Narayana (Sanskrit: नारायण, IAST: Nārāyaṇa), another name for Vishnu, is the supreme absolute being in Hinduism and is considered as the supreme deity in Vaishnavism. The Bhagavata Purana declares
Narayana as the Para Brahman (Supreme Lord) who creates unlimited universes and enters each one of them as Lord of the Universe.
Narayana engages in the creation of 14 worlds within the universe as Brahma when he deliberately accepts rajas guna.
Narayana himself sustains, maintains and preserves the universe as Vishnu. In Shaivism, Narayan also accepts sattva guna and annihilates the universe at the end of maha-kalpa as Shiva or Rudra when he accepts tamas guna. According to the Bhagavata Purana, Lord
Narayana is the supreme controller and is supreme among deities, the ultimate soul. He is also called as Surya Narayana, one who shines like the brilliant sun.  He is said to pervade whatever is seen or heard in this universe from inside and outside alike. He is also mainly associated with the cosmic waters of creation.
According to Madhvacharya,
Narayana is one of the five vyuhas of Kṛṣṇa, which are cosmic emanations of God in contrast to his incarnate avatars.
In the Vedas and Puranas, Lord
Narayana is described as having the divine blue colour of water-filled clouds, four-armed, holding a padma (lotus flower), Kaumodaki (mace), Panchajanya shankha (conch) and the Sudarshana Chakra (discus).
Narayana is also often identified as Sharangapani, Vishnu, Hari, Purushottama or Purusha and Jagannath in the Hindu sacred texts such as the Bhagavad Gita, the
Vedas and the Puranas.
Narayana is also venerated as Mukunda (giver of Moksha, liberation from cycle of births and deaths in the material world). In the Mahabharata, Krishna is often referred to as
Narayana and Arjuna as Nara. The epic identifies them both in plural 'Krishnas', or as part incarnations of the earlier incarnations of Vishnu, recalling their mystical identity as Nara-Narayana.
Narayana is also described in the Bhagavad Gita as having a universal form (Vishvarupa) which is beyond the ordinary limits of human perception or imagination.
Narayana's eternal and supreme abode beyond the material universe is
Vaikuntha which is a realm of bliss and happiness called Paramapadha, which means final or highest place for liberated souls, where they enjoy bliss and happiness for eternity in the company of supreme lord.
Vaikuntha is situated beyond the material universe and hence, cannot be perceived or measured by material science or logic. Sometimes, Ksheera Sagara where
Narayana or Vishnu rests on Ananta Shesha is also perceived as Vaikuntha within the material universe.
Narayana is hailed in each and every part of Vedas like, Shatarudriyam,
Narayana is also hailed in the Upanishads like,
Narayana Upanishad, Isopanishad, Chandogya Upanishad, Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, Mundaka Upanishad, Mandukya Upanishad, Katha Upanishad, Kenopanishad, Prasna Upanishad, Svetasvatara Upanishad, Maha
Narasimha Tapani Upanishad.
There are multiple variations of Lord Narayana's name.
The word 'Narayana' means "The one who rests on waters of creation". The Manusmriti states,
The waters are called "narah", for the waters are, indeed, produced by
Nara-Narayana (the first Being); as they were his first residence "ayana", he is called Narayana.
Narayana also means,
"The Supreme Being who is the foundation of all men".
Another interpretation sees,
Nara means "human" and Ayana as "direction/goal". Some view
Narayana as meaning "son of man." Hence,
Narayana refers to the "direction of a human" (towards moksha).
Nara means "Human" and Ayana also means "Shelter" so
Narayana means, shelter of all human beings. The
Narayana Upanishad reads:
Om Namo Narayanayeti mantra upasaka
Vaikuntha bhuvanam gamishyati,
In Sanskrit, The word 'Nara' can also refer to a man, male or a person.
Narayana is spoken of in the scriptures as being parabrahman, paramatma parameshwar parashakti and parajyothi which are all ways of saying "absolute" or "supreme".
In the Vedas, it is written,
Narayana parabrahman tatvam
which points to how
Narayana is essentially the supreme force and/or essence of all.
Narayan Temple on Narayanhiti palace premises,Kathmandu,Nepal
Oldest Sridhar Narayan statue at Naksaal, Kathmandu
||Wikimedia Commons has media related to Narayana.
Bhagavata Purana Canto 2 Chapter 10 Verse 10
Bhagavata Purana Canto 2 Chapter 5 Verse 16-18
Bhagavata Purana Canto 11 Chapter 4 Verse 5
Vishnu Purana 1.2.61-63
Bhagavata Purana (12.12.56): "Narayanam Devam adevam isam - Lord Narayana, the Supreme controller and the ultimate Soul of all existence, beyond whom there is no other God.
Bhagavata Purana (12.13.16): Just as the river Ganges is the greatest of all rivers, Lord Achyuta (
Vishnu or Narayana) the supreme among deities (devas) and Lord Shambhu (Shiva) the greatest of Vaishnavas, so
Bhagavata Purana is the greatest of all Puranas.
- ^ http://sanskritdocuments.org/doc_vishhnu/narayana-sukta.html
- ^ Bryant, Edwin F., Krishna: a Sourcebook. p.359 "
Madhvacharya separates Vishnu’s manifestations into two groups: Vishnu’s vyuhas (emanations) and His avataras (incarnations). The vyuhas have their basis in the
Pancharatra agamas, a sectarian text that was accepted as authoritative by both the
Vishishtadvaita and Madhva schools of Vedanta. They are mechanisms by which the universe is ordered, was created, and evolves. According to Madhvacharya,
Vishnu has either four or five vyuhas, named Narayana, Vasudeva, Sankarshana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha, which evolve one after the other in the development of the universe. The status of the fifth vyuha, Narayana, is not clear, and in some passages, he is not even mentioned."
Bhagavad Gita (15.18): Because I am transcendental, beyond the fallible and the infallible, and because I am the greatest, I am celebrated both in the world and in the
Vedas as that Supreme Person (Purushottama)
- ^ Name No. 515 in
- ^ Vaisnavism Saivism and Minor Religious Systems, Ramkrishna Gopal Bhandarkar. Published by Asian Educational Services, p.46.
- ^ Hiltebeitel, Alf (1990). The ritual of battle:
Krishna in the Mahābhārata. Albany, N.Y: State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-7914-0249-5. p61
- ^ Prabhupada, AC Bhaktivedanta. "Bhagavad-gita As It Is Chapter 11 Verse 3". vedabase.net. Archived from the original on 15 May 2008. Retrieved 10 May 2008. "see the cosmic manifestation"
- ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 15 May 2007. Retrieved 21 May 2007.
- ^ "Narayanastra – Defending
Vaishnavism as the supreme Vedic position". narayanastra.blogspot.in. Retrieved 2015-10-21.
- ^ Manu Smruti 1:10 " The Law Code of Manu", Published by Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-280271-2, page 11, also, The Laws of Manu in the 21st Century  by Pt. Sri
Ramanuja Acharya, page 6
- ^ Harivansh, Adhyay 88 shlock 44, also, Manu Smruti 1:10 " The Law Code of Manu", Published by Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-280271-2, page 11
- ^ http://www.sathyasaiottawa.org/pdf/Vedam/Narayana_Upanishad.pdf
- ^ http://spokensanskrit.de/index.php?tinput=nara&script=&direction=SE&link=yes
- ^ "॥ नारायणसूक्तम् सार्थ ॥ - ..
Narayana Sukta .. -
Sanskrit Documents". sanskritdocuments.org. Retrieved 2015-10-21.