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Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
(nākappaṭṭinam, previously spelt Nagapatnam
Nagapatnam
or Negapatam) is a town in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
and the administrative headquarters of Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
District. The town came to prominence during the period of Medieval Cholas
Medieval Cholas
(9th–12th century CE) and served as their important port for commerce and east-bound naval expeditions. The Chudamani Vihara
Chudamani Vihara
in Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
constructed by the Srivijayan king Sri Mara Vijayattungavarman of the Sailendra dynasty with the help of Rajaraja Chola I
Rajaraja Chola I
was an important Buddhist structure in those times.[1][2] Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
was settled by the Portuguese and, later, the Dutch under whom it served as the capital of Dutch Coromandel
Dutch Coromandel
from 1660 to 1781.[3] In November 1781, the town was conquered by the British East India
India
Company. It served as the capital of Tanjore district from 1799 to 1845 under Madras Presidency of the British.[3] It continued to be a part of Thanjavur district
Thanjavur district
in Independent India. In 1991, it was made the headquarters of the newly created Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
District. Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
is administered by a Selection-grade municipality covering an area of 17.92 km2 (6.92 sq mi) and had a population of 102,905 as of 2011. A majority of the people of Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
are employed in sea-borne trading, fishing, agriculture and tourism. Kayarohanaswami Temple and Soundararajaperumal Temple, Nagapattinam
Soundararajaperumal Temple, Nagapattinam
are the major Hindu pilgrimage sites. Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
is the base for tourism for Sikkal, Velankanni, Poompuhar, Kodiakkarai, Vedaranyam, Mannargudi
Mannargudi
and Tharangambadi. Roadways is the major mode of transport to Nagapattinam, while the city also has rail and sea transport.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History 3 Geography

3.1 2004 tsunami

4 Demographics 5 Economy 6 Transport 7 Culture and tourism 8 Education and utility services 9 Politics 10 Notes 11 References 12 External links

Etymology[edit] Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
is derived from Nagar referring to people from Sri Lanka who settled here and pattinam referring to town.[3][4] It was also called Cholakula Vallipattinam during the period of Kulottunga I, when it was one of the important ports.[5] Ptolemy
Ptolemy
refers to Nagapattinam as Nikam and mentions it as one of the most important trade centres of the ancient Tamil country.[3] This view is doubtful as there are no contemporary evidences to prove the existence of a metropolis in the name of "Nikama" or "Nikam".[6] Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
was referred by early writers and the Portuguese as "the city of Coromandel".[3] Appar
Appar
and Tirugnanasambandar, the 7th-century saint poets refer to the city as Nagai in their verses in Tevaram. The town was originally called "Nagai" and the word Pattinam was attached during the Chola era when it emerged as an important port.[7] History[edit]

Kayarohanaswami Temple — one of the oldest temples in the town

There are urn burials in and around the city from the Sangam period indicating some level of human habitation. Except the mention in Ptolemy
Ptolemy
as 'Νίγαμα Μετρόπολις,' there are no direct references to Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
during the 3rd century BCE to 3rd century CE). [6] The neighbouring port, Kaveripoompattinam
Kaveripoompattinam
(modern day Poompuhar), was the capital of the Chola kingdom of the Sangam Age, referred to widely in Tamil scriptures like Paṭṭiṉappālai.[6] The early works of Tevaram by the 7th-century poets Appar
Appar
and Tirugnanasambandar
Tirugnanasambandar
mention the town had fortified walls, busy road building and a busy port.[8] The inscriptions from the Kayarohanswami temple indicate the construction was initiated during the reign of the Pallava king, Narasimha Pallava II (691–729 CE). A Buddhist pagoda was built under Chinese influence by the Pallava king and the town was frequented by Buddhist travelers. Thirumangai Azhwar, the 9th century vaishnavite saint poet, is believed to have stolen the golden Buddha statue to fund the Ranganathaswamy Temple at Srirangam; the authenticity of the theory is questionable. In the 11th century CE, Chudamani Vihara, a Buddhist monastery, was built by the Sailendra king of Srivijaya
Srivijaya
Sri Mara Vijayattungavarman with the patronage of Raja Raja Chola.[9][1] It was named Chudamani or Chulamani Vihara after the king Sri Mara's father[2] As per the small Leyden grant this Vihara was called Rajaraja-perumpalli during the time of Kulottunga I.[10] Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
was the prominent port of Cholas for trade and a conquering gateway to the east. In the early 16th century the Portuguese made commercial contacts with the town and established a commercial centre in 1554 CE. The Portuguese also conducted missionary enterprise here.[11] In 1658, the Dutch made an agreement with King Vijaya Nayakkar of Thanjavur
Thanjavur
on 5 January 1662, by which ten villages were transferred from the Portuguese to the Dutch — Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
Port, Puthur, Muttam, Poruvalancheri, Anthanappettai, Karureppankadu, AzhingiMangalam, Sangamangalam, Thiruthinamangalam, Manjakollai, Nariyankudi. Ten Christian churches and a hospital were built by the Dutch. They released Pagoda coins with the name Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
engraved in Tamil. As per agreement between the first Maratta King Egoji of Thanjavur
Thanjavur
and the Dutch, Naagapattinam and surrounding villages were handed over to the Dutch on 30 December 1676. In 1690, the capital of Dutch Coromandel changed from Pulicat
Pulicat
to Nagapattinam.[11] This town fell into the hands of the British in 1781 after the two naval battles between British and French fleets were fought off the coast of Negapatam, as it was then known: the first in 1758 as part of the Seven Years' War
Seven Years' War
and the second in 1782 as part of the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War. The town was taken by the British from the Dutch in 1781 (who had been formally brought into the war in 1780).[12] When the Dutch and British reached a peace agreement in 1784, Nagapattinam was formally ceded to the British. 277 villages, with Nagore
Nagore
as the headquarters, were handed over to the East India
India
Company. From 1799 to 1845 CE Nagapttinam was the headquarters of Tanjore district.[3] Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
and Nagore
Nagore
were incorporated as a single municipality in 1866 CE.[3] The town remained one of the chief ports to the Madras Presidency. The port suffered decline after the inclusion of Tranquebar
Tranquebar
and Tuticorin
Tuticorin
ports. After India's independence, Sirkazhi
Sirkazhi
continued to be a part of Thanjavur
Thanjavur
district until 1991, and later became part of the newly created Nagapattinam district. Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
was severely affected by the tsunami which followed the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. It is well developed in the year 2016 where there are many Big textiles showroom (Krishna, Murasons etc.), Confectionery Houses(Mehala traders, Uma etc.), Schools, Colleges and Variety of fishes available in here. [13][14][15][16] Geography[edit]

Permanent shelter for tsunami-affected families in Nagapattinam

Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
lies at 10°46′N 79°50′E / 10.77°N 79.83°E / 10.77; 79.83.[13] The town is bounded by Bay of Bengal in the east, Uppanar river in the south, Thiruvarur district
Thiruvarur district
in the west, Thanjavaur district in the north west and Karaikkal
Karaikkal
& Puducherry
Puducherry
in the north.[13] The town lies in the sea level.[13] The municipality covers an area of 14.92 km2 (5.76 sq mi)[13] Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
is situated at a distance of 350 km (220 mi) from Chennai, 14 km (8.7 mi) from Karaikal, 40 km (25 mi) from Mayiladuthurai, 40 km (25 mi) from Kumbakonam, 80 km (50 mi) from Thanjavur and 25 km (16 mi) from Thiruvarur.[13] The town receives an annual rainfall of 350 mm (14 in).[13] Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
has a tropical climate during the summer months of March to May. The proximity to the sea results in a high humidity throughout the year, which reaches 70% during August to May. The town has a plain terrain of alluvial soil consisting of sand, silt and clay. Vettar, the tributaries of river Cauvery
Cauvery
are the major water bodies. Paddy is the major crop in the region, followed by groundnut, pulses, sugarcane, cotton and sesame.[13] The town is one of the cyclone-prone zones and was devastated during the 2004 tsunami.[17] A very fine layer of high saline soil was deposited in the paddy fields.[18] 2004 tsunami[edit] The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake
2004 Indian Ocean earthquake
was an undersea megathrust earthquake that on 26 December 2004, with an epicentre off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia, which triggered a series of devastating tsunamis along the coasts of most landmasses bordering the Indian Ocean.[19] Nagapattinam district
Nagapattinam district
was the most affected part in Tamil Nadu, accounting for 6,064 off the 8,009 casualties in the state.[20] A large number of the casualties were from the fishing community, who resided close to the seashore especially Akkaraipattai, Keenchankupam . The property losses impacted the fishing industry, as most of the boats were damaged by the inundation.[21] The immediate aftermath created a lull in tourism.[22]

Climate data for Nagapattinam, India

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 28.4 (83.1) 29.4 (84.9) 31.3 (88.3) 33.3 (91.9) 36.1 (97) 36.8 (98.2) 35.9 (96.6) 35.1 (95.2) 33.9 (93) 31.7 (89.1) 29.7 (85.5) 28.6 (83.5) 32.5 (90.5)

Average low °C (°F) 22.5 (72.5) 23.3 (73.9) 24.7 (76.5) 26.9 (80.4) 27.5 (81.5) 27.1 (80.8) 26.4 (79.5) 26.0 (78.8) 25.6 (78.1) 25.1 (77.2) 24.1 (75.4) 23.0 (73.4) 25.2 (77.4)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 29.9 (1.177) 16.4 (0.646) 20.1 (0.791) 23.1 (0.909) 41.9 (1.65) 49.3 (1.941) 63.1 (2.484) 79.7 (3.138) 96.5 (3.799) 249.2 (9.811) 419.5 (16.516) 285.3 (11.232) 1,403.9 (55.272)

Source: [23]

Demographics[edit]

Religious census

Religion

Percent(%)

Hindu

71.4%

Muslim

24.79%

Christian

3.68%

Sikh

0.01%

Buddhist

0.02%

Jain

0.01%

Other

0.08%

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1901 35,890 —    

1911 42,586 +18.7%

1921 49,282 +15.7%

1931 55,978 +13.6%

1941 62,674 +12.0%

1951 69,370 +10.7%

1961 74,965 +8.1%

1981 80,560 +7.5%

1991 86,155 +6.9%

2001 93,148 +8.1%

2011 102,905 +10.5%

Sources:

1901 – 2001:[24] 2011:[25]

According to 2011 census, Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
had a population of 102,905 with a sex-ratio of 1,026 females for every 1,000 males, much above the national average of 929.[26] A total of 11,884 were under the age of six, constituting 6,089 males and 5,795 females. Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes accounted for 8.67% and 0.62% of the population respectively. The average literacy of the town was 78.74%, compared to the national average of 72.99%.[26] The town had 24688 households. There were 33,532 workers, comprising 209 cultivators, 320 main agricultural labourers, 605 in house hold industries, 29,875 other workers, 2,523 marginal workers, 35 marginal cultivators, 130 marginal agricultural labourers, 64 marginal workers in household industries and 2,294 other marginal workers.[25] As per the religious census of 2011, Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
had 71.4% Hindus, 24.79% Muslims, 3.68% Christians, 0.01% Sikhs, 0.02% Buddhists, 0.01% Jains and 0.08% following other religions.[27] The decadal growth rate was higher during the decade ending in 1981, due to an increase in the town limits from 8.7 km2 (3.4 sq mi) to 14.95 km2 (5.77 sq mi).[28] The overall growth rate has declined over the period due to migration of people to other urban centres.[28] There are 40 slums in the town as of 2001, with an estimated 44% residing in these slums. Out of 40 slums, 14 were affected by the 2004 tsunami. With the help of grant schemes and tsunami assistance programmes, these were rebuilt to tsunami-proof houses.[29] Economy[edit]

Image of fishing boat and lighthouse

The main occupation of Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
is fishing in the waters of Bay of Bengal. The fish are sold in the daily and weekly fish markets in the town. There is a large number of ice factories for preserving the fish. The industry suffered a setback after the tsunami that struck the coast on 26 December 2004.[30] There is limited agricultural activity, but much agricultural commerce is conducted in the town.[30] A majority of the people are employed in service industry, belonging to the tertiary sector.[30] The town is also the centre of retail provisions trading for the towns and villages surrounding Nagapattinam.[30] Tourism is a major economic driver with the presence of heritage and historic points like Nagore, Velankanni, Sikkal, Kodikkarai, Vedaranyam, Mannargudi
Mannargudi
and Tharangambadi.[30] There is limited industrial activity — the major industries are household, tailoring, embroidery, plastic wire and metal manufacturing.[30] Cauvery
Cauvery
Basin Refinery, a subsidiary of Chennai Petroleum Corporation Limited (CPCL) is near Nagapattinam. Established in 1993, it is a major contributor to the economy of the town.[30] The development of industries is constrained by the town being linear and by the applicability of Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) regulations[clarification needed] that prevent large-scale construction and industrial buildings.[30] All major nationalised banks such as State Bank of India, Indian Bank, Central Bank of India, Punjab National Bank, Indian Overseas Bank
Indian Overseas Bank
and private banks like ICICI Bank, City Union Bank
City Union Bank
have branches in Nagapattinam.[31] All these banks have their automated teller machines located in various parts of the town.[31] Transport[edit] Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
municipality accommodates 104.539 km (64.958 mi) of roads; 27.328 km (16.981 mi) of cement roads, 72.993 km (45.356 mi) of bituminous roads, 1.2 km (0.75 mi) of WBM roads and 3.018 km (1.875 mi) of earthern roads.[32] Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
is connected by two national highways, NH 45A to Villupuram
Villupuram
and NH 67
NH 67
to Coimbatore and Gundlupete
Gundlupete
in Karnataka state.[17] Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
is connected with Chennai, Vellore, Coimbatore, Tiruchirapalli, Karaikal
Karaikal
and other major towns of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
through the state highways SH 22 from Grand Anaicut to Kaveripoompattinam, SH 23 from Mayiladuthurai
Mayiladuthurai
to Thiruthuraipoondi, SH 64 from Kumbakonam
Kumbakonam
to Sirkazhi, SH 67 from Nagore
Nagore
to Nachiyar Koil, SH 147 from Kumbakonam
Kumbakonam
to Karaikkal, SH 148 from Nagore
Nagore
to Vettar. SH 149 from Sembanarkoil
Sembanarkoil
to Nalladai, SH 150 from Vaitheeswarankoil
Vaitheeswarankoil
to Lower Anaicut
Lower Anaicut
and SH 151 from Kilvelur
Kilvelur
to Kachanam.[17] The Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
State Transport Corporation operates close to 175 daily services connecting various cities to Nagapattinam.[33] Most of the buses via Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
operated by the corporation ply between Trichy
Trichy
and Velankanni.[33] The corporation operates a computerised reservation centre in the municipal bus stand of Nagapattinam.[34] It operates 25 town buses satisfying the local transport needs of Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
and the neighbouring villages.[33] The State Express Transport Corporation operates long distance buses connecting Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
to Bengaluru, Thiruvananthapuram
Thiruvananthapuram
and Marthandam.[33]

Entrance of Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
Junction railway station

Great South Indian Railway Company (GSIR) had its headquarters at Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
between 1861 and 1875. A broad gauge railway [BG] line was operated between Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
and Tiruchirappalli Junction via Thiruvarur
Thiruvarur
Junction, Thanjavur
Thanjavur
Junction between 1861 and 1875. During 1875 it was converted into a meter gauge (MG) line. The GSIR headquarters was shifted to Tiruchirapalli
Tiruchirapalli
during 1875. The railway workshop was at Negapatnam till 1929 and contributed to the growth of the town.[35] It was also moved to Golden rock [Ponmalai] during 1929. Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
Junction connects Thiruvarur
Thiruvarur
Junction in the west, Nagore in the north and Velankanni
Velankanni
in the south. There are passenger trains to Tiruchirappalli Junction, Thanjavur
Thanjavur
Junction, Mayiladuthurai Junction, Karaikal, Mannargudi
Mannargudi
and Thiruthuraipoondi
Thiruthuraipoondi
Junction.[36] There is a daily express train to Chennai
Chennai
Egmore via Mayiladuthurai Junction and Ernakulam Junction via Coimbatore
Coimbatore
Junction (Tea Garden Express). There are two triweekly trains from Mannargudi
Mannargudi
to Tirupati (Pamani Express) and Velankanni
Velankanni
to Vasco da Gama (Goa) (Vasco Velankanni
Velankanni
Express) that pass via Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
Junction.[36] The port of Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
is in the Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
in the mouth of river Kuduvayyar.[37] Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
was the most important port of the Chola empire. All the eastern naval expeditions of Rajendra Chola I (1012–44 CE) were through the port. The port was widely used by the Dutch, Portuguese and British as one of the major ports of the Coramandel Coast for trading purposes.[37] Most of the principal exports to Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
from the port during the British period were rice, piece goods, livestock, cigars, tobacco and hides. The trade of Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
was mostly with Sri Lanka, Straits Settlements, Burma
Burma
and to a small extent to the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Spain.[38] The port also served passenger traffic to Singapore, but this was susepended due to a fire accident.[39] The modern day port has a commercial port complex and a dockyard that are protected by a river mouth sand bar facing the port.[40] The port handles only a limited amount of edible oil imports.[39] The Nagapttinam lighthouse is the first conventional 20-metre-high (66 ft) lighthouse tower, built inside the port premises by the British in 1869.[41] The port and the lighthouse are maintained by the Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Maritime Board under the Government of India.[37] The nearest Airport is Tiruchirapalli
Tiruchirapalli
Airport, located 145 km (90 mi) away from the town.[42] Culture and tourism[edit]

Nagore
Nagore
Durgah, built in the 16th century, is one of the major landmarks of the town

Kayarohanaswami temple and Soundararaja Perumal Temple, the most prominent temples in the town

Tourism plays a key economic role for the town, even though fishing is the major occupation. Nagapttinam is a base for heritage and historic points like Nagore, Velankanni, Sikkal, Kodiyakkarai, Vedaranyam, Mannargudi
Mannargudi
and Tharangambadi. Nagore
Nagore
Durgha, a 16th-century minaret located in Nagore, is one of the important pilgrimage centres of the town. Kanduri festival is a 14-day event celebrated for the annual urs(anniversary) of the saint Hajrath Shahul Hamid (1490–1579 CE), in honor of whom the minaret was built.[43] The festival is celebrated in commemoration of the anniversary of the saint's death, and pilgrims from various religions participate in the rituals and rites. The festival is also seen as a sacred exchange between Hindus
Hindus
and Muslims
Muslims
expressing solidarity of mixed faith in the region.[44] It is believed that 60 percent of the shrines were built by Hindus
Hindus
and historically the minaret garners many domestic and international visitors.[45] There are three other prominent mosques; one near Nagai Pudhur Road, one near the new bus stand, and another at Moolakadai Street.[46] Kayarohanaswami Temple is a Hindu temple dedicated to Shiva. The temple has been in existence from the 6th century CE and has been reverred by the verses of Tevaram, the 7th–8th century Saiva canonical work by Appar, Campantar
Campantar
and Sundarar.[46] The temple is one of the seven temples of the Thyagaraja cult, classified as Saptha Vidangam, where the presiding deity Thyagaraja is believed to portray different dance styles.[47] The temple is also known for the shrine of Neelayadakshi, the consort of Kayarohanaswami.[46] Soundararajaperumal Temple is a Hindu temple in the town dedicated to Vishnu. It is one of the Divya Desams, the 108 temples of Vishnu revered in Nalayira Divya Prabandham
Nalayira Divya Prabandham
by Thirumangai Azhwar, one of the 12 poet saints called Azhwars
Azhwars
belonging to the 6th–9th century.[46] Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
is base to some of the prominent Hindu temples like Sikkal Singaravelan Temple
Sikkal Singaravelan Temple
at Sikkal, Vedaranyeswarar Temple
Vedaranyeswarar Temple
at Vedaranyam, Ettukudi Murugan Temple and Koothanur Maha Saraswathi Temple.[48] Velankanni
Velankanni
is a pilgrimage centre located 10 km (6.2 mi) from Nagapattinam. The town is known for the Basilica of Our Lady of Good Health, a Roman Catholic church built during the 17th century. Pilgrimage to the basilica is common during September when people of many faiths, especially Hindus, Muslims
Muslims
and Christians
Christians
of all denominations visit the basilica.[48] The town has four prominent churches; the Lourdhu Madha
Madha
(Sindhathurai Madha) Church, the Madharasi Madha
Madha
Church, T.E.L.C. Church and the Protestant Church.[46] Education and utility services[edit]

Negapatam Wesleyan Mission-House and the school-room as it will be when rebuilt (October 1855, p. 108, Rev. Thomas Hodson)[49]

St. Joseph's College, opened in Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
in 1846 and transferred to Tiruchirappalli in 1883, is one of the oldest higher educational institutions in India.[50] Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
has 12 elementary schools, 8 high schools and 7 higher secondary schools.[51] There are 2 arts and science colleges, one engineering college, 2 polytechnic colleges and one industrial training institute (ITI) in the town.[51] The electricity supplied to the town is regulated and distributed by the Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
circle of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Electricity Board (TNEB).[52] The water supply is provided by the Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
Municipality, through borewells from Vettar river — the distribution is done through pumping stations located at Kurukathi, Andipalayam and Solomon Park.[53] About 55 metric tonnes of solid waste are collected from the town every day.[54] Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
municipality does not have an underground drainage system and the current sewerage system for disposal of sullage is through septic tanks and public conveniences.[55] The storm water drainage system is made up of the natural river drainage and man-made storm water drains.[56] Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
comes under the Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
telecom circle of the Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL), India's state-owned telecom and internet services provider. Apart from telecom, BSNL provides broadband internet service.[57] There are six government hospitals in the town, with the largest being the District Government Hospital.[58] There are 28 other private hospitals, clinics, and medical shops.[58] Politics[edit]

Municipality
Municipality
Officials

Chairman S. Manjula[59]

Commissioner A. Abdul Lateef[60]

Vice-Chairman A. Sultan Abdul Kadar[61]

Elected Members

Member of Legislative Assembly Thamimum Ansari[62]

Member of Parliament Dr. K. Gopal[63]

Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
was declared a municipality in 1866 during British times.[13] It was promoted to a second grade municipality in 1986 and selection grade in 1998.[14] From 1991, the municipal limits were expanded to include Nagore.[14] The municipality has 36 wards and there is an elected councillor for each of those wards.[64] The functions of the municipality are devolved into six departments: General administration/personnel, Engineering, Revenue, Public Health, Town planning and IT.[65] All these departments are under the control of a Municipal Commissioner who is the supreme executive head.[65] The legislative powers are vested in a body of 36 members, one from each of the 36 wards. The legislative body is headed by an elected chairperson, assisted by a deputy chairperson.[66] The town became the district headquarters when the Nagapattinam district
Nagapattinam district
was created as a separate district. Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
comes under the Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
assembly constituency and it elects a member to the Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Legislative Assembly every five years.[67] From the 1977 elections, the assembly seat was won by Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
(DMK) once during the 1996 elections, All India
India
Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
(AIADMK) twice during the 1991 and 2001 elections, and Communist Party of India
India
(Marxist) five times during the 1977, 1980, 1984, 1989 and 2006 elections.[68] The current MLA of the constituency is K. A. Jayapal, the minister for fisheries in the Government of Tamil Nadu.[62] Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
is a part of the Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
(Lok Sabha constituency) — it has the following six assembly constituencies — Thiruvarur, Nagapattinam, Thiruthuraipoondi, Vedaranyam, Kilvelur
Kilvelur
(SC) and Nannilam.[69] The current Member of Parliament from the constituency is Dr. K. Gopal from the AIADMK party.[63] From 1957, the Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
parliament seat was held by the Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
for five times during 1957–1961,[70] 1962–67,[71] 1967–71,[72] 1991–96,[73] and 1996–98[74] elections. CPI won the seat for five times during 1971–77,[75] 1977–80,[76] 1989–91,[77] 1996–98[74] and 1998[78] elections. DMK won four times during 1980–84,[79] 1999–2004,[80] 2004–09[81] and 2009 elections.[82] AIADMK won the seat twice during the 1984–89 elections and 2014 elections.[83][63] Law and order in the town in maintained by the Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
sub division of the Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Police headed by a Deputy Superintendent (DSP).[84] There are three police stations in the town, one of them being an all-women police station.[85] There are special units like prohibition enforcement, district crime, social justice and human rights, district crime records and special branch that operate at the district level police division headed by a Superintendent of Police (SP).[84] Notes[edit]

^ a b deepak s. Indian civilization. deepak shinde, 2016. p. 169.  ^ a b C. E. Ramachandran; K. V. Raman, Indian History and Culture Society. Aspects of Indian history and culture. Books & Books, 1984. p. 11.  ^ a b c d e f g W. 2002, p. 161. ^ Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Urban Infrastructure Financial Services Limited 2008, p. 5. ^ S. R. Balasubrahmanyam. Middle Chola Temples: Rajaraja I to Kulottunga I, A.D. 985-1070. Thomson Press (India), 1975. pp. 113–116.  ^ a b c Kulke, K. & Sakhuja 2009, pp. 102–104. ^ Kulke, K. & Sakhuja 2009, pp. 104–107. ^ Kulke, K. & Sakhuja 2009, pp. 107–108. ^ Kulke, K. & Sakhuja 2009, p. 67. ^ S. R. Balasubrahmanyam. Middle Chola Temples: Rajaraja I to Kulottunga I, A.D. 985-1070. Thomson Press (India), 1975. pp. 115–116.  ^ a b W. 2002, p. 139. ^ W. 2002, p. 136. ^ a b c d e f g h i About the town 2011. ^ a b c Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
Municipality
Municipality
features 2011. ^ Nagapattinam district
Nagapattinam district
profile 2011. ^ Nagapattinam district
Nagapattinam district
local administration 2011. ^ a b c Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Urban Infrastructure Financial Services Limited 2008, p. 6. ^ Karan & P. 2011, p. 89. ^ Karan & P. 2011, p. 70. ^ Karan & P. 2011, p. 77. ^ Karan & P. 2011, p. 227. ^ Karan & P. 2011, p. 231. ^ Climatology of Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
2011. ^ Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
population 2011. ^ a b Census of India
India
2011. ^ a b Census of India
India
dashboard 2011. ^ Religious census 2015. ^ a b Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Urban Infrastructure Financial Services Limited 2008, pp. 7–10. ^ Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Urban Infrastructure Financial Services Limited 2008, p. 27. ^ a b c d e f g h Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Urban Infrastructure Financial Services Limited 2008, pp. 12–16. ^ a b Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
town Banks 2011. ^ Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
roads 2011. ^ a b c d The Hindu & 13 July 2012. ^ SETC Computer reservation centres 2004. ^ W. 2002, p. 167. ^ a b The Hindu & 2 July 2012. ^ a b c Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
Port 2011. ^ W. 2002, p. 144. ^ a b The Hindu Business Line & 20 January 2012. ^ Strand & Masek 2008, pp. 235–239. ^ W. 2002, p. 162. ^ Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
transport 2011. ^ Hunter 1908, p. 3. ^ Werbner & Basu 1998, pp. 61–62. ^ Visweswaran 2011, pp. 33–34. ^ a b c d e Various 2007, p. 61. ^ The Hindu & 16 July 2010. ^ a b Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Urban Infrastructure Financial Services Limited 2008, pp. 14–15. ^ Hodson, Thomas (October 1855). "Missionary Tour by the Rev. Thomas Hodson". Wesleyan Juvenile Offering. London: Wesleyan Missionary Society. XII: 108. Retrieved 12 November 2015.  ^ W. 2002, p. 207. ^ a b Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
schools 2011. ^ TNEB region details 2011. ^ Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
water supply 2011. ^ Waste management programme 2011. ^ Nagapttinam sewarage 2011. ^ Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
storm water management 2011. ^ BSNL 2011. ^ a b Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
hospitals 2011. ^ Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
Municipality
Municipality
chairman 2011. ^ Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
Municipality
Municipality
Commissioner 2011. ^ Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
Municipality
Municipality
vice-chairman 2011. ^ a b MLA of Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
2016. ^ a b c MP of Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
2014. ^ Councillors of Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
Municipality
Municipality
2011. ^ a b Commissionerate of Municipal Administration 2006. ^ Economic and political weekly 1995. ^ List of Assembly constituencies 2010. ^ Partywise Comparison Since 1977 2011. ^ The Hindu & 31 March 2009. ^ Key highlights of the general elections 1957 to the Second Lok Sabha. ^ Key highlights of the general elections 1962 to the Third Lok Sabha. ^ Key highlights of the general elections 1967 to the Fourth Lok Sabha. ^ Key highlights of the general elections 1991 to the Tenth Lok Sabha. ^ a b Key highlights of the general elections 1996 to the Eleventh Lok Sabha. ^ Key highlights of the general elections 1971 to the Fifth Lok Sabha. ^ Key highlights of the general elections 1977 to the Sixth Lok Sabha. ^ Key highlights of the general elections 1989 to the Ninth Lok Sabha. ^ Key highlights of the general elections 1998 to the Twelfth Lok Sabha. ^ Key highlights of the general elections 1980 to the Seventh Lok Sabha. ^ Key highlights of the general elections 1999 to the Thirteenth Lok Sabha. ^ Key highlights of the general elections 2004 to the Fourteenth Lok Sabha. ^ MP of Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
2009. ^ Key highlights of the general elections 1984 to the Eighth Lok Sabha. ^ a b Nagapattinam district
Nagapattinam district
police 2011. ^ Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
police 2011.

References[edit]

Hunter, Sir William Wilson (1908), Imperial gazetteer of India, Volume 19, Oxford: Claredon Press . Karan, Pradyumna Prasad; P., Shanmugam Subbiah (2011), The Indian Ocean Tsunami: The Global Response to a Natural Disaster, USA: University Press of Kentucky, ISBN 978-0-8131-2653-1 . Kulke, Hermann; K., Kesavapany; Sakhuja, Vijay (2009), Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
to Suvarnadwip: Reflections on the Chola Naval Expeditions to Southeast Asia, Singapore: Institute of south-east Asian Studies, ISBN 978-981-230-938-9 . Strand, Carl Ludvig; Masek, John Paul (2008), Sumatra-Andaman Islands Earthquake and Tsunami
Tsunami
of December 26, 2004, USA: American Society of Civil Engineers, ISBN 978-0-7844-0951-0 . Various (2007), Tourist guide to Tamil Nadu, Chennai: T. Krishna Press, ISBN 81-7478-177-3 . Visweswaran, Kamala (2011), Perspectives on Modern South Asia: A Reader in Culture, History, and, UK: Blackwell Publishing Limited, ISBN 978-1-4051-0062-5 . Werbner, Pnina; Basu, Helene (1998), Embodying charisma: modernity, locality, and performance of emotion in Sufi, London: Routledge, ISBN 0-415-15099-X . W., Francis (2002). Gazetteer of South India, Volume 1. Mittal Publications.  " Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
in TN to be upgraded as all-weather, deep-water port". The Hindu Business Line. 20 January 2012. Retrieved 26 June 2012.  "Over 190 'sensitive' booths in Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
constituency". The Hindu. 31 March 2009. Retrieved 26 June 2012.  "Bangalore-Salem passenger commences maiden journey". The Hindu. Tiruchirapalli, India. 2 July 2012. Retrieved 9 October 2012.  " Tiruvarur
Tiruvarur
to get new bus stand". The Hindu. 13 July 2012. Retrieved 9 October 2012.  " Tiruvarur
Tiruvarur
in religious history of Tamil Nadu". The Hindu. 16 July 2010. Retrieved 26 June 2012.  "Census Info 2011 Final population totals – Nagapattinam". Office of The Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. 2013. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 26 January 2014.  "Census Info 2011 Final population totals". Office of The Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. 2013. Retrieved 26 January 2014.  "Population By Religious Community - Tamil Nadu" (XLS). Office of The Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. 2011. Retrieved 13 September 2015.  " Nagapattinam district
Nagapattinam district
profile". Nagapattinam district
Nagapattinam district
administration. 2011. Retrieved 26 June 2012.  " Nagapattinam district
Nagapattinam district
local administration". Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
district administration. 2011. Retrieved 26 June 2012.  "Climatology of Nagapattinam". Indian Meteorological Department. 2011. Archived from the original on 18 December 2012. Retrieved 6 November 2012.  " Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
Port". Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Maritime Board. 2011. Retrieved 30 October 2012.  "S.E.T.C. Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Ltd., Computer reservation centres". Tamil Nadu State Transport Corporation Ltd. Retrieved 8 June 2012.  "General Elections to Lok Sabha, 2009, name and address of the elected members of parliamentary constituencies in Tamil Nadu". Government of Tamil Nadu. 2009. Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 26 June 2012.  "Members of Lok Sabha from Tamil Nadu". Government of Tamil Nadu. 2014. Retrieved 26 May 2014.  "Partywise Comparison Since 1977". Election Commission of India. Retrieved 16 April 2011.  "Key highlights of the general elections 1957 to the Second Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 17. Retrieved 16 April 2011.  "Key highlights of the general elections 1962 to the Third Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 49. Retrieved 16 April 2011.  "Key highlights of the general elections 1967 to the Fourth Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 67. Retrieved 16 April 2011.  "Key highlights of the general elections 1971 to the Fifth Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 71. Retrieved 16 April 2011.  "Key highlights of the general elections 1977 to the Sixth Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 80. Retrieved 16 April 2011.  "Key highlights of the general elections 1980 to the Seventh Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 79. Retrieved 26 June 2012.  "Key highlights of the general elections 1984 to the Eighth Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 73. Retrieved 16 April 2011.  "Key highlights of the general elections 1989 to the Ninth Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 81. Retrieved 16 April 2011.  "Key highlights of the general elections 1991 to the Tenth Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 51. Retrieved 16 April 2011.  "Key highlights of the general elections 1996 to the Eleventh Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 86. Retrieved 26 June 2012.  "Key highlights of the general elections 1998 to the Twelfth Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 85. Retrieved 16 April 2011.  "Key highlights of the general elections 1999 to the Thirteenth Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 85. Retrieved 16 April 2011.  "Key highlights of the general elections 2004 to the Fourteenth Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 94. Retrieved 16 April 2011.  " Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
police". Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
Municipality, Government of Tamil Nadu. 2011. Archived from the original on 17 June 2013. Retrieved 26 June 2012.  " Nagapattinam district
Nagapattinam district
police" (PDF). Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Police. 2011. pp. 1–16. Retrieved 26 June 2012.  " Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
hospitals". Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
Municipality, Government of Tamil Nadu. 2011. Archived from the original on 22 January 2012. Retrieved 26 June 2012.  " Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
population". Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
Municipality, Government of Tamil Nadu. 2011. Archived from the original on 24 January 2012. Retrieved 26 June 2012.  " Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
town Banks". Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
Municipality, Government of Tamil Nadu. 2011. Archived from the original on 17 June 2013. Retrieved 26 June 2012.  " Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
roads". Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
Municipality, Government of Tamil Nadu. 2011. Archived from the original on 17 June 2013. Retrieved 26 June 2012.  " Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
transport". Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
Municipality, Government of Tamil Nadu. 2011. Archived from the original on 17 June 2013. Retrieved 26 June 2012.  "Chairman of Nagapattinam". Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
Municipality, Government of Tamil Nadu. 2011. Archived from the original on 22 January 2012. Retrieved 26 June 2012.  "Vice Chairman of Nagapattinam". Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
Municipality, Government of Tamil Nadu. 2011. Archived from the original on 22 January 2012. Retrieved 26 June 2012.  "Commissioner of Nagapattinam". Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
Municipality, Government of Tamil Nadu. 2011. Archived from the original on 22 January 2012. Retrieved 26 June 2012.  "Councillors of Nagapattinam". Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
Municipality, Government of Tamil Nadu. 2011. Archived from the original on 21 January 2012. Retrieved 26 June 2012.  "MLA of Nagapattinam". Government of Tamil Nadu. 2011. Retrieved 26 June 2012.  "List of Assembly Constituencies". Tamil Nadu. Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
state government. 2010. Retrieved 30 June 2012.  "Economic and political weekly, Volume 30". Sameeksha Trust. 1995: 2396.  "Commissionerate of Municipal Administration". Commissionerate of Municipal Administration. 2006. Retrieved 26 June 2012.  "About the town". Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
Municipality, Government of Tamil Nadu. 2011. Archived from the original on 29 July 2012. Retrieved 26 June 2012.  "Salient Features of Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
Municipality". Nagapattinam Municipality, Government of Tamil Nadu. 2011. Archived from the original on 30 July 2012. Retrieved 26 June 2012.  " Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
schools". Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
Municipality, Government of Tamil Nadu. 2011. Archived from the original on 17 June 2013. Retrieved 26 June 2012.  " Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
water supply". Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
Municipality, Government of Tamil Nadu. 2011. Archived from the original on 17 June 2013. Retrieved 26 June 2012.  "Waste management programme". Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
Municipality, Government of Tamil Nadu. 2011. Archived from the original on 17 June 2013. Retrieved 26 June 2012.  "Nagapttinam sewarage". Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
Municipality, Government of Tamil Nadu. 2011. Archived from the original on 17 June 2013. Retrieved 26 June 2012.  " Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
storm water management". Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
Municipality, Government of Tamil Nadu. 2011. Archived from the original on 25 January 2012. Retrieved 26 June 2012.  "State of Rural wireline broadband". Tamil Nadu: BSNL, Tamil Nadu Circle. 2011. Archived from the original on 18 July 2013. Retrieved 26 June 2012.  "Region Details". Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Electricity Board. 2011. Retrieved 26 June 2012.  Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Urban Infrastructure Financial Services Limited (2008). City corporate plan cum business plan for Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
municipality (PDF) (Report). Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Urban Infrastructure Financial Services Limited. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 June 2013. Retrieved 8 June 2012. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nagapattinam.

Nagapattinam District
Nagapattinam District
website Nagapattinam District
Nagapattinam District
Administration Website

v t e

Portuguese overseas empire

North Africa

15th century

1415–1640 Ceuta

1458–1550 Alcácer Ceguer (El Qsar es Seghir)

1471–1550 Arzila (Asilah)

1471–1662 Tangier

1485–1550 Mazagan (El Jadida)

1487–16th century Ouadane

1488–1541 Safim (Safi)

1489 Graciosa

16th century

1505–1541 Santa Cruz do Cabo de Gué (Agadir)

1506–1525 Mogador (Essaouira)

1506–1525 Aguz (Souira Guedima)

1506–1769 Mazagan (El Jadida)

1513–1541 Azamor (Azemmour)

1515–1541 São João da Mamora (Mehdya)

1577–1589 Arzila (Asilah)

Sub-Saharan Africa

15th century

1455–1633 Anguim

1462–1975 Cape Verde

1470–1975 São Tomé1

1471–1975 Príncipe1

1474–1778 Annobón

1478–1778 Fernando Poo (Bioko)

1482–1637 Elmina
Elmina
(São Jorge da Mina)

1482–1642 Portuguese Gold Coast

1508–15472 Madagascar3

1498–1540 Mascarene Islands

16th century

1500–1630 Malindi

1501–1975 Portuguese Mozambique

1502–1659 Saint Helena

1503–1698 Zanzibar

1505–1512 Quíloa (Kilwa)

1506–1511 Socotra

1557–1578 Accra

1575–1975 Portuguese Angola

1588–1974 Cacheu4

1593–1698 Mombassa (Mombasa)

17th century

1645–1888 Ziguinchor

1680–1961 São João Baptista de Ajudá

1687–1974 Bissau4

18th century

1728–1729 Mombassa (Mombasa)

1753–1975 Portuguese São Tomé and Príncipe

19th century

1879–1974 Portuguese Guinea

1885–1974 Portuguese Congo5

1 Part of São Tomé and Príncipe
Príncipe
from 1753. 2 Or 1600. 3 A factory (Anosy Region) and small temporary coastal bases. 4 Part of Portuguese Guinea
Portuguese Guinea
from 1879. 5 Part of Portuguese Angola
Portuguese Angola
from the 1920s.

Middle East [Persian Gulf]

16th century

1506–1615 Gamru (Bandar Abbas)

1507–1643 Sohar

1515–1622 Hormuz (Ormus)

1515–1648 Quriyat

1515–? Qalhat

1515–1650 Muscat

1515?–? Barka

1515–1633? Julfar (Ras al-Khaimah)

1521–1602 Bahrain
Bahrain
(Muharraq • Manama)

1521–1529? Qatif

1521?–1551? Tarut Island

1550–1551 Qatif

1588–1648 Matrah

17th century

1620–? Khor Fakkan

1621?–? As Sib

1621–1622 Qeshm

1623–? Khasab

1623–? Libedia

1624–? Kalba

1624–? Madha

1624–1648 Dibba Al-Hisn

1624?–? Bandar-e Kong

Indian subcontinent

15th century

1498–1545

Laccadive Islands (Lakshadweep)

16th century Portuguese India

 • 1500–1663 Cochim (Kochi)

 • 1501–1663 Cannanore (Kannur)

 • 1502–1658  1659–1661

Quilon (Coulão / Kollam)

 • 1502–1661 Pallipuram (Cochin de Cima)

 • 1507–1657 Negapatam (Nagapatnam)

 • 1510–1961 Goa

 • 1512–1525  1750

Calicut (Kozhikode)

 • 1518–1619 Portuguese Paliacate outpost (Pulicat)

 • 1521–1740 Chaul

  (Portuguese India)

 • 1523–1662 Mylapore

 • 1528–1666

Chittagong (Porto Grande De Bengala)

 • 1531–1571 Chaul

 • 1531–1571 Chalé

 • 1534–1601 Salsette Island

 • 1534–1661 Bombay (Mumbai)

 • 1535 Ponnani

 • 1535–1739 Baçaím (Vasai-Virar)

 • 1536–1662 Cranganore (Kodungallur)

 • 1540–1612 Surat

 • 1548–1658 Tuticorin
Tuticorin
(Thoothukudi)

 • 1559–1961 Daman and Diu

 • 1568–1659 Mangalore

  (Portuguese India)

 • 1579–1632 Hugli

 • 1598–1610 Masulipatnam (Machilipatnam)

1518–1521 Maldives

1518–1658 Portuguese Ceylon
Portuguese Ceylon
(Sri Lanka)

1558–1573 Maldives

17th century Portuguese India

 • 1687–1749 Mylapore

18th century Portuguese India

 • 1779–1954 Dadra and Nagar Haveli

East Asia and Oceania

16th century

1511–1641 Portuguese Malacca
Portuguese Malacca
[Malaysia]

1512–1621 Maluku [Indonesia]

 • 1522–1575  Ternate

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 • 1578–1650  Tidore

1512–1665 Makassar

1557–1999 Macau [China]

1580–1586 Nagasaki [Japan]

17th century

1642–1975 Portuguese Timor
Portuguese Timor
(East Timor)1

19th century Portuguese Macau

 • 1864–1999 Coloane

 • 1851–1999 Taipa

 • 1890–1999 Ilha Verde

20th century Portuguese Macau

 • 1938–1941 Lapa and Montanha (Hengqin)

1 1975 is the year of East Timor's Declaration of Independence and subsequent invasion by Indonesia. In 2002, East Timor's independence was fully recognized.

North America & North Atlantic

15th century [Atlantic islands]

1420 Madeira

1432 Azores

16th century [Canada]

1500–1579? Terra Nova (Newfoundland)

1500–1579? Labrador

1516–1579? Nova Scotia

South America & Antilles

16th century

1500–1822 Brazil

 • 1534–1549  Captaincy Colonies of Brazil

 • 1549–1572  Brazil

 • 1572–1578  Bahia

 • 1572–1578  Rio de Janeiro

 • 1578–1607  Brazil

 • 1621–1815  Brazil

1536–1620 Barbados

17th century

1621–1751 Maranhão

1680–1777 Nova Colónia do Sacramento

18th century

1751–1772 Grão-Pará and Maranhão

1772–1775 Grão-Pará and Rio Negro

1772–1775 Maranhão and Piauí

19th century

1808–1822 Cisplatina
Cisplatina
(Uruguay)

1809–1817 Portuguese Guiana (Amapá)

1822 Upper Peru
Upper Peru
(Bolivia)

Coats of arms of Portuguese colonies Evolution of the Portuguese Empire Portuguese colonial architecture Portuguese colonialism in Indonesia Portuguese colonization of the Americas Theory of the Portuguese discovery of Australia

v t e

Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
district

District Headquarters

Nagapattinam

Country

India

State

Tamil Nadu

Region

Chola Nadu

Divisions

Mayiladuthurai Nagapattinam

Taluks

Kilvelur Kuthalam Mayiladuthurai Nagapattinam Sirkazhi Tharangambadi Thirukkuvalai Vedaranyam

Revenue blocks

Keelaiyur Kilvelur Kollidam Kuthalam Mayiladuthurai Nagapattinam Sembanar Koil Sirkazhi Talanayar Thirumarugal Vedaranyam

Municipalities

Mayiladuthurai Nagapattinam Sirkazhi Vedaranyam

Rivers

Addapar Kaveri Kollidam Thirumalairajan Vettar Veera Chozhan

History

Early Cholas Kalabhras Pallavas Medieval Cholas Later Cholas Later Pandyas Delhi Sultanate Madurai
Madurai
Sultanate Vijayanagar Empire Thanjavur
Thanjavur
Nayaks Thanjavur
Thanjavur
Marathas Company Raj British Raj

Places of interest

Chudamani Vihara Ganapathi Temple, Thiruchengattankudi Kayarohanaswami Temple, Nagapattinam Kazheesirama Vinnagaram Mayuranathaswami Temple, Mayiladuthurai Nagannathaswamy Temple, Keezhaperumpallam Nangur Vishnu
Vishnu
Temples Point Calimere
Point Calimere
Wildlife and Bird Sanctuary Puhar Punjai Siva Temple Sattainathar Temple, Sirkazhi Sayavaneswarar Temple Sembanarkoil Sikkal
Sikkal
Singaravelan Temple Sri Sivalokanathar Temple, Tirupunkur Subrahmanya Temple, Perambur Swetharanyeswarar Temple Tharangambadi Therazhundur Thirukkadaiyur Thiruvenkadu Vaitheeswaran Koil Valampurinathar Temple Vanjinatha Temple Vedaranyeswarar Temple Viratteswara Temple, Vazhuvur

Religious and monastic institutions

Dharmapuram Adheenam Thiruvaduthurai Adheenam

Cities and towns People Villages

v t e

 State of Tamil Nadu

Capital: Chennai

State symbols

Seal: Srivilliputhur Andal Temple
Srivilliputhur Andal Temple
Gopuram Animal: Nilgiri tahr Bird: Emerald dove Flower: Gloriosa lily Fruit: Jackfruit Tree: Palm tree

Governance

Governors Chief Ministers Legislative Assembly Political parties Raj Bhavan High Court Police

Topics

Cinema Cuisine Economy Government History Language Literature Music People Education Politics Temples Protected areas Highest point Wildlife Sexual Minorities Tourism

Districts

Ariyalur Chennai Coimbatore Cuddalore Dharmapuri Dindigul Erode Kanchipuram Kanyakumari Karur Krishnagiri Madurai Nagapattinam Namakkal Perambalur Pudukkottai Ramanathapuram Salem Sivaganga Thanjavur The Nilgiris Theni Thoothukudi Tiruchirapalli Tirunelveli Tiruppur Tiruvallur Tiruvannamalai Tiruvarur Vellore Viluppuram Virudhunagar

Major cities

Chennai Coimbatore Madurai Tiruchirapalli Tiruppur

Tamil Nadu

v t e

Municipalities of Tamil Nadu

Municipal Corporations

Greater Chennai · Coimbatore · Madurai · Erode · Salem · Thoothukudi · Tiruchirappalli  · Tirunelveli · Thanjavur
Thanjavur
 · Tiruppur
Tiruppur
 · Vellore
Vellore
 · Dindigul

Municipalities

Special
Special
grade

Avadi Cuddalore Hosur Kancheepuram Karaikudi Karur Kodaikanal Kovilpatti Kumbakonam Maraimalainagar Nagercoil Pallavapuram Pollachi Rajapalayam Sivakasi Tambaram Thiruvannamalai Udhagamandalam

Selection grade

Ambur Alandur Attur Chidambaram Coonoor Dharmapuri Gobichettipalayam Mannargudi Mayiladuthurai Mettupalayam Mettur Nagapattinam Namakkal Palani Pammal Pattukkottai Pudukkottai Ranipet Theni Allinagaram Thiruverkadu Thuraiyur Tindivanam Tiruchengode Tiruppattur Udumalaipettai Valparai Vaniyambadi Viluppuram Virudhunagar

First grade

Arakkonam Arani Aranthangi Arcot Aruppukkottai Bodinayakanur Chengalpattu Colachel Cumbum Devakottai Dharapuram Edappadi Gudiyatham Kadayanallur Kallakurichi Komarapalayam Krishnagiri Manapparai Palladam Panruti Paramakudi Poonamallee Ramanathapuram Rasipuram Sankarankovil Sembakkam Sathyamangalam Sivagangai Srivilliputhur Thiruthangal Tiruvallur tenkasi Tiruvarur Virudhachalam

Second grade

Ambasamudram Anakaputhur Ariyalur Bhavani Chinnamanur Gudalur (Nilgiris district) Gudalur (Theni district) Jayankondam Jolarpet Kangeyam Kayalpattinam Keelakarai Koothanallur Kulithalai Kuzhithurai Maduranthakam Melur Melvisharam Nellikuppam Nelliyalam Oddanchatram Padmanabhapuram Pallipalayam Perambalur Periyakulam Pernampattu Puliyankudi Punjai Puliampatti Rameswaram Sattur Sengottai Sirkazhi Thiruthani Thiruthuraipoondi Thiruvathipuram Thuvakudi Tirumangalam Usilampatti Vandavasi Vedaranyam Vellakoil Vikramasingapuram Walajapet

Authority control

WorldCat Identiti

.