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The PEOPLE\'S COMMISSARIAT FOR INTERNAL AFFAIRS (Народный комиссариат внутренних дел, Narodnyi Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del), abbreviated NKVD
NKVD
(НКВД listen (help ·info )), was the leading Soviet secret police organization from 1934 to 1946. It is known for its role in political repression and carrying out the Great Purge under Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
.

The agency was led by Genrikh Yagoda (executed in 1938), Nikolai Yezhov (executed in 1940) and Lavrentiy Beria
Lavrentiy Beria
(executed in 1953). The NKVD
NKVD
was formed from Felix Dzerzhinsky
Felix Dzerzhinsky
's Cheka , and became known as the NKVD
NKVD
in 1934.

The NKVD
NKVD
conducted mass extrajudicial executions ; conceived, populated and administered the Gulag system of forced labor camps; was responsible for the repression of the Kulaks , and the mass deportations of entire nationalities to uninhabited regions of the country. Its agents were responsible for the protection of Soviet borders and espionage (which included political assassinations ), as well as enforcing Stalinist policy in communist movements and puppet governments in other countries, mostly notably the repression and massacres in Poland .

CONTENTS

* 1 History and structure

* 1.1 Main Directorates (Departments) * 1.2 Ranking system (State Security)

* 2 NKVD
NKVD
activities

* 2.1 Domestic repressions and executions * 2.2 International operations, kidnappings, and assassinations * 2.3 Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
* 2.4 World War II
World War II
operations * 2.5 Postwar operations * 2.6 Intelligence activities * 2.7 Soviet economy

* 3 People\'s Commissars * 4 Officers * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 Further reading * 8 External links

HISTORY AND STRUCTURE

Main articles: Cheka and Chronology of Soviet secret police agencies Early NKVD
NKVD
leaders Genrikh Yagoda , Vyacheslav Menzhinsky and Felix Dzerzhinsky
Felix Dzerzhinsky
, 1924

After the Russian February Revolution
February Revolution
of 1917, the Provisional Government dissolved the Tsar
Tsar
's police and created the People's Militsiya . The subsequent Russian October Revolution
October Revolution
of 1917, was a seizure of state power led by Lenin
Lenin
and the Bolsheviks , who established a new Bolshevik
Bolshevik
regime, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR), and the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD) turned into NKVD
NKVD
(People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs) under a People's Commissar. However, the NKVD
NKVD
apparatus was overwhelmed by duties inherited from MVD, such as the supervision of the local governments and firefighting, and the Workers' and Peasants' Militsiya staffed by proletarians was largely inexperienced and unqualified. Realizing that it was left with no capable security force, the Council of People\'s Commissars of the RSFSR created a secret political police, the Cheka , led by Felix Dzerzhinsky
Felix Dzerzhinsky
. It gained the right to undertake quick non-judicial trials and executions, if that was deemed necessary in order to "protect the Russian Socialist-Communist revolution".

The Cheka was reorganized in 1922 as the State Political Directorate , or GPU, of the NKVD
NKVD
of the RSFSR. In 1922, the USSR was formed with the RSFSR as its largest member. The GPU became the OGPU (Joint State Political Directorate), under the Council of People\'s Commissars of the USSR. The NKVD
NKVD
of the RSFSR retained control of the militsiya, and various other responsibilities.

In 1934, the NKVD
NKVD
of the RSFSR was transformed into an all-union security force, the NKVD
NKVD
(which the Communist
Communist
Party of the Soviet Union leaders soon came to call "the leading detachment of our party"), and the OGPU was incorporated into the NKVD
NKVD
as the Main Directorate for State Security (GUGB); the separate NKVD
NKVD
of the RSFSR was not resurrected until 1946 (as the MVD of the RSFSR). As a result, the NKVD
NKVD
also became responsible for all detention facilities (including the forced labor camps, known as the GULag ) as well as for the regular police. Until the reorganization begun by Nikolai Yezhov with a purge of the regional political police in the autumn of 1936 and formalized by a May 1939 directive of the All-Union NKVD
NKVD
by which all appointments to the local political police were controlled from the center, there was frequent tension between centralized control of local units and the collusion of those units with local and regional party elements, frequently resulting in the thwarting of Moscow's plans.

Since its creation in 1934, the NKVD
NKVD
underwent many organizational changes; between 1938 and 1939 alone, the NKVD's structure and leadership changed three times.

On February 3, 1941, the Special
Special
Sections of the NKVD
NKVD
responsible for military counterintelligence (CI) became part of the Army and Navy (RKKA and RKKF , respectively). The GUGB was separated from the NKVD and renamed the People\'s Commissariat for State Security (NKGB). After the German invasion , the NKVD
NKVD
and NKGB were reunited on July 20, 1941. The CI sections were returned to the NKVD
NKVD
in January 1942. In April 1943, the CI sections were again transferred to the People's Commissariats ( Narkomat ) of Defense and the Navy, becoming SMERSH (from Smert' Shpionam or "Death to Spies"); at the same time, the NKVD was again separated from the NKGB.

In 1946, all Soviet Commissariats were renamed "ministries". Accordingly, the NKVD
NKVD
of the USSR was renamed as the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD), while the NKGB was renamed as the Ministry of State Security (MGB). In 1953, after the arrest of Lavrenty Beria
Lavrenty Beria
, the MGB was merged back into the MVD. The police and security services were finally split in 1954 to become:

* The USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD), responsible for the criminal militia and correctional facilities . * The USSR Committee for State Security (KGB), responsible for the political police , intelligence, counter-intelligence, personal protection (of the leadership) and confidential communications.

MAIN DIRECTORATES (DEPARTMENTS)

* State Security * Workers-Peasants Militsiya * Border and Internal Security * Firefighting security * Correction and Labor camps

* Other smaller departments

* Department of Civil registration * Financial (FINO) * Administration * Human resources * Secretariat * Special
Special
assignment

RANKING SYSTEM (STATE SECURITY)

In 1935-1945 Main Directorate of State Security of NKVD
NKVD
had its own ranking system before it was merged in the Soviet military standardized ranking system. Top-level commanding staff

* Commissioner General of State Security (later in 1935) * Commissioner of State Security 1st Class * Commissioner of State Security 2nd Class * Commissioner of State Security 3rd Class * Commissioner of State Security (Senior Major of State Security, before 1943)

Senior commanding staff

* Colonel of State Security (Major of State Security, before 1943) * Lieutenant Colonel of State Security (Captain of State Security, before 1943) * Major of State Security (Senior Lieutenant of State Security, before 1943)

Mid-level commanding staff

* Captain of State Security (Lieutenant of State Security, before 1943) * Senior Lieutenant of State Security (Junior Lieutenant of State Security, before 1943) * Lieutenant of State Security (Sergeant of State Security, before 1942) * Junior Lieutenant of State Security (Sergeant of State Security, before 1942)

Junior commanding staff

* Sergeant Major of Special
Special
Service * Senior Sergeant of Special
Special
Service * Sergeant of Special
Special
Service * Junior Sergeant of Special
Special
Service

NKVD
NKVD
ACTIVITIES

The main function of the NKVD
NKVD
was to protect the state security of the Soviet Union. This role was accomplished through massive political repression , including authorised murders of many thousands of politicians and citizens, as well as kidnappings, assassinations and mass deportations.

DOMESTIC REPRESSIONS AND EXECUTIONS

NKVD
NKVD
chief Genrikh Yagoda (middle) inspecting the construction of the Moscow-Volga canal , 1935 For detailed articles on the issue, see Category: Political repression in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
.

In implementing Soviet internal policy towards perceived enemies of the Soviet state ("enemies of the people "), untold multitudes of people were sent to GULAG camps and hundreds of thousands were executed by the NKVD. Formally, most of these people were convicted by NKVD
NKVD
troikas ("triplets")– special courts martial . Evidential standards were very low: a tip-off by an anonymous informer was considered sufficient grounds for arrest. Use of "physical means of persuasion" (torture) was sanctioned by a special decree of the state, which opened the door to numerous abuses, documented in recollections of victims and members of the NKVD
NKVD
itself. Hundreds of mass graves resulting from such operations were later discovered throughout the country. Documented evidence exists that the NKVD
NKVD
committed mass extrajudicial executions, guided by secret "plans". Those plans established the number and proportion of victims (officially "public enemies") in a given region (e.g. the quotas for clergy, former nobles etc., regardless of identity). The families of the repressed, including children, were also automatically repressed according to NKVD
NKVD
Order no. 00486 .

The purges were organized in a number of waves according to the decisions of the Politburo
Politburo
of the Communist
Communist
Party. Some examples are the campaigns among engineers ( Shakhty Trial ), party and military elite plots ( Great Purge with Order 00447 ), and medical staff ("Doctors\' Plot ").

A number of mass operations of the NKVD
NKVD
were related to the prosecution of whole ethnic categories. For example, the Polish Operation of the NKVD
NKVD
in 1937–1938 resulted in the execution of 111,091 Poles. Whole populations of certain ethnicities were forcibly resettled . Foreigners living in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
were given particular attention. When disillusioned American citizens living in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
thronged the gates of the U.S. embassy in Moscow to plead for new U.S. passports to leave USSR (their original U.S. passports had been taken for 'registration' purposes years before), none were issued. Instead, the NKVD
NKVD
promptly arrested all of the Americans, who were taken to Lubyanka Prison
Prison
and later shot. American factory workers at the Soviet Ford GAZ
GAZ
plant, suspected by Stalin
Stalin
of being 'poisoned' by Western influences, were dragged off with the others to Lubyanka by the NKVD
NKVD
in the very same Ford Model A cars they had helped build, where they were tortured; nearly all were executed or died in labor camps. Many of the slain Americans were dumped in the mass grave at Yuzhnoye Butovo District near Moscow. Even so, the people of the Soviet Republics still formed the majority of NKVD victims.

The NKVD
NKVD
also served as arm of the Russian Soviet communist government for the lethal mass persecution and destruction of ethnic minorities and religious beliefs, such as the Russian Orthodox Church , the Ukrainian Orthodox Church , the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
, Greek Catholics , Islam
Islam
, Judaism and other religious organizations, an operation headed by Yevgeny Tuchkov .

INTERNATIONAL OPERATIONS, KIDNAPPINGS, AND ASSASSINATIONS

Lavrentiy Beria
Lavrentiy Beria
with Stalin
Stalin
(in background) and Stalin's daughter Svetlana

During the 1930s, the NKVD
NKVD
was responsible for political murders of those Stalin
Stalin
believed to oppose him. Espionage networks headed by experienced multilingual NKVD
NKVD
officers such as Pavel Sudoplatov and Iskhak Akhmerov were established in nearly every major Western country, including the United States. The NKVD
NKVD
recruited agents for its espionage efforts from all walks of life, from unemployed intellectuals such as Mark Zborowski to aristocrats such as Martha Dodd . Besides the gathering of intelligence, these networks provided organizational assistance for so-called wet business, where enemies of the USSR either disappeared or were openly liquidated.

The NKVD's intelligence and special operations (Inostranny Otdel) unit organized overseas assassinations of political enemies of the USSR, such as leaders of nationalist movements, former Tsarist officials, and personal rivals of Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
. Among the officially confirmed victims of such plots were:

* Leon Trotsky
Leon Trotsky
, a personal political enemy of Stalin
Stalin
and his most bitter international critic, killed in Mexico City in 1940; * Yevhen Konovalets , prominent Ukrainian patriot leader who was attempting to create a separatist movement in Soviet Ukraine; assassinated in Rotterdam
Rotterdam
, Netherlands * Yevgeny Miller , former General of the Tsarist (Imperial Russian) Army; in the 1930s, he was responsible for funding anti-communist movements inside the USSR with the support of European governments. Kidnapped in Paris and brought to Moscow, where he was interrogated and executed * Noe Ramishvili , Prime Minister of independent Georgia , fled to France after the Bolshevik
Bolshevik
takeover; responsible for funding and coordinating Georgian nationalist organizations and the August uprising , he was assassinated in Paris * Boris Savinkov
Boris Savinkov
, Russian revolutionary and anti-Bolshevik terrorist (lured back into Russia and killed in 1924 by the Trust Operation of the GPU ); * Sidney Reilly , British agent of the MI6
MI6
who deliberately entered Russia in 1925 trying to expose the Trust Operation to avenge Savinkov's death; * Alexander Kutepov , former General of the Tsarist (Imperial Russian) Army, who was active in organizing anti-communist groups with the support of French and British governments

Prominent political dissidents were also found dead under highly suspicious circumstances, including Walter Krivitsky , Lev Sedov , Ignace Reiss and former German Communist
Communist
Party (KPD) member Willi Münzenberg .

The pro-Soviet leader Sheng Shicai in Xinjiang received NKVD assistance in conducting a purge to coincide with Stalin's Great Purge in 1937. Sheng and the Soviets alleged a massive Trotskyist conspiracy and a "Fascist Trotskyite plot" to destroy the Soviet Union. The Soviet Consul General Garegin Apresoff, General Ma Hushan , Ma Shaowu , Mahmud Sijan, the official leader of the Xinjiang province Huang Han-chang and Hoja-Niyaz were among the 435 alleged conspirators in the plot. Xinjiang came under virtual Soviet control. Stalin
Stalin
opposed the Chinese Communist
Communist
Party.

SPANISH CIVIL WAR

During the Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
, NKVD
NKVD
agents, acting in conjunction with the Communist
Communist
Party of Spain , exercised substantial control over the Republican government, using Soviet military aid to help further Soviet influence. The NKVD
NKVD
established numerous secret prisons around the capital Madrid
Madrid
, which were used to detain, torture, and kill hundreds of the NKVD's enemies, at first focusing on Spanish Nationalists and Spanish Catholics , while from late 1938 increasingly anarchists and Trotskyists were the objects of persecution. In 1937 Andrés Nin , the secretary of the Trotskyist POUM and his colleagues were tortured and killed in an NKVD
NKVD
prison in Barcelona.

WORLD WAR II OPERATIONS

A mass grave at Katyn Forest . The corpses of victims of the NKVD
NKVD
murdered in last days of June 1941, in one of the NKVD prisoner massacres just after outbreak of the German-Soviet War.

Prior to the German invasion, in order to accomplish its own goals, the NKVD
NKVD
was prepared to cooperate even with such organizations as the German Gestapo
Gestapo
. In March 1940 representatives of the NKVD
NKVD
and the Gestapo
Gestapo
met for one week in Zakopane
Zakopane
, to coordinate the pacification of Poland; see Gestapo– NKVD
NKVD
Conferences . For its part, the Soviet Union delivered hundreds of German and Austrian Communists to the Gestapo, as unwanted foreigners, together with their documents. However, many NKVD
NKVD
units were later to fight the Wehrmacht, for example the 10th Rifle Division NKVD , which fought at the Battle of Stalingrad .

After the German invasion the NKVD
NKVD
evacuated and killed prisoners .

During World War II, NKVD
NKVD
Internal Troops units were used for rear area security, including preventing the retreat of Soviet Union
Soviet Union
army divisions. Though mainly intended for internal security, NKVD divisions were sometimes used at the front to stem the occurrence of desertion through Stalin's Order No. 270 and Order No. 227 decrees in 1941 and 1942, which aimed to raise troop morale via brutality and coercion. At the beginning of the war the NKVD
NKVD
formed 15 rifle divisions, which had expanded by 1945 to 53 divisions and 28 brigades. A list of identified NKVD
NKVD
Internal Troops divisions can be seen at List of Soviet Union
Soviet Union
divisions . Though mainly intended for internal security, NKVD
NKVD
divisions were sometimes used in the front-lines, for example during the Battle of Stalingrad
Battle of Stalingrad
and the Crimean Offensive of 1944 . Unlike the Waffen-SS , the NKVD
NKVD
did not field any armored or mechanized units.

In the enemy-held territories, the NKVD
NKVD
carried out numerous missions of sabotage. After fall of Kiev
Kiev
, NKVD
NKVD
agents set fire to the Nazi headquarters and various other targets, eventually burning down much of the city center. Similar actions took place across the occupied Byelorussia and Ukraine.

The NKVD
NKVD
(later KGB
KGB
) carried out mass arrests, deportations, and executions. The targets included both collaborators with Germany and non- Communist
Communist
resistance movements such as the Polish Armia Krajowa and the Ukrainian Insurgent Army aiming to separate from the Soviet Union, among others. The NKVD
NKVD
also executed tens of thousands of Polish political prisoners in 1939–1941, including the Katyń massacre . NKVD
NKVD
units were also used to repress the prolonged partisan war in Ukraine
Ukraine
and the Baltics , which lasted until the early 1950s.

POSTWAR OPERATIONS

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After the death of Stalin
Stalin
in 1953, the new Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev halted the NKVD
NKVD
purges. From the 1950s to the 1980s, thousands of victims were legally "rehabilitated" (i.e., acquitted and had their rights restored). Many of the victims and their relatives refused to apply for rehabilitation out of fear or lack of documents. The rehabilitation was not complete: in most cases the formulation was "due to lack of evidence of the case of crime". Only a limited number of persons were rehabilitated with the formulation "cleared of all charges".

Very few NKVD
NKVD
agents were ever officially convicted of the particular violation of anyone's rights. Legally, those agents executed in the 1930s were also "purged" without legitimate criminal investigations and court decisions. In the 1990s and 2000s (decade) a small number of ex- NKVD
NKVD
agents living in the Baltic states
Baltic states
were convicted of crimes against the local population.

INTELLIGENCE ACTIVITIES

These included:

* Establishment of a widespread spy network through the Comintern . * Operations of Richard Sorge
Richard Sorge
, the "Red Orchestra ", Willi Lehmann , and other agents who provided valuable intelligence during World War II. * Recruitment of important UK officials as agents in the 1940s. * Penetration of British intelligence ( MI6
MI6
) and counter-intelligence ( MI5
MI5
) services. * Collection of detailed nuclear weapons design information from the U.S. and Britain. * Disruption of several confirmed plots to assassinate Stalin. * Establishment of the People\'s Republic of Poland and earlier its communist party along with training activists, during World War II. The first President of Poland after the war was Bolesław Bierut , an NKVD
NKVD
agent.

SOVIET ECONOMY

Sergei Korolev shortly after his arrest, 1938

The extensive system of labor exploitation in the Gulag made a notable contribution to the Soviet economy and the development of remote areas. Colonization of Siberia, the North and Far East was among the explicitly stated goals in the very first laws concerning Soviet labor camps . Mining, construction works (roads, railways, canals, dams, and factories), logging, and other functions of the labor camps were part of the Soviet planned economy , and the NKVD
NKVD
had its own production plans.

The most unusual part of the NKVD's achievements was its role in Soviet science and arms development. Many scientists and engineers arrested for political crimes were placed in special prisons, much more comfortable than the Gulag, colloquially known as sharashkas . These prisoners continued their work in these prisons. When later released, some of them became world leaders in science and technology. Among such sharashka members were Sergey Korolev , the head designer of the Soviet rocket program and first human space flight mission in 1961, and Andrei Tupolev , the famous airplane designer. Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn was also imprisoned in a sharashka, and based his novel The First Circle on his experiences there.

After World War II, the NKVD
NKVD
coordinated work on Soviet nuclear weaponry, under the direction of General Pavel Sudoplatov . The scientists were not prisoners, but the project was supervised by the NKVD
NKVD
because of its great importance and the corresponding requirement for absolute security and secrecy. Also, the project used information obtained by the NKVD
NKVD
from the United States.

PEOPLE\'S COMMISSARS

"Show me the man and I'll find you the crime." —Lavrentiy Beria .

The agency was headed by a people's commissar (minister). His first deputy was the director of State Security Service (GUGB).

* 1934-1936 Genrikh Yagoda , both people's commissar of Interior and director of State Security

* 1936-1938 Nikolai Yezhov
Nikolai Yezhov
, people's commissar of Interior

* 1936-1937 Yakov Agranov , director of State Security (as the first deputy) * 1937-1938 Mikhail Frinovsky , director of State Security (as the first deputy) * 1938-1938 Lavrentiy Beria
Lavrentiy Beria
, director of State Security (as the first deputy)

* 1938-1945 Lavrentiy Beria
Lavrentiy Beria
, people's commissar of Interior

* 1938-1941 Vsevolod Merkulov , director of State Security (as the first deputy) * 1941-1943 Vsevolod Merkulov , director of State Security (as the first deputy)

* 1945-1946 Sergei Kruglov , people's commissar of Interior

Note: In the first half of 1941 Vsevolod Merkulov transformed his agency into separate commissariat (ministry), but it was merged back to the people's commissariat of Interior soon after the Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
. In 1943 Merkulov once again split his agency this time for good.

OFFICERS

Andrei Zhukov has singlehandedly identified every single NKVD
NKVD
officer involved in 1930s arrests and killings by researching a Moscow archive. There are just over 40,000 names on the list.

SEE ALSO

* Soviet Union
Soviet Union
portal

* Mass killings under Communist
Communist
regimes * 10th NKVD Division (Soviet Union) * Hitler Youth conspiracy , an NKVD
NKVD
case pursued in 1938, later found to be baseless * NKVD special camps , internment camps set up at the end of World War II in eastern Germany (often in former Nazi POW
POW
or concentration camps) and other areas under Soviet domination, to imprison those suspected of collaboration with the Nazis, or others deemed to be troublesome to Soviet ambitions.

NOTES

* ^ Blank Pages by G.C.Malcher ISBN 1-897984-00-6 Page 7 * ^ At various times, the NKVD
NKVD
had the following Chief Directorates, abbreviated as "ГУ"– Главное управление, Glavnoye upravleniye. ГУГБ – государственной безопасности, of State Security ( GUGB , Glavnoye upravleniye gosudarstvennoi bezopasnosti') ГУРКМ– рабоче-крестьянской милиции, of Workers and Peasants Militsiya (GURKM , Glavnoye upravleniye raboče-krest'yanskoi militsyi) ГУПВО– пограничной и внутренней охраны, of Border and Internal Guards (GUPVO , GU pograničnoi i vnytrennei okhrany) ГУПО– пожарной охраны, of Fire Guards (GUPO , GU požarnoi okhrany) ГУШосДор– шоссейных дорог, of HighWays (GUŠD , GU šosseynykh dorog) ГУЖД– железных дорог, of RailWays (GUŽD , GU železnykh dorog) ГУЛаг– Главное управление исправительно-трудовых лагерей и колоний, ( GULag , Glavnoye upravleniye ispravitelno-trudovykh lagerey i kolonii) ГЭУ – экономическое, of Economics ( GEU , Glavnoye ekonomičeskoie upravleniye) ГТУ – транспортное, of Transport (GTU, Glavnoye transportnoie upravleniye) ГУВПИ – военнопленных и интернированных, of POWs and interned persons (GUVPI , Glavnoye upravleniye voyennoplennikh i internirovannikh) * ^ James Harris, "Dual subordination ? The political police and the party in the Urals region, 1918–1953", Cahiers du monde russe 22 (2001):423–446.

* ^ NKVD
NKVD
ORGANIZATION IN 1939 NKVD
NKVD
MANAGEMENT

* People's Commissar for Internal Affairs– Lavrenty Beria
Lavrenty Beria

* First Deputy and the head of Main Directorate of State Security (GUGB)– Vsevolod Merkulov

DEPUTIES

* for NKVD
NKVD
troops– Ivan Maslenikov * for Militsiya– Vasyli Chernyshov * for Staff– Sergei Kruglov

SECRETARIATS

* NKVD
NKVD
Secretariat– Stepan Mamulov * Secretariat of Special
Special
Council of the NKVD– Vladimir Ivanov * Special
Special
Technical Bureau– Valentin Kravchenko * Special
Special
Bureau– Pyotr Scharia * NKVD
NKVD
Inspection Group– Nikolai Pavlov * Special
Special
Plenipotentiary– Aleksei Stefanov * Secretariat of the First Deputy for GUGB Task– Vsevolod Merkulov

* Inspection Group– Vsevolod Merkulov * Special
Special
Secretariat– Vasyli Chernyshov * Section for Organization of Labor Force– Vsevolod Merkulov * Permanent Technical Committee– ? * Section for Repair Work– Pyotr Vainschtein * Supply Section– M. Mituschyn * Department of Railroad Transportation and Water– ?

DIRECTORATES AND DEPARTMENTS

* Main Directorate of State Security (GUGB)– Vsevolod Merkulov * 1st Special
Special
Department– Leonid Baschtakov * 2nd Special
Special
Department– Evgeny Lapishin * 3rd Special
Special
Department– Dmitry Shadrin * 4th Special
Special
Department– Mikhail Filimonov * 5th Special
Special
Department– Vladimir Vladimirov
Vladimir Vladimirov
* Department of Mobilization– Ivan Scherediega * Department of Staff– Sergei Kruglov * The Chief Directorate of Economics (GEU)– Bogdan Kobulov * The Chief Directorate of Transportation (GTU)– Solomon Milshtein

* The Chief Directorate of Prison
Prison
(GTU)– Aleksandr Galkin * The Chief Directorate of Administration (AČU)– J.Schumbatov * The Chief Directorate of Archive (GAU)– Yosif Nikitynsky * The Chief Directorate of fire guards (GUPO)– Nikolay Istomin * The Chief Directorate of Militsiya (GURKM)– Pavel Zujev * The Chief Directorate of Corrective Labour Camps and Colonies (GULAG)– Vasyli Chernyshov * The Chief Directorate of Highways (GUŠOSDOR)– Vsevolod Fedotov * Directorate of Kremlin Commander– Nikolai Spyrydonov * The Chief Directorate of Border Troops (GUPW)– Grigori Sokolov * The Chief Directorate of NKVD
NKVD
Troops for Railroad Protection– Aleksandr Guliev * The Chief Directorate of NKVD
NKVD
Troops for Escort– Vladimir Sharapov * The Chief Directorate of NKVD
NKVD
Troops for Protection of Industrial Enterprise– I. Kozik * The Chief Directorate of NKVD
NKVD
Operative Troops– P. Ariemyev * The Chief Directorate of Military Provision– Aleksandr Wurgaft * The Chief Directorate of Military Construction– Ivan Luby * Directorate for Prisoners of War– Pyotr Soprunienko * Directorate for Construction in the Far East– Ivan Nikishev * Main Financial Department– Lazar Bierienzon * Main Department for Civil Status– Fyedor Sokolov

* ^ Goldman, Wendy Z. (2011). Inventing the Enemy: Denunciation and Terror in Stalin\'s Russia. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-19196-8 . p. 217. * ^ Tzouliadis, Tim, The Forsaken: An American Tragedy in Stalin's Russia Penguin Press (2008), ISBN 1-59420-168-4 : Many of the Americans desiring to return home were communists who had voluntarily moved to the Soviet Union, while others moved to Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as skilled auto workers to help produce cars at the recently constructed GAZ
GAZ
automobile factory built by the Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company
. All were U.S. citizens. * ^ Tzouliadis, Tim, The Forsaken: An American Tragedy in Stalin's Russia Penguin Press (2008), ISBN 1-59420-168-4 * ^ Barmine, Alexander, One Who Survived, New York: G.P. Putnam (1945), p. 18: NKVD
NKVD
expression for a political murder * ^ John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America, (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999) * ^ Barmine, Alexander, One Who Survived, New York: G.P. Putnam (1945), pp. 232–233 * ^ Orlov, Alexander, The March of Time, St. Ermin's Press (2004), ISBN 1-903608-05-8 * ^ Andrew, Christopher and Mitrokhin, Vasili, The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB, Basic Books (2000), ISBN 0-465-00312-5 , ISBN 978-0-465-00312-9 , p. 75 * ^ Barmine, Alexander, One Who Survived, New York: G. P. Putnam (1945), pp. 17, 22 * ^ Sean McMeekin, The Red Millionaire: A Political Biography of Willi Münzenberg, Moscow's Secret Propaganda Tsar
Tsar
in the West, 1917–1940, New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press (2004), pp. 304–305 * ^ Andrew D. W. Forbes (1986). Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: a political history of Republican Sinkiang 1911–1949. Cambridge, England: CUP Archive. p. 151. ISBN 0-521-25514-7 . Retrieved 2010-12-31. * ^ Robert W. Pringle (2015). Historical Dictionary of Russian and Soviet Intelligence. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 288–89. * ^ Christopher Andrew (2000). The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB. Basic Books. p. 73. * ^ David Clay Large (1991). Between Two Fires: Europe\'s Path in the 1930s. W.W. Norton. p. 308. * ^ A B C Zaloga, Steven J. The Red Army
Red Army
of the Great Patriotic War, 1941–45, Osprey Publishing, (1989), pp. 21–22 * ^ Birstein, Vadim (2013). Smersh: Stalin\'s Secret Weapon. Biteback Publishing. ISBN 1849546894 . Retrieved 4 June 2017. * ^ Edvins Snore (2008). History Documentary film: The Soviet Story (PDF). Riga, Latvia: SIA Labvakar. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 24, 2014. * ^ Red Square (2014). History Documentary – A Must See For All Students of History. The Peoples Cube. Retrieved 2014-03-11. * ^ "The Criminalization of Almost Everything". Cato Institute . January/February 2010. * ^ Stalin\'s secret police finally named but killings still not seen as crimes The Guardian, 2017

FURTHER READING

* Hastings, Max (2015). The Secret War: Spies, Codes and Guerrillas 1939 -1945 (Paperback)format= requires url= (help ). London: William Collins. ISBN 978-0-00-750374-2 .

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikimedia Commons has media related to NKVD
NKVD
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* For evidence on Soviet espionage in the United States during the Cold War, see the full text of Alexander Vassiliev's Notebooks from the Cold War
Cold War
International History Project (CWIHP) * NKVD.org: information site about the NKVD * (in Russian) MVD: 200-year history of the Ministry * (in Russian) Memorial: history of the OGPU/NKVD/MGB/KGB

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Secret police agencies in the Eastern Bloc

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