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Naneghat, also referred to as Nanaghat or Nana Ghat (IAST: Nānāghaṭ), is a mountain pass in the Western Ghats
Western Ghats
range between the Konkan
Konkan
coast and the ancient town of Junnar
Junnar
in the Deccan plateau. The pass is about 120 kilometres (75 mi) north of Pune
Pune
and about 165 kilometres (103 mi) east from Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.[1] It was a part of an ancient trading route, and is famous for a major cave with Hindu
Hindu
Sanskrit inscriptions in Brahmi script.[2] These inscriptions have been dated between the 2nd and the 1st century BCE, and attributed to the Satavahana
Satavahana
dynasty era.[3][4][5] The inscriptions are notable for linking the Vedic and Vaishnavism deities, mentioning some Vedic srauta rituals and of names that provide historical information about the ancient Satavahanas.[4][6] The inscriptions present the world's oldest numeration symbols for "2, 4, 6, 7, and 9" that resemble modern era numerals, more closely those found in modern Nagari and Hindu-Arabic script.[5][7][8]

Contents

1 Location 2 History

2.1 Date

3 Nanaghat inscriptions

3.1 Left wall

3.1.1 Inscription 3.1.2 Left wall translation without interpolation 3.1.3 Left wall translation with interpolation

3.2 Right wall

3.2.1 Inscription 3.2.2 Right wall translation without interpolation 3.2.3 Right wall translation with interpolation

3.3 Back wall relief and names

4 Reception and significance 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References

7.1 Bibliography

Location[edit] Nanaghat pass stretches over the Western Ghats, through an ancient stone laid hiking trail to the Nanaghat plateau. The pass was the fastest key passage that linked the Indian west coast seaports of Sopara, Kalyan and Thana with economic centers and human settlements in Nasik, Paithan, Ter and others, according to Archaeological Survey of India.[9] Near the top is large, ancient manmade cave. On the cave's back wall are a series of inscriptions, some long and others short. The high point and cave is reachable by road via Highways 60 or 61. The cave archaeological site is about 120 kilometres (75 mi) north of Pune
Pune
and about 165 kilometres (103 mi) east from Mumbai.[1] The Naneghat
Naneghat
Cave is near other important ancient sites. It is, for example, about 35 kilometres (22 mi) from the Lenyadri Group of Theravada Buddhist Caves and some 200 mounds that have been excavated near Junnar, mostly from the 3rd-century BCE and 3rd-century CE period.[9] History[edit]

The Naneghat
Naneghat
caves, likely an ancient rest stop for travellers.[10]

During the reign of the Satavahana
Satavahana
(c. 200 BCE – 190 CE), the Naneghat
Naneghat
pass was one of the trade routes. It connected the Konkan coast communities with Deccan high plateau through Junnar.[1] Literally, the name nane means "coin" and ghat means "pass". The name is given because this path was used as a tollbooth to collect toll from traders crossing the hills. According to Charles Allen, there is a carved stone that from distance looks like a stupa, but is actually a two-piece carved stone container by the roadside to collect tolls.[11] The scholarship on the Naneghat
Naneghat
Cave inscription began after William Sykes found them while hiking during the summer of 1828.[12][13] Neither an archaeologist nor epigraphist, his training was as a statistician and he presumed that it was a Buddhist cave temple. He visited the site several times and made eye-copy (hand drawings) of the script panel he saw on the left and the right side of the wall. He then read a paper to the Bombay Literary Society in 1833 under the title, Inscriptions of the Boodh caves near Joonur,[12] later co-published with John Malcolm in 1837.[14] Sykes believed that the cave's "Boodh" (Buddhist) inscription showed signs of damage both from the weather elements as well as someone crudely incising to desecrate it.[11] He also thought that the inscription was not created by a skilled artisan, but someone who was in a hurry or not careful.[11] Sykes also noted that he saw stone seats carved along the walls all around the cave, likely because the cave was meant as a rest stop or shelter for those traveling across the Western Ghats
Western Ghats
through the Naneghat
Naneghat
pass.[10][11][12]

William Sykes made an imperfect eye-copy of the inscription in 1833, to bring it to scholarly attention.[15]

Sykes proposed that the inscription were ancient Sanskrit because the statistical prevalence rate of some characters in it was close to the prevalence rate of same characters in then known ancient Sanskrit inscriptions.[12][16] This suggestion reached the attention of James Prinsep, whose breakthrough in deciphering Brahmi script led ultimately to the inscription's translation. Much that Sykes guessed was right, the Naneghat
Naneghat
inscription he had found was indeed one of the oldest Sanskrit inscriptions.[11] He was incorrect in his presumption that it was a Buddhist inscription because its translation suggested it was a Hindu
Hindu
inscription.[17] The Naneghat
Naneghat
inscription were a prototype of the refined Devanagari
Devanagari
to emerge later.[11] Georg Bühler
Georg Bühler
published the first version of a complete interpolations and translation in 1883.[18] He was preceded by Bhagvanlal Indraji, who in a paper on numismatics (coins) partially translated it and remarked that the Naneghat
Naneghat
and coin inscriptions provide insights into ancient numerals.[18][19] Date[edit]

Naneghat
Naneghat
Pass Entrance

The inscriptions are attributed to a queen of the Satavahana
Satavahana
dynasty. Her name was either Nayanika or Naganika, likely the wife of king Satakarni. The details suggest that she was likely the queen mother, who sponsored this cave after the death of her husband, as the inscription narrates many details about their life together and her son being the new king.[4] The Naneghat
Naneghat
cave inscriptions have been dated by scholars to the last centuries of the 1st millennium BCE. Most scholars date it to the early 1st-century BCE, some to 2nd-century BCE, a few to even earlier.[3][4][5] Sircar dated it to the second half of the 1st-century BCE.[20] Upinder Singh and Charles Higham date 1st century BCE.[21][22] The Naneghat
Naneghat
records have proved very important in establishing the history of the region. Vedic Gods like Dharma
Dharma
Indra, Chandra
Chandra
and Surya are mentioned here. The mention of Samkarsana
Samkarsana
(Balarama) and Vasudeva (Krishna) indicate the prevalence of Bhagavata
Bhagavata
tradition of Hinduism in the Satavahana
Satavahana
dynasty. Nanaghat inscriptions[edit] Two long Nanaghat inscriptions are found on the left and right wall, while the back wall has small inscriptions on top above where the eight life-sized missing statues would have been before somebody hacked them off and removed them.[11] Left wall[edit]

Left wall inscription, Brahmi script

Inscription[edit]

Left wall inscription

sidhaṃ ... no dhaṃmasa namo īdasa namo saṃkaṃsana-vāsudevānaṃ caṃda-sūrānaṃ mahimāvatānaṃ catuṃnaṃ caṃ lokapālānaṃ yama-varuna-kubera-vāsavānaṃ namo kumāravarasa vedisirisa raño ......vīrasa sūrasa apratihatacakasa dakhināpaṭhapatino raño simukasātavāhanasa sunhāya ...... mā ..... bālāya mahāraṭhino aṃgiya-kulavadhanasa sagaragirivaravalayāya pathaviya pathamavīrasa vasa ... ya va alaha ......salasu ..ya mahato maha ... .... sātakaṇi sirisa bhāriyā devasa putadasa varadasa kāmadasa dhanadasa vedisiri-mātu satino sirimatasa ca mātuya sīma .... pathamaya ..... variya ....... ānāgavaradayiniya māsopavāsiniya gahaṭāpasāya caritabrahmacariyāya dikhavratayaṃñasuṃḍāya yañāhutādhūpanasugaṃdhāya niya ....... rāyasa ........ yañehi yiṭhaṃ vano agādheya-yaṃño dakhinā dinā gāvo bārasa 12 aso ca 1 anārabhaniyo yaṃño dakhinā dhenu ......... ...... dakhināya dinā gāvo 1700 hathī 10 ..... ......... as ..... sasataraya vāsalaṭhi 289 kubhiyo rupāmayiyo 17 bhi ...... .......... riko yaṃño dakhināyo dinā gāvo 11,000 asā 1,000 pasapako .............. ............. 12 gamavaro 1 dakhinā kāhāpanā 24,400 pasapako kāhāpanā 6,000 rājasūya-yaṃño ..... sakaṭaṃ

NOTE: (the missing characters do not match the number of dots; Buhler published a more complete version.[18])

Left wall translation without interpolation[edit]

Sidham[note 1] to Dharma, adoration to Indra, adoration to Samkarshana and Vasudeva,[note 2] the descendants of the Moon endowed with majesty, and to the four guardians of the world, Yama, Varuna, Kubera and Vasava; praise to Vedisri, the best of kumara![note 3] Of the king. .... of the brave hero, whose rule is unopposed, the Dekhan...... By ..... the daughter of the Maharathi, the increaser of the Amgiya race, the first hero of the earth that is girdled by the ocean and the best of mountains.... wife of . . . Sri, the lord who gives sons, boons, desires and wealth, mother of Yedisri and the mother of the illustrious Sakti..... Who gave a . . . most excellent nagavaradayiniya,[note 4] who fasted during a whole month, who in her house an ascetic, who remained chaste, who is well acquainted with initiatory ceremonies, vows and offerings, sacrifices, odoriferous with incense, were offered...... O the king ........ sacrifices were offered. Description - An Agnyadheya sacrifice, a dakshina[note 5] was offered twelve, 12, cows and 1 horse; - an Anvarambhaniya sacrifice, the dakshina, milch-cows..... ...... dakshina were given consisting of 1700 cows, 10 elephants, .... 289.....17 silver waterpots..... ..... a rika-sacrifice, dakshina were given 11,000 cows, 1000 horses ......12 . . 1 excellent village, a dakshina 24,400 Karshapanas, the spectators and menials 6,001 Karshapanas; a Raja ........ the cart[26]

Left wall translation with interpolation[edit]

[Om adoration] to Dharma
Dharma
[the Lord of created beings], adoration to Indra, adoration to Samkarshana
Samkarshana
and Vasudeva, the descendants of the Moon (who are) endowed with majesty, and to the four guardians of the world, Yama, Varuna, Kubera
Kubera
and Vasava; praise to Vedisri, the best of royal princes! Of the king. .... of the brave hero, whose rule is unopposed, (of the lord of) the Dekhan...... By ..... the daughter of the Maharathi, the increaser of the Amgiya race, the first hero of the earth that is girdled by the ocean and the best of mountains.... (who is the) wife of . . . Sri, the lord who gives sons, boons, (the fulfillment of) desires and wealth, (who is the) mother of Yedisri and the mother of the illustrious Sakti..... Who gave a . . . most excellent (image of) a snake (deity), who fasted during a whole month, who (even) in her house (lived like) an ascetic, who remained chaste, who is well acquainted with initiatory ceremonies, vows and offerings, sacrifices, odoriferous with incense, were offered...... O the king ........ sacrifices were offered. Description - An Agnyadheya sacrifice (was offered), a dakshina was offered (consisting of) twelve, 12, cows and 1 horse; - an Anvarambhaniya sacrifice (was offered), the dakshina (consisted of) , milch-cows..... ...... dakshina were given consisting of 1700 cows, 10 elephants, .... (289?).....17 silver waterpots..... ..... a rika-sacrifice, dakshina were given (consisting of) 11,000 cows, 1000 horses ......12 . . 1 excellent village, a dakshina (consisted of) 24,400 Karshapanas, (the gifts to) the spectators and menials (consisted of) 6,001 Karshapanas; a Raja [suya-sacrifice]........ the cart[27]

Right wall[edit]

Right wall inscription, Brahmi script

Inscription[edit]

Right wall inscription

..dhaṃñagiritaṃsapayutaṃ sapaṭo 1 aso 1 asaratho 1 gāvīnaṃ 100 asamedho bitiyo yiṭho dakhināyo dinā aso rupālaṃkāro 1 suvaṃna ..... ni 12 dakhinā dinā kāhāpanā 14,000 gāmo 1 haṭhi ........ dakhinā dinā gāvo ... sakaṭaṃ dhaṃñagiritaṃsapayutaṃ ...... ovāyo yaṃño ..... 17 dhenu .... vāya +satara sa ........... 17 aca .... na ..la ya ..... pasapako dino ..... dakhinā dinā su ... pīni 12 tesa rupālaṃkāro 1 dakhinā kāhāpanā 10,000 ... 2 ......gāvo 20,000 bhagala-dasarato yaṃño yiṭho dakhinā dinā gāvo 10,000 gargatirato yaño yiṭho dakhinā ..... pasapako paṭā 301 gavāmayanaṃ yaṃño yiṭhodakhinā dinā gāvo 1100 .............. gāvo 1100 pasapako kāhāpanā +paṭā 100 atuyāmo yaṃño ..... ........ gavāmayanaṃ yaño dakhinā dinā gāvo 1100 aṃgirasāmayanaṃ yaṃño yiṭho dakhinā gāvo 1,100 ta ............. dakhinā dinā gāvo 1100 satātirataṃ yaṃño ........ 100 ......... yaño dakhinā gāvo 110 aṃgirasatirato yaṃño yiṭho dakhinā gāvo ......... gāvo 1,002 chaṃdomapavamānatirato dakhinā gāvo 100 aṃgirasatirato yaṃño yiṭho dakhinā ....... rato yiṭho yaño dakhinā dinā ....... to yaṃño yiṭho dakhinā ......... yaṃño yiṭho dakhinā dinā gāvo 1000 ............ ......... na +sayaṃ .......... dakhinā dinā gāvo .......... ta ........ aṃgirasāmayanaṃ chavasa ........ dakhinā dinā gāvo 1,000 ........... dakhinā dinā gāvo 1,001 terasa ... a ........ terasarato sa ......... āge dakhinā dinā gāvo ......... dasarato ma .......... dinā gāvo 1,001 u ........... 1,001 da ........... ........ yaño dakhinā dinā ......... .......... dakhinā dinā ..........

NOTE: (the missing characters do not match the number of dots; Buhler published a more complete version.[18])

Right wall translation without interpolation[edit]

...used for conveying a mountain of grain, 1 excellent dress, 1 horse, 1 horse-chariot, 100 kine. A second horse-sacrifice was offered; dakshina were given 1 horse with silver trappings, 12 golden...... an(other) dakshina was given 14,000 (?) Karshapanas, 1 village . . elephant, a dakshina was given ....cows, the cart used for conveying a mountain of grain..... an..... Ovaya sacrifice.......... 17 milch cows (?).... ........ 17 ....... presents to the spectators were given.... a dakshina was given 12..... 1 silver ornaments for them, a dakshina was given consisting of 10,000 Karshapanas............ ..... 20,000(?) cows ; a Bhagala- Dasharatha
Dasharatha
sacrifice was offered, a dakshina was given 10,001 cows; a Gargatriratra sacrifice was offered ...... the presents to the spectators and menials 301 dresses; a Gavamayana was offered, a dakshina was given 1,101 cows, a .... sacrifice, the dakshina 1,100 (?) cows, the presents to the spectators and menials . . Karshapanas, 100 dresses; an Aptoryama sacrifice ..... ..... ;a Gavamayana sacrifice was offered, a dakshina was given 1,101 cows; an Angirasamayana sacrifice was offered, a dakshina was given 1,101 cows; was given 1,101 cows; a Satatirata sacrifice ...... 100 ......... ; ......sacrifice was offered, the dakshina 1,100 cows; an Angirasatriratra sacrifice was offered; the dakshina .... cows .... ........ 1,002 cows; a Chhandomapavamanatriratra sacrifice was offered, the dakshina .... ; a ....... ratra sacrifice was offered, a dakshina was given; a ...... tra sacrifice was offered, a dakshina ... ; a ..... sacrifice was offered, a dakshina was given 1,001 cows .......... ; a dakshina was given ..... cows ........; an Angirasamayana, of six years ....... , a dakshina was given, 1,000 cows ..... was given 1,001 cows, thirteen ........ ........... a Trayoclasaratra ......... a dakshina was given, .... cows ......... a Dasaratra .... a ...... sacrifice, a dakshina was given 1001 cows.... [28]

Right wall translation with interpolation[edit]

Used for conveying a mountain of grain, 1 excellent dress, 1 horse, 1 horse-chariot, 100 kine. A second horse-sacrifice was offered; dakshina were given (consisting of) 1 horse with silver trappings, 12 golden...... an(other) dakshina was given (consisting of) 14,000 (?) Karshapanas, 1 village . . elephant, a dakshina was given ....cows, the cart used for conveying a mountain of grain..... an..... Ovaya sacrifice.......... 17 milch cows (?).... ........ 17 ....... presents to the spectators were given.... a dakshina was given (consisting of) 12..... 1 (set of) silver ornaments for them, an(other) dakshina was given consisting of 10,000 Karshapanas............ ..... 20,000(?) cows ; a Bhagala- Dasharatha
Dasharatha
sacrifice was offered, a dakshina was given (consisting of) 10,001 cows; a Gargatriratra sacrifice was offered ...... the presents to the spectators and menials (consisted of) 301 dresses; a Gavamayana was offered, a dakshina was given (consisting of) 1,101 cows, a .... sacrifice, the dakshina (consisted of) 1,100 (?) cows, the presents to the spectators and menials (consisted of) . . Karshapanas, 100 dresses; an Aptoryama sacrifice (was offered)..... ..... ;a Gavamayana sacrifice was offered, a dakshina was given (consisting of) 1,101 cows; an Angirasamayana sacrifice was offered, a dakshina was given (of) 1,101 cows; (a dakshina) was given (consisting of) 1,101 cows; a Satatirata sacrifice ...... 100 ......... ; ......sacrifice was offered, the dakshina (consisted of) 1,100 cows; an Angirasatriratra sacrifice was offered; the dakshina (consisted of) .... cows .... ........ 1,002 cows; a Chhandomapavamanatriratra sacrifice was offered, the dakshina .... ; a ....... ratra sacrifice was offered, a dakshina was given; a ...... tra sacrifice was offered, a dakshina ... ; a ..... sacrifice was offered, a dakshina was given (consisting of) 1,001 cows .......... ; a dakshina was given (consisting of) ..... cows ........; an Angirasamayana, of six years (duration) ....... , a dakshina was given, (consisting of) 1,000 cows ..... (a sacrificial fee) was given (consisting of) 1,001 cows, thirteen ........ ........... a Trayoclasaratra ......... a dakshina was given, (consisting of) .... cows ......... a Dasaratra .... a ...... sacrifice, a dakshina was given (consisting of) 1001 cows.... [29]

Back wall relief and names[edit]

Back wall with missing images and small inscriptions.

The back wall of the cave has a niche with eight life-size relief sculptures. These sculptures are gone, but they had Brahmi script inscriptions above them that help identify them.[21]

Raya Simuka - Satavahano sirimato Devi-Nayanikaya rano cha Siri-Satakanino Kumaro Bhaya ........ (unclear) Maharathi Tranakayiro. Kumaro Hakusiri Kumaro Satavahano

Reception and significance[edit] The Nanaghat inscription has been a major finding. According to Georg Bühler, it "belongs to the oldest historical documents of Western India, are in some respects more interesting and important than all other cave inscriptions taken together".[15][24] The inscription mentions both Balarama (Samkarshana) and Krishna (Vasudeva), along with the Vedic deities of Indra, Surya, Chandra, Yama, Varuna
Varuna
and Kubera.[11] This provided the link between Vedic tradition and the Vaishnava- Hinduism
Hinduism
tradition.[30][31][32] Given it is inscribed in stone and dated to 1st-century BCE, it also linked the religious thought in the post-Vedic centuries in late 1st millennium BCE with those found in the unreliable highly variant texts such as the Puranas
Puranas
dated to later half of the 1st millennium CE. The inscription is a reliable historical record, providing a name and floruit to the Satavahana
Satavahana
dynasty.[11][31][10]

1911 sketch of numerals history in ancient India, with the Nanaghat inscription shapes.

The Nanghat inscriptions have been important to the study of history of numerals.[8] Though damaged, the inscriptions mention numerals in at least 30 places.[33] They present the world's oldest known numeration symbols for "2, 4, 6, 7, and 9" that resemble modern era numerals, particularly the modern Nagari script.[5][34] The numeral values used in the Naneghat
Naneghat
cave confirm that the point value had not developed in India
India
by the 1st century BCE.[7][35] The inscription is also evidence and floruit that Vedic ideas were revered in at least the northern parts of the Deccan region before the 1st-century BCE. They confirm that Vedic srauta sacrifices remained in vogue among the royal families through at least the 1st-century BCE.[30][6] The Naneghat
Naneghat
cave is also evidence that Hindu
Hindu
dynasties had sponsored sculptures by the 1st-century BCE, and secular life-size murti (pratima) tradition was already in vogue by then.[10][36][note 6] See also[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Naneghat.

Elephanta Caves Hathibada Ghosundi Inscriptions Hindu
Hindu
temple Kanheri Caves

Notes[edit]

^ Variously translated to "Success" or "Om adoration"".[23][24] ^ Samkarshana
Samkarshana
and Vasudeva
Vasudeva
are synonyms for Balarama and Krishna.[25] ^ Kumaravarasa translated to "royal princes" or "Kartikeya".[18][25] ^ Buhler states that its translation is uncertain, can be either "who gave a most excellent image of a snake deity" or "who gave a most excellent image of an elephant deity" or "who gave a boon of a snake or elephant deity".[23] ^ variously translated as "sacrificial fee" or "donation".[18][11] ^ The eight statues were missing when William Sykes visited the cave in 1833.

References[edit]

^ a b c Georg Bühler
Georg Bühler
1883, pp. 53-54. ^ Theo Damsteegt 1978, p. 206, Quote: "A Hinduist inscription that is written in MIA dialect is found in a Nanaghat cave. In this respect, reference may also be made to a MIA inscription on a Vaishnava image found near the village Malhar in Madhya Pradesh which dates back to about the same age as the Nanaghat inscription."; see also page 321 note 19. ^ a b Richard Salomon 1998, p. 144. ^ a b c d Upinder Singh 2008, pp. 381-384. ^ a b c d Development Of Modern Numerals And Numeral Systems: The Hindu-Arabic system, Encyclopaedia Britannica, Quote: "The 1, 4, and 6 are found in the Ashoka inscriptions (3rd century bce); the 2, 4, 6, 7, and 9 appear in the Nana Ghat inscriptions about a century later; and the 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 9 in the Nasik caves of the 1st or 2nd century CE — all in forms that have considerable resemblance to today’s, 2 and 3 being well-recognized cursive derivations from the ancient = and ≡." ^ a b Carla Sinopilo 2001, pp. 168-169. ^ a b David E. Smith 1978, pp. 65-68. ^ a b Norton 2001, pp. 175-176. ^ a b Lenyadri
Lenyadri
Group of Caves, Junnar, Archaeological Survey of India ^ a b c d Vincent Lefèvre (2011). Portraiture in Early India: Between Transience and Eternity. BRILL Academic. pp. 33, 85–86. ISBN 978-9004207356.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j Charles Allen 2017, pp. 169-170. ^ a b c d Shobhana Gokhale 2004, pp. 239-260. ^ Charles Allen 2017, p. 170. ^ John Malcolm and W. H. Sykes (1837), Inscriptions from the Boodh Caves, near Joonur, The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, Vol. 4, No. 2, Cambridge University Press, pages 287-291 ^ a b Georg Bühler
Georg Bühler
1883, p. 59. ^ Charles Allen 2017, pp. 169-172. ^ Theo Damsteegt 1978, p. 206. ^ a b c d e f Georg Bühler
Georg Bühler
1883, pp. 59-64. ^ Bhagavanlal Indraji (1878). Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. Asiatic Society of Bombay. pp. 303–314.  ^ D.C. Sircar 1965, p. 184. ^ a b Upinder Singh 2008, pp. 382-384 ^ Charles Higham (2009). Encyclopedia of Ancient Asian Civilizations. Infobase Publishing. p. 299. ISBN 9781438109961.  ^ a b Georg Bühler
Georg Bühler
1883, pp. 59-64 with footnotes. ^ a b Mirashi 1981, p. 231. ^ a b Mirashi 1981, pp. 232. ^ Report On The Elura Cave Temples And The Brahmanical And Jaina Caves In Western India
India
by Burgess [1] ^ Report On The Elura Cave Temples And The Brahmanical And Jaina Caves In Western India
India
by Burgess [2] ^ Report On The Elura Cave Temples And The Brahmanical And Jaina Caves In Western India
India
by Burgess [3] ^ Report On The Elura Cave Temples And The Brahmanical And Jaina Caves In Western India
India
by Burgess [4] ^ a b Joanna Gottfried Williams (1981). Kalādarśana: American Studies in the Art of India. BRILL Academic. pp. 129–130. ISBN 90-04-06498-2.  ^ a b Mirashi 1981, pp. 131-134. ^ Edwin F. Bryant (2007). Krishna: A Sourcebook. Oxford University Press. pp. 18 note 19. ISBN 978-0-19-972431-4.  ^ Bhagvanlal Indraji (1876), On Ancient Nagari Numeration; from an Inscription at Naneghat, Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Vol. 12, pages 404-406 ^ Anne Rooney (2012). The History of Mathematics. The Rosen Publishing Group. pp. 17–18. ISBN 978-1-4488-7369-2.  ^ Stephen Chrisomalis (2010). Numerical Notation: A Comparative History. Cambridge University Press. pp. 189–190. ISBN 978-1-139-48533-3.  ^ Vidya Dehejia (2008). The Body Adorned: Sacred and Profane in Indian Art. Columbia University Press. p. 50. ISBN 978-0-231-51266-4. 

Bibliography[edit]

Charles Allen (2017), "6", Coromandel: A Personal History of South India, Little Brown, ISBN 978-1408705391  Georg Bühler
Georg Bühler
(1883), Report on the Elura cave temples and the Brahmanical and Jaina caves in western India
India
(Chapter: The Nanaghat Inscriptions), Archaeological Survey of India, This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.  Theo Damsteegt (1978). Epigraphical Hybrid Sanskrit. Brill Academic.  Shobhana Gokhale (2004). "The Naneghat
Naneghat
Inscription - A Masterpiece in Ancient Indian Records". The Adyar Library Bulletin. 68-70.  Mirashi, Vasudev Vishnu
Vishnu
(1981), History and Inscriptions of the Satavahanas: The Western Kshatrapas, Maharashtra
Maharashtra
State Board for Literature and Culture  Norton, James H. K. (2001). Global Studies: India
India
and South Asia. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-243298-5.  Richard Salomon (1998). Indian Epigraphy: A Guide to the Study of Inscriptions in Sanskrit, Prakrit, and the other Indo-Aryan Languages. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-535666-3.  Carla Sinopilo (2001). Susan E. Alcock, ed. Empires: Perspectives from Archaeology and History. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-77020-0.  Upinder Singh (2008). A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century. Pearson Education. ISBN 978-81-317-1120-0.  D.C. Sircar (1965), Select Inscriptions, Volume 1, University of Calcutta  David E. Smith (1978). History of Mathematics. Courier. ISBN 978-0-486-20430-7. 

v t e

Hindu
Hindu
inscriptions and arts

Hindu
Hindu
architecture and art glossary

Beginnings (before 400 CE)

Arts, sculpture

Didarganj Yakshi Huvishka Pompeii Lakshmi

Archaeological sites

Mathura Bet Dwarka Kumhrar

Inscriptions

Ayodhya Hathibada Ghosundi Heliodorus pillar Lakulisa Mathura Mora Well Mountain Temple Naneghat Reh Yavanarajya Vasu Doorjamb

Maturity (400-899 CE)

Arts, sculpture

Nataraja

Archaeological sites

Aihole Badami Besnagar Chandraketugarh Sirpur Ujjain

Inscriptions

Gadhwa Stone Gopika Cave Vadathika Cave Mandasor Stone Mandasor Pillar

Temples

400-599 CE

Udayagiri Caves Bhumara Shiva Dashavatara Eran
Eran
Vishnu Nachna Parvati Tigawa
Tigawa
Devi Gop Surya Mandasor Shiva Aihole
Aihole
Group Badami
Badami
Caves Elephanta Caves

600-899 CE

Pattadakal
Pattadakal
Group Bateshwar Madhya Pradesh Teli ka Mandir Chaturbhuj Gwalior Masrur Himachal Lakshana Devi Alampur Telangana

Navabrahma Papanasi

Ellora Caves Somnath Gujarat Dwarka Gujarat Mahabalipuram
Mahabalipuram
Group Sirpur Chhattisgarh Srirangam Meenakshi

Advanced (900-1299 CE)

Archaeological sites

Belur Halebidu Madan Kamdev Somanathapura

Temples

Brihadisvara Thanjavur Brihadisvara Gangaikondacholapuram Airavatesvara Darasuram Chennakeshava Belur Chennakesava Somanathapura Hoysaleswara Halebidu Udupi Krishna Nataraja
Nataraja
Chidambaram Tirupati Modhera Gujarat Khajuraho Jageshwar Uttarkhand Sasbahu Gwalior Konark Sun Jagannath Puri

Revival (1400-1799 CE)

Archaeological sites

Hampi

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Note:

The above list of archaeological sites, inscriptions and temples is grossly incomplete.

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Garbhadhana Pumsavana Simantonayana Jatakarma Namakarana Nishkramana Annaprashana Chudakarana Karnavedha Vidyarambha Upanayana Keshanta Ritushuddhi Samavartana Vivaha Antyeshti

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Rama
Navami Janmashtami Onam Pongal Makar Sankranti New Year

Bihu Gudi Padwa Pahela Baishakh Puthandu Vaisakhi Vishu Ugadi

Kumbha Mela Ratha Yatra Teej Vasant Panchami Others

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Svādhyāya Namaste Bindi Tilaka

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History

Battles

Maratha empire Battle of Khadki Battle of Koregaon

Forts

Korigad Lal Mahal Lohagad Malhargad Mangalgad Purandar Fort Rajgad Sangram Durg Shaniwarwada Shivneri Sinhagad Tikona Torna Fort Tung Fort Visapur Fort Vishalgad

Terrorism

2010 Pune
Pune
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Geography

Ghats

Bhor
Bhor
Ghat Katraj Ghat Malshej Ghat Naneghat Tamhini Ghat

Rivers

Indrayani River Mula River Mula-Mutha River Mutha River Pavana River

Lakes

Katraj Lake

Dams

Khadakwasla
Khadakwasla
Dam Mulshi Dam Panshet
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Dam Pavananagar Dam Temghar
Temghar
Dam Varasgaon
Varasgaon
Dam Walwan Dam Chaskaman Dam

Caves

Bedse Caves Bhaja Caves Ghorawadi caves Karla Caves Lenyadri
Lenyadri
Caves Shelarwadi Caves Shirwal Caves Shivneri
Shivneri
Caves Tulja Caves

Monuments

Aga Khan Palace Bhimashankar Temple Chaturshringi Temple Dagadusheth Halwai Ganapati temple Lenyadri Pataleshwar Parvati
Parvati
Temple Raja Dinkar Kelkar Museum Maha Ganapati

Parks

Baner-Pashan Biodiversity Park Rajiv Gandhi Zoological Park Saras Baug

Sports venues

Nehru Stadium PCMC Hockey Stadium Shree Shiv Chhatrapati Sports Complex MCA Stadium

Cities and towns

Major

Pune Pimpri-Chinchwad Daund Baramati

Alandi Bhor Chakan Dehu
Dehu
Road Dehu Dhayari Indapur Jejuri Junnar Kamshet Kanhe Khadki Khandala Koregaon Bhima Kusgaon Budruk Lonavla Malavali Manchar Mangdari Moshi Narayangaon Rajgurunagar (Khed) Sasvad Shirur Shivatkar (Nira) Talegaon Dabhade Tathavade Vadgaon Sheri Vadgaon Maval Vadgaon Budruk Vadgaon Khurd Velhe Ranjangaon

Transport

By Road

Pune
Pune
Mahanagar Parivahan Mahamandal Limited (PMPML) Rainbow Bus Rapid Transit System Mumbai- Pune
Pune
Expressway

By Rail

Rail (City)

Pune
Pune
Suburban Railway

Rail (Major)

Pune
Pune
Junction Daund
Daund
Junction Akurdi railway station Begdewadi railway station Chinchwad railway station Dapodi railway station Dehu Road
Dehu Road
Railway Station Ghorawadi railway station Kamshet
Kamshet
railway station Kanhe railway station Kasarwadi railway station Khadki
Khadki
railway station Khandala
Khandala
railway station Lonavla
Lonavla
railway station Malavli railway station Pimpri railway station Shivajinagar railway station Talegaon railway station Vadgaon railway station

Express

Deccan Queen Indrayani Express Sinhagad
Sinhagad
Express

By Air

Pune
Pune
International Airport New Pune
Pune
International Airport

Culture

Chikki Lavani Osho Pune
Pune
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Education

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Constituencies

Lok Sabha

Pune Baramati Shirur Maval

Vidhan Sabha

Ambegaon Baramati Kasba Peth Kothrud Maval Pune
Pune
Cantonment Shivajinagar Pimpri Chinchwad

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Mountain passes of India

Rail

Mountain Railways

Darjeeling Himalayan Railway Kalka-Simla Railway Matheran Hill Railway Nilgiri Mountain Railway

Rail Mountain Pass

Bhor
Bhor
Ghat Braganza Ghats Shindawane Ghat Thul Ghat Palakkad Gap

Road

Himalaya

Auden's Col Banihal Pass Bara-lacha la Bilafond La Bum La Pass Borasu Pass Chang La Chanshal Pass Cho La Debsa Pass Dehra Compass Diphu Pass Dongkha La Fotu La Goecha La Gyong La Indrahar Pass Jelep La Karakoram Pass Khardung La Kongka Pass Kunzum Pass Lanak La Lipulekh Pass Lungalacha La Mana Pass Marsimik La Nama Pass Namika La Nathu La Pangsau Pass Pensi La Pin Parvati
Parvati
Pass Rohtang Pass Rupin Pass Saach Pass Sasser Pass Sela Pass Shingo La Shipki La Sia La Sin La Spangur Gap Tanglang La Traill's Pass Zoji La

Western Ghats

Agumbe
Agumbe
Ghat Amboli Ghat Amba Ghat Balebare Ghat Bisle Ghat Bopdev Ghat Bhor
Bhor
Ghat Chandanapuri Ghat Charmadi
Charmadi
Ghat Chorla Ghat Dive Ghat Ganesh Ghat Goa Gap Kasara Ghat Kashedi Ghat Katraj Ghat Khambatki Ghat Kumbharli Ghat Mahur Ghat Malshej Ghat Naneghat Pasarni Ghat Palakkad Gap Phonda Ghat Sampaje
Sampaje
Ghat Shendurjana Ghat Shiradi
Shiradi
Ghat Tamhini Ghat Varandha Ghat

Others

Asirga

.