marcel-sur-Aude Saint-Martin-des-Puits Saint-Martin-de-Villereglan Saint-Martin-Lalande Saint-Martin-le-Vieil Saint-Martin-Lys Saint-Michel-de-Lanès Saint-Nazaire-d'Aude Saint-Papoul Saint-Paulet Saint-Pierre-des-Champs Saint-Polycarpe Saint-Sernin Saissac Sallèles-Cabardès Sallèles-d'Aude Salles-d'Aude Salles-sur-l'Hers Salsigne Salvezines Salza Seignalens La Serpent Serres Serviès-en-Val Sigean Sonnac-sur-l'Hers Sougraigne Souilhanels Souilhe Soulatgé Soupex Talairan Taurize Termes Terroles Thézan-des-Corbières La Tourette-Cabardès Tournissan Tourouzelle Tourreilles Trassanel Trausse Trèbes Treilles Tréville Tréziers Tuchan Val-de-Lambronne Valmigère Ventenac-Cabardès Ventenac-en-Minervois Véraza Verdun-en-Lauragais Verzeille Vignevieille Villalier Villanière Villardebelle Villardonnel Villar-en-Val Villar-Saint-Anselme Villarzel-Cabardès Villarzel-du-Razès Villasavary Villautou Villebazy Villedaigne Villedubert Villefloure Villefort Villegailhenc Villegly Villelongue-d'Aude Villemagne Villemoustaussou Villeneuve-la-Comptal Villeneuve-les-Corbières Villeneuve-lès-Montréal Villeneuve-Minervois Villepinte Villerouge-Termenès Villesèque-des-Corbières Villesèquelande Villesiscle Villespy Villetritouls Vinassan

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 163668245 LCCN: n81081145 GND: 4117775-7 BNF:

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