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The People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (Народный комиссариат внутренних дел, Narodnyy Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del), abbreviated NKVD
NKVD
(НКВД  listen (help·info)), was the interior ministry of the Soviet Union. Established in 1917,[1] the NKVD
NKVD
was originally tasked with conducting regular police work and overseeing the country's prisons and labor camps.[2] It was disbanded in 1930, with its functions being dispersed among other agencies, only to be reinstated as an all-union ministry in 1934.[3] The functions of the OGPU
OGPU
(the secret police organization) were transferred to the NKVD
NKVD
in 1934, giving it a monopoly over law enforcement activities that lasted until the end of World War II.[2] During this period, the NKVD
NKVD
included both ordinary public order activities, as well as secret police activities.[4] The NKVD
NKVD
is known for its role in political repression and for carrying out the Great Purge under Joseph Stalin. It was led by Genrikh Yagoda, Nikolai Yezhov and Lavrentiy Beria. The NKVD
NKVD
undertook mass extrajudicial executions of untold numbers of citizens, and conceived, populated and administered the Gulag
Gulag
system of forced labour camps. Their agents were responsible for the repression of the Kulaks, and the mass deportations of entire nationalities to uninhabited regions of the country. They oversaw the protection of Soviet borders and espionage (which included political assassinations), and enforced Soviet policy in communist movements and puppet governments in other countries, most notably the repression and massacres in Poland. In March 1946 all People's Commissariats were renamed to Ministries, and the NKVD
NKVD
became the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD).[5]

Contents

1 History and structure

1.1 Main Directorates (Departments)

2 Ranking system (State Security)

2.1 Rank insignia 1935–1937 2.2 Rank insignia 1937–1943 2.3 Rank insignia 1943–1945

3 NKVD
NKVD
activities

3.1 Domestic repressions 3.2 International operations 3.3 Spanish Civil War 3.4 World War II operations 3.5 Postwar operations 3.6 Intelligence activities 3.7 Soviet economy

4 People's Commissars 5 Officers 6 See also 7 Notes 8 Further reading 9 External links

History and structure[edit] Main articles: Cheka
Cheka
and Chronology of Soviet secret police agencies

Early NKVD
NKVD
leaders Genrikh Yagoda, Vyacheslav Menzhinsky
Vyacheslav Menzhinsky
and Felix Dzerzhinsky, 1924

After the Russian February Revolution
February Revolution
of 1917, the Provisional Government dissolved the Tsarist police and set up the People's Militsiya. The subsequent Russian October Revolution
October Revolution
of 1917 saw a seizure of state power led by Lenin
Lenin
and the Bolsheviks, who established a new Bolshevik
Bolshevik
regime, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR). The Provisional Government's Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD), formerly under Georgy Lvov
Georgy Lvov
(from March 1917) and then under Nikolai Avksentiev
Nikolai Avksentiev
(from 6 August [O.S. 24 July] 1917) and Alexei Nikitin (from 8 October [O.S. 25 September] 1917), turned into NKVD
NKVD
(People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs) under a People's Commissar. However, the NKVD apparatus was overwhelmed by duties inherited from MVD, such as the supervision of the local governments and firefighting, and the Workers' and Peasants' Militsiya
Militsiya
staffed by proletarians was largely inexperienced and unqualified. Realizing that it was left with no capable security force, the Council of People's Commissars
Council of People's Commissars
of the RSFSR
RSFSR
established (20 December [O.S. 7 December] 1917) a secret political police, the Cheka, led by Felix Dzerzhinsky. It gained the right to undertake quick non-judicial trials and executions, if that was deemed necessary in order to "protect the Russian Socialist- Communist
Communist
revolution". The Cheka
Cheka
was reorganized in 1922 as the State Political Directorate, or GPU, of the NKVD
NKVD
of the RSFSR.[6] In 1922 the USSR formed, with the RSFSR
RSFSR
as its largest member. The GPU became the OGPU
OGPU
(Joint State Political Directorate), under the Council of People's Commissars
Council of People's Commissars
of the USSR. The NKVD
NKVD
of the RSFSR
RSFSR
retained control of the militsiya, and various other responsibilities. In 1934 the NKVD
NKVD
of the RSFSR
RSFSR
was transformed into an all-union security force, the NKVD
NKVD
(which the Communist
Communist
Party of the Soviet Union leaders soon came to call "the leading detachment of our party"), and the OGPU
OGPU
was incorporated into the NKVD
NKVD
as the Main Directorate for State Security (GUGB); the separate NKVD
NKVD
of the RSFSR was not resurrected until 1946 (as the MVD of the RSFSR). As a result, the NKVD
NKVD
also took over control of all detention facilities (including the forced labor camps, known as the GULag) as well as the regular police. At various times, the NKVD
NKVD
had the following Chief Directorates, abbreviated as "ГУ"– Главное управление, Glavnoye upravleniye.

ГУГБ – государственной безопасности, of State Security (GUGB, Glavnoye upravleniye gosudarstvennoi bezopasnosti') ГУРКМ– рабоче-крестьянской милиции, of Workers and Peasants Militsiya
Militsiya
(GURKM, Glavnoye upravleniye raboče-krest'yanskoi militsyi) ГУПВО– пограничной и внутренней охраны, of Border and Internal Guards (GUPVO, GU pograničnoi i vnytrennei okhrany) ГУПО– пожарной охраны, of Firefighting Services (GUPO, GU požarnoi okhrany) ГУШосДор– шоссейных дорог, of Highways(GUŠD, GU šosseynykh dorog) ГУЖД– железных дорог, of Railways (GUŽD, GU železnykh dorog) ГУЛаг– Главное управление исправительно-трудовых лагерей и колоний, (GULag, Glavnoye upravleniye ispravitelno-trudovykh lagerey i kolonii) ГЭУ – экономическое, of Economics (GEU, Glavnoye ekonomičeskoie upravleniye) ГТУ – транспортное, of Transport (GTU, Glavnoye transportnoie upravleniye) ГУВПИ – военнопленных и интернированных, of POWs and interned persons (GUVPI, Glavnoye upravleniye voyennoplennikh i internirovannikh)

Until the reorganization begun by Nikolai Yezhov
Nikolai Yezhov
with a purge of the regional political police in the autumn of 1936 and formalized by a May 1939 directive of the All-Union NKVD
NKVD
by which all appointments to the local political police were controlled from the center, there was frequent tension between centralized control of local units and the collusion of those units with local and regional party elements, frequently resulting in the thwarting of Moscow's plans.[7] Following its establishment in 1934, the NKVD
NKVD
underwent many organizational changes; between 1938 and 1939 alone, the NKVD's structure and leadership changed three times.[citation needed] On February 3, 1941, the Special
Special
Sections of the NKVD
NKVD
responsible for military counterintelligence (CI) became part of the Army and Navy (RKKA and RKKF, respectively). The GUGB
GUGB
was separated from the NKVD and renamed the People's Commissariat for State Security
People's Commissariat for State Security
(NKGB). After the German invasion of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(June 1941), the NKVD
NKVD
and NKGB reunited on July 20, 1941. The CI sections returned to NKVD
NKVD
control in January 1942. In April 1943, the CI sections were again transferred to the People's Commissariats (Narkomat) of Defense and the Navy, becoming SMERSH
SMERSH
(from Smert' Shpionam or "Death to Spies"); at the same time, the NKVD
NKVD
was again separated from the NKGB. In 1946, all Soviet Commissariats were renamed "ministries". Accordingly, the Peoples Commissariat of Internal Affairs (NKVD) of the USSR became the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD), while the NKGB was renamed as the Ministry of State Security (MGB). In 1953, after the arrest of Lavrenty Beria, the MGB merged back into the MVD. The police and security services finally split in 1954 to become:

The USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD), responsible for the criminal militia and correctional facilities. The USSR Committee for State Security (KGB), responsible for the political police, intelligence, counter-intelligence, personal protection (of the leadership) and confidential communications.

Main Directorates (Departments)[edit]

State Security Workers-Peasants Militsiya Border and Internal Security Firefighting security Correction and Labor camps Other smaller departments

Department of Civil registration Financial (FINO) Administration Human resources Secretariat Special
Special
assignment

Ranking system (State Security)[edit] In 1935–1945 Main Directorate of State Security
Main Directorate of State Security
of NKVD
NKVD
had its own ranking system before it was merged in the Soviet military standardized ranking system.

Top-level commanding staff

Commissioner General of State Security (later in 1935) Commissioner of State Security 1st Class Commissioner of State Security 2nd Class Commissioner of State Security 3rd Class Commissioner of State Security (Senior Major of State Security, before 1943)

Senior commanding staff

Colonel of State Security (Major of State Security, before 1943) Lieutenant Colonel of State Security (Captain of State Security, before 1943) Major of State Security (Senior Lieutenant of State Security, before 1943)

Mid-level commanding staff

Captain of State Security (Lieutenant of State Security, before 1943) Senior Lieutenant of State Security (Junior Lieutenant of State Security, before 1943) Lieutenant of State Security (Sergeant of State Security, before 1942) Junior Lieutenant of State Security (Sergeant of State Security, before 1942)

Junior commanding staff

Master Sergeant of Special
Special
Service (from 1943) Senior Sergeant of Special
Special
Service (from 1943) Sergeant of Special
Special
Service (from 1943) Junior Sergeant of Special
Special
Service (from 1943)

Rank insignia 1935–1937[edit]

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Commissioner General of State Security Commissioner of State Security 1st Class Commissioner of State Security 2nd Class Commissioner of State Security 3rd Class Senior Major of State Security Major of State Security Captain of State Security Senior Lieutenant of State Security Lieutenant of State Security Junior Lieutenant of State Security Sergeant of State Security

Source:[8]

Rank insignia 1937–1943[edit]

Commissioner General of State Security Commissioner of State Security 1st Class Commissioner of State Security 2nd Class Commissioner of State Security 3rd Class Senior Major of State Security Major of State Security

Source:[9]

Captain of State Security Senior Lieutenant of State Security Lieutenant of State Security Junior Lieutenant of State Security Sergeant of State Security

Source:[9]

Rank insignia 1943–1945[edit]

Commissioner General of State Security Commissioner of State Security 1st Class Commissioner of State Security 2nd Class Commissioner of State Security 3rd Class Commissioner of State Security

Source:[9]

1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2

1 – 1943; 2 – 1943–1945.

Colonel of State Security Lieutenant Colonel of State Security

Major of State Security Captain of State Security Senior Lieutenant of State Security

Lieutenant of State Security

Junior Lieutenant of State Security

1943 Source:[9]

1943–1946 Source:[9]

Master Sergeant Senior Sergeant Sergeant Junior Sergeant

Source:[9]

NKVD
NKVD
activities[edit] The main function of the NKVD
NKVD
was to protect the state security of the Soviet Union. This role was accomplished through massive political repression, including authorised murders of many thousands of politicians and citizens, as well as kidnappings, assassinations and mass deportations. Domestic repressions[edit]

NKVD
NKVD
chief Genrikh Yagoda
Genrikh Yagoda
(middle) inspecting the construction of the Moscow-Volga canal, 1935

See also: Political repression in the Soviet Union In implementing Soviet internal policy towards perceived enemies of the Soviet state ("enemies of the people"), untold multitudes of people were sent to GULAG camps and hundreds of thousands were executed by the NKVD. Formally, most of these people were convicted by NKVD
NKVD
troikas ("triplets")– special courts martial. Evidential standards were very low: a tip-off by an anonymous informer was considered sufficient grounds for arrest. Use of "physical means of persuasion" (torture) was sanctioned by a special decree of the state, which opened the door to numerous abuses, documented in recollections of victims and members of the NKVD
NKVD
itself. Hundreds of mass graves resulting from such operations were later discovered throughout the country. Documented evidence exists that the NKVD
NKVD
committed mass extrajudicial executions, guided by secret "plans". Those plans established the number and proportion of victims (officially "public enemies") in a given region (e.g. the quotas for clergy, former nobles etc., regardless of identity). The families of the repressed, including children, were also automatically repressed according to NKVD
NKVD
Order no. 00486. The purges were organized in a number of waves according to the decisions of the Politburo
Politburo
of the Communist
Communist
Party. Some examples are the campaigns among engineers (Shakhty Trial), party and military elite plots ( Great Purge
Great Purge
with Order 00447), and medical staff ("Doctors' Plot"). A number of mass operations of the NKVD
NKVD
were related to the prosecution of whole ethnic categories. For example, the Polish Operation of the NKVD
NKVD
in 1937–1938 resulted in the execution of 111,091 Poles.[10] Whole populations of certain ethnicities were forcibly resettled. Foreigners living in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
were given particular attention. When disillusioned American citizens living in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
thronged the gates of the U.S. embassy in Moscow
Moscow
to plead for new U.S. passports to leave USSR (their original U.S. passports had been taken for 'registration' purposes years before), none were issued. Instead, the NKVD
NKVD
promptly arrested all of the Americans, who were taken to Lubyanka Prison
Prison
and later shot.[11] American factory workers at the Soviet Ford GAZ
GAZ
plant, suspected by Stalin
Stalin
of being 'poisoned' by Western influences, were dragged off with the others to Lubyanka by the NKVD
NKVD
in the very same Ford Model A cars they had helped build, where they were tortured; nearly all were executed or died in labor camps. Many of the slain Americans were dumped in the mass grave at Yuzhnoye Butovo District
Yuzhnoye Butovo District
near Moscow.[12] Even so, the people of the Soviet Republics
Soviet Republics
still formed the majority of NKVD
NKVD
victims[*17][*18]. The NKVD
NKVD
also served as arm of the Russian Soviet communist government for the lethal mass persecution and destruction of ethnic minorities and religious beliefs, such as the Russian Orthodox Church, the Ukrainian Orthodox Church, the Roman Catholic Church, Greek Catholics, Islam, Judaism
Judaism
and other religious organizations, an operation headed by Yevgeny Tuchkov. International operations[edit]

Lavrentiy Beria
Lavrentiy Beria
with Stalin
Stalin
(in background) and Stalin's daughter Svetlana

During the 1930s, the NKVD
NKVD
was responsible for political murders of those Stalin
Stalin
believed to oppose him. Espionage networks headed by experienced multilingual NKVD
NKVD
officers such as Pavel Sudoplatov
Pavel Sudoplatov
and Iskhak Akhmerov
Iskhak Akhmerov
were established in nearly every major Western country, including the United States. The NKVD
NKVD
recruited agents for its espionage efforts from all walks of life, from unemployed intellectuals such as Mark Zborowski to aristocrats such as Martha Dodd. Besides the gathering of intelligence, these networks provided organizational assistance for so-called wet business,[13] where enemies of the USSR either disappeared or were openly liquidated.[14] The NKVD's intelligence and special operations (Inostranny Otdel) unit organized overseas assassinations of political enemies of the USSR, such as leaders of nationalist movements, former Tsarist officials, and personal rivals of Joseph Stalin. Among the officially confirmed victims of such plots were:

Leon Trotsky, a personal political enemy of Stalin
Stalin
and his most bitter international critic, killed in Mexico City in 1940; Yevhen Konovalets, prominent Ukrainian patriot leader who was attempting to create a separatist movement in Soviet Ukraine; assassinated in Rotterdam, Netherlands Yevgeny Miller, former General of the Tsarist (Imperial Russian) Army; in the 1930s, he was responsible for funding anti-communist movements inside the USSR with the support of European governments. Kidnapped in Paris and brought to Moscow, where he was interrogated and executed Noe Ramishvili, Prime Minister of independent Georgia, fled to France after the Bolshevik
Bolshevik
takeover; responsible for funding and coordinating Georgian nationalist organizations and the August uprising, he was assassinated in Paris Boris Savinkov, Russian revolutionary and anti- Bolshevik
Bolshevik
terrorist (lured back into Russia and killed in 1924 by the Trust Operation of the GPU); Sidney Reilly, British agent of the MI6
MI6
who deliberately entered Russia in 1925 trying to expose the Trust Operation to avenge Savinkov's death; Alexander Kutepov, former General of the Tsarist (Imperial Russian) Army, who was active in organizing anti-communist groups with the support of French and British governments

Prominent political dissidents were also found dead under highly suspicious circumstances, including Walter Krivitsky, Lev Sedov, Ignace Reiss
Ignace Reiss
and former German Communist
Communist
Party (KPD) member Willi Münzenberg.[15][16][17][18][19] The pro-Soviet leader Sheng Shicai
Sheng Shicai
in Xinjiang received NKVD assistance in conducting a purge to coincide with Stalin's Great Purge in 1937. Sheng and the Soviets alleged a massive Trotskyist conspiracy and a "Fascist Trotskyite plot" to destroy the Soviet Union. The Soviet Consul General Garegin Apresoff, General Ma Hushan, Ma Shaowu, Mahmud Sijan, the official leader of the Xinjiang province Huang Han-chang and Hoja-Niyaz
Hoja-Niyaz
were among the 435 alleged conspirators in the plot. Xinjiang came under virtual Soviet control. Stalin
Stalin
opposed the Chinese Communist
Communist
Party.[20] Spanish Civil War[edit] During the Spanish Civil War, NKVD
NKVD
agents, acting in conjunction with the Communist
Communist
Party of Spain, exercised substantial control over the Republican government, using Soviet military aid to help further Soviet influence.[21] The NKVD
NKVD
established numerous secret prisons around the capital Madrid, which were used to detain, torture, and kill hundreds of the NKVD's enemies, at first focusing on Spanish Nationalists and Spanish Catholics, while from late 1938 increasingly anarchists and Trotskyists were the objects of persecution.[22] In 1937 Andrés Nin, the secretary of the Trotskyist POUM and his colleagues were tortured and killed in an NKVD
NKVD
prison in Barcelona.[23] World War II operations[edit]

The corpses of victims of the NKVD
NKVD
murdered in last days of June 1941, in one of the NKVD prisoner massacres
NKVD prisoner massacres
just after outbreak of the German-Soviet War.

Prior to the German invasion, in order to accomplish its own goals, the NKVD
NKVD
was prepared to cooperate even with such organizations as the German Gestapo. In March 1940 representatives of the NKVD
NKVD
and the Gestapo
Gestapo
met for one week in Zakopane, to coordinate the pacification of Poland; see Gestapo– NKVD
NKVD
Conferences. For its part, the Soviet Union delivered hundreds of German and Austrian Communists to the Gestapo, as unwanted foreigners, together with their documents. However, many NKVD
NKVD
units were later to fight the Wehrmacht, for example the 10th Rifle Division NKVD, which fought at the Battle of Stalingrad. After the German invasion the NKVD
NKVD
evacuated and killed prisoners. During World War II, NKVD
NKVD
Internal Troops
Internal Troops
units were used for rear area security, including preventing the retreat of Soviet Union
Soviet Union
army divisions. Though mainly intended for internal security, NKVD divisions were sometimes used at the front to stem the occurrence of desertion through Stalin's Order No. 270 and Order No. 227
Order No. 227
decrees in 1941 and 1942, which aimed to raise troop morale via brutality and coercion. At the beginning of the war the NKVD
NKVD
formed 15 rifle divisions, which had expanded by 1945 to 53 divisions and 28 brigades.[24] A list of identified NKVD
NKVD
Internal Troops
Internal Troops
divisions can be seen at List of Soviet Union
Soviet Union
divisions. Though mainly intended for internal security, NKVD
NKVD
divisions were sometimes used in the front-lines, for example during the Battle of Stalingrad
Battle of Stalingrad
and the Crimean Offensive of 1944.[24] Unlike the Waffen-SS, the NKVD
NKVD
did not field any armored or mechanized units.[24] In the enemy-held territories, the NKVD
NKVD
carried out numerous missions of sabotage. After fall of Kiev, NKVD
NKVD
agents set fire to the Nazi headquarters and various other targets, eventually burning down much of the city center.[25] Similar actions took place across the occupied Byelorussia and Ukraine. The NKVD
NKVD
(later KGB) carried out mass arrests, deportations, and executions. The targets included both collaborators with Germany and non- Communist
Communist
resistance movements such as the Polish Armia Krajowa and the Ukrainian Insurgent Army
Ukrainian Insurgent Army
aiming to separate from the Soviet Union, among others. The NKVD
NKVD
also executed tens of thousands of Polish political prisoners in 1939–1941, including the Katyń massacre.[26][27] NKVD
NKVD
units were also used to repress the prolonged partisan war in Ukraine
Ukraine
and the Baltics, which lasted until the early 1950s. Postwar operations[edit]

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After the death of Stalin
Stalin
in 1953, the new Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev halted the NKVD
NKVD
purges. From the 1950s to the 1980s, thousands of victims were legally "rehabilitated" (i.e., acquitted and had their rights restored). Many of the victims and their relatives refused to apply for rehabilitation out of fear or lack of documents. The rehabilitation was not complete: in most cases the formulation was "due to lack of evidence of the case of crime". Only a limited number of persons were rehabilitated with the formulation "cleared of all charges". Very few NKVD
NKVD
agents were ever officially convicted of the particular violation of anyone's rights. Legally, those agents executed in the 1930s were also "purged" without legitimate criminal investigations and court decisions. In the 1990s and 2000s (decade) a small number of ex- NKVD
NKVD
agents living in the Baltic states
Baltic states
were convicted of crimes against the local population. Intelligence activities[edit] These included:

Establishment of a widespread spy network through the Comintern. Operations of Richard Sorge, the "Red Orchestra", Willi Lehmann, and other agents who provided valuable intelligence during World War II. Recruitment of important UK officials as agents in the 1940s. Penetration of British intelligence (MI6) and counter-intelligence (MI5) services. Collection of detailed nuclear weapons design information from the U.S. and Britain. Disruption of several confirmed plots to assassinate Stalin. Establishment of the People's Republic of Poland
People's Republic of Poland
and earlier its communist party along with training activists, during World War II. The first President of Poland after the war was Bolesław Bierut, an NKVD
NKVD
agent.

Soviet economy[edit]

Sergei Korolev
Sergei Korolev
shortly after his arrest, 1938

The extensive system of labor exploitation in the Gulag
Gulag
made a notable contribution to the Soviet economy and the development of remote areas. Colonization of Siberia, the North and Far East was among the explicitly stated goals in the very first laws concerning Soviet labor camps. Mining, construction works (roads, railways, canals, dams, and factories), logging, and other functions of the labor camps were part of the Soviet planned economy, and the NKVD
NKVD
had its own production plans.[citation needed] The most unusual part of the NKVD's achievements was its role in Soviet science and arms development. Many scientists and engineers arrested for political crimes were placed in special prisons, much more comfortable than the Gulag, colloquially known as sharashkas. These prisoners continued their work in these prisons. When later released, some of them became world leaders in science and technology. Among such sharashka members were Sergey Korolev, the head designer of the Soviet rocket program and first human space flight mission in 1961, and Andrei Tupolev, the famous airplane designer. Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn was also imprisoned in a sharashka, and based his novel The First Circle
The First Circle
on his experiences there. After World War II, the NKVD
NKVD
coordinated work on Soviet nuclear weaponry, under the direction of General Pavel Sudoplatov. The scientists were not prisoners, but the project was supervised by the NKVD
NKVD
because of its great importance and the corresponding requirement for absolute security and secrecy. Also, the project used information obtained by the NKVD
NKVD
from the United States. People's Commissars[edit] The agency was headed by a people's commissar (minister). His first deputy was the director of State Security Service (GUGB).

1934–1936 Genrikh Yagoda, both people's commissar of Interior and director of State Security 1936–1938 Nikolai Yezhov, people's commissar of Interior

1936–1937 Yakov Agranov, director of State Security (as the first deputy) 1937–1938 Mikhail Frinovsky, director of State Security (as the first deputy) 1938-1938 Lavrentiy Beria, director of State Security (as the first deputy)

1938–1945 Lavrentiy Beria, people's commissar of Interior

1938–1941 Vsevolod Merkulov, director of State Security (as the first deputy) 1941–1943 Vsevolod Merkulov, director of State Security (as the first deputy)

1945–1946 Sergei Kruglov, people's commissar of Interior

Note: In the first half of 1941 Vsevolod Merkulov transformed his agency into separate commissariat (ministry), but it was merged back to the people's commissariat of Interior soon after the Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union. In 1943 Merkulov once again split his agency this time for good. Officers[edit] Andrei Zhukov has singlehandedly identified every single NKVD
NKVD
officer involved in 1930s arrests and killings by researching a Moscow archive. There are just over 40,000 names on the list.[28] See also[edit]

Soviet Union
Soviet Union
portal

Mass killings under Communist
Communist
regimes 10th NKVD
NKVD
Division (Soviet Union) Hitler Youth conspiracy, an NKVD
NKVD
case pursued in 1938, later found to be baseless NKVD
NKVD
special camps, internment camps set up at the end of World War II in eastern Germany (often in former Nazi POW
POW
or concentration camps) and other areas under Soviet domination, to imprison those suspected of collaboration with the Nazis, or others deemed to be troublesome to Soviet ambitions.

Notes[edit]

^ Semukhina, Olga B.; Reynolds, Kenneth Michael (2013). Understanding the Modern Russian Police. CRC Press. p. 74. ISBN 9781482218879.  ^ a b Huskey, Eugene (2014). Russian Lawyers and the Soviet State: The Origins and Development of the Soviet Bar, 1917-1939. Princeton University Press. p. 230. ISBN 9781400854516.  ^ Semukhina, Olga B.; Reynolds, Kenneth Michael (2013). Understanding the Modern Russian Police. CRC Press. p. 58. ISBN 9781439803493.  ^ Khlevniuk, Oleg V. (2015). Stalin: New Biography of a Dictator. Yale University Press. p. 125. ISBN 9780300166941.  ^ Statiev, Alexander (2010). The Soviet Counterinsurgency in the Western Borderlands. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521768337.  ^ Blank Pages by G.C.Malcher ISBN 1-897984-00-6 Page 7 ^ James Harris, "Dual subordination ? The political police and the party in the Urals region, 1918–1953", Cahiers du monde russe 22 (2001):423–446. ^ Звания и знаки различия органов госбезопасности (1935–1943 г.) Retrieved 2017-08-28. ^ a b c d e f Форма и знаки различия в органах госбезопасности 1922–1945 гг. Retrieved 2017-08-28. ^ Goldman, Wendy Z. (2011). Inventing the Enemy: Denunciation and Terror in Stalin's Russia. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-19196-8. p. 217. ^ Tzouliadis, Tim, The Forsaken: An American Tragedy in Stalin's Russia Penguin Press (2008), ISBN 1-59420-168-4: Many of the Americans desiring to return home were communists who had voluntarily moved to the Soviet Union, while others moved to Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as skilled auto workers to help produce cars at the recently constructed GAZ
GAZ
automobile factory built by the Ford Motor Company. All were U.S. citizens. ^ Tzouliadis, Tim, The Forsaken: An American Tragedy in Stalin's Russia Penguin Press (2008), ISBN 1-59420-168-4 ^ Barmine, Alexander, One Who Survived, New York: G.P. Putnam (1945), p. 18: NKVD
NKVD
expression for a political murder ^ John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America, (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999) ^ Barmine, Alexander, One Who Survived, New York: G.P. Putnam (1945), pp. 232–233 ^ Orlov, Alexander, The March of Time, St. Ermin's Press (2004), ISBN 1-903608-05-8 ^ Andrew, Christopher and Mitrokhin, Vasili, The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB, Basic Books (2000), ISBN 0-465-00312-5, ISBN 978-0-465-00312-9, p. 75 ^ Barmine, Alexander, One Who Survived, New York: G. P. Putnam (1945), pp. 17, 22 ^ Sean McMeekin, The Red Millionaire: A Political Biography of Willi Münzenberg, Moscow's Secret Propaganda Tsar
Tsar
in the West, 1917–1940, New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press (2004), pp. 304–305 ^ Andrew D. W. Forbes (1986). Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: a political history of Republican Sinkiang 1911–1949. Cambridge, England: CUP Archive. p. 151. ISBN 0-521-25514-7. Retrieved 2010-12-31.  ^ Robert W. Pringle (2015). Historical Dictionary of Russian and Soviet Intelligence. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 288–89.  ^ Christopher Andrew (2000). The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB. Basic Books. p. 73.  ^ David Clay Large (1991). Between Two Fires: Europe's Path in the 1930s. W.W. Norton. p. 308.  ^ a b c Zaloga, Steven J. The Red Army
Red Army
of the Great Patriotic War, 1941–45, Osprey Publishing, (1989), pp. 21–22 ^ Birstein, Vadim (2013). Smersh: Stalin's Secret Weapon. Biteback Publishing. ISBN 1849546894. Retrieved 4 June 2017.  ^ Edvins Snore (2008). History Documentary film: The Soviet Story (PDF). Riga, Latvia: SIA Labvakar. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 24, 2014.  ^ Red Square (2014). History Documentary – A Must See For All Students of History. The Peoples Cube. Retrieved 2014-03-11.  ^ Stalin's secret police finally named but killings still not seen as crimes The Guardian, 2017

Further reading[edit]

Hastings, Max (2015). The Secret War: Spies, Codes and Guerrillas 1939 -1945 (Paperback)format= requires url= (help). London: William Collins. ISBN 978-0-00-750374-2. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to NKVD.

For evidence on Soviet espionage in the United States during the Cold War, see the full text of Alexander Vassiliev's Notebooks from the Cold War International History Project (CWIHP) NKVD.org: information site about the NKVD (in Russian) MVD: 200-year history of the Ministry (in Russian) Memorial: history of the OGPU/NKVD/MGB/KGB

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Coordinates: 55°45′38″N 37°37′41″E / 55.7606°N 37.6281°E / 55.7606; 37.6281

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