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NHK
NHK
(Japanese: 日本放送協会, Hepburn: Nippon Hōsō Kyōkai, official English name: Japan
Japan
Broadcasting Corporation) is Japan's national public broadcasting organization.[2] NHK, which has always identified itself to audiences by the English pronunciation of its initials,[3] is a publicly owned corporation funded by viewers' payments of a television license fee. NHK
NHK
operates two terrestrial television services ( NHK General TV
NHK General TV
and NHK
NHK
Educational TV), two satellite television services ( NHK
NHK
BS-1 and NHK
NHK
BS Premium, both now high-definition television services), and three radio networks ( NHK
NHK
Radio
Radio
1, NHK
NHK
Radio
Radio
2, and NHK
NHK
FM). NHK
NHK
also provides an international broadcasting service, known as NHK World. NHK World
NHK World
is composed of NHK World
NHK World
TV, NHK World
NHK World
Premium, and the shortwave radio service Radio
Radio
Japan
Japan
(RJ). World Radio
Radio
Japan
Japan
also makes some of its programs available on the Internet.

Contents

1 Organization 2 License fee 3 NHK
NHK
domestic broadcasting stations 4 TV programming

4.1 News 4.2 Emergency reporting 4.3 Sports 4.4 Music 4.5 Drama 4.6 Children

5 History

5.1 Radio
Radio
broadcasting 5.2 Satellite broadcasting 5.3 Studies of Broadcasting

6 Controversies

6.1 NHK
NHK
ban on employee stock market trading 6.2 Criticism over comments about Japanese wartime history 6.3 Karōshi

7 See also 8 References

8.1 Notes 8.2 Further reading

9 External links

Organization[edit] NHK
NHK
is an independent corporation chartered by the Japanese Broadcasting Act and primarily funded by license fees. NHK
NHK
World broadcasting (for overseas viewers/listeners) is funded by the Japanese government.[citation needed] The annual budget of NHK
NHK
is subject to review and approval by the Diet of Japan. The Diet also appoints the 12-member Board of Governors (経営委員会 keiei iinkai) that oversees NHK. NHK
NHK
is managed on a full-time basis by an Executive Board (理事会 rijikai) consisting of a President, Vice President and seven to ten Managing Directors who oversee the areas of NHK
NHK
operations. The Executive Board reports to the Board of Governors. License fee[edit] NHK
NHK
is funded by reception fees (受信料, jushinryō), a system analogous to the license fee used in some English-speaking countries. The Broadcast Law which governs NHK’s funding stipulates any television equipped to receive NHK
NHK
is required to pay. The fee is standardized,[4] with discounts for office workers and students who commute, as well a general discount for residents of Okinawa prefecture. For viewers making annual payments by credit card with no other special discounts, the reception fee is 13,600 yen per year for terrestrial reception only, and 24,090 yen per year for both terrestrial and broadcast satellite reception.[5] However, the Broadcast Law lists no punitive actions for nonpayment; as a result, after a rash of NHK-related scandals, the number of people who had not paid the license fee surpassed one million users.[citation needed] This incident sparked debate over the fairness of the fee system.[6] In 2006, the NHK
NHK
opted to take legal action against those most flagrantly in violation of the law.[7] NHK
NHK
domestic broadcasting stations[edit] Main articles: NHK General TV
NHK General TV
and NHK
NHK
Educational TV TV programming[edit] See also: List of anime broadcast by NHK NHK General TV
NHK General TV
broadcasts a variety of programming. The following are noteworthy: News[edit] NHK
NHK
offers local, national, and world news reports. NHK News 7 which airs daily is broadcast bilingually in both Japanese and English audio tracks on NHK General TV
NHK General TV
and NHK's international channels TV Japan
Japan
and NHK World
NHK World
Premium. The flagship news program News Watch 9
News Watch 9
is also bilingual and also air on NHK General TV
NHK General TV
and NHK's international channels TV Japan
Japan
and NHK World
NHK World
Premium. World news are aired on NHK BS 1 with Catch! Sekai no Jiten in the morning and International News Report at night with the latter airing on NHK World
NHK World
Premium. News on NHK
NHK
BS 1 are aired at 50 minutes past the hour except during live sport events. NHK
NHK
also offers news for the deaf (which airs on NHK
NHK
Educational TV), regional news (which airs on NHK
NHK
General TV) and children’s news. Newsline is an English newscast designed for foreign viewers and airs on NHK
NHK
World. In his book Broadcasting politics in Japan: NHK
NHK
and television news, ES Krauss states: 'In the 1960s and 1970s, external critics of NHK
NHK
news were complaining about the strict neutrality, the lack of criticism of government, and the 'self-regulation in covering events.' Krauss claims that little had changed by the 1980s and 1990s.[8] After the Fukushima nuclear disaster
Fukushima nuclear disaster
in 2011 NHK
NHK
was criticised for underplaying the dangers from radioactive contamination.[9][10] Emergency reporting[edit] Under the Broadcast Act, NHK
NHK
is under the obligation to broadcast early warning emergency reporting in times of natural disasters such as earthquakes and tsunamis. Their national network of seismometers in cooperation with the Japan
Japan
Meteorological Agency makes NHK
NHK
capable of delivering the news in just 2–3 minutes after the quake. They also broadcast air attack warnings in the event of war, using the J-Alert system.[11] All warnings are broadcast in five languages: English, Mandarin, Korean and Portuguese ( Japan
Japan
has small Chinese, Korean and Brazilian populations), as well as Japanese. The warnings were broadcast in these languages during the 11 March 2011 earthquake and tsunami.[12] Sports[edit] NHK
NHK
broadcasts the six annual Grand Sumo
Sumo
tournaments (having done so since the 1953 Natsu Basho), high-school baseball championships from Koshien Stadium, Olympic Games, the FIFA World Cup
FIFA World Cup
(both the Olympics and the World Cup are under the Japan
Japan
Consortium), National Sports Festival of Japan, and a range of other sports. NHK
NHK
also broadcasts MLB
MLB
games, especially those involving Japanese players. NHK
NHK
also holds rights to broadcast the FA Premier League
Premier League
in Japan.[13] It did also cover the NBA, but now covers the B.League
B.League
instead. Music[edit] The NHK
NHK
Symphony Orchestra, financially sponsored by NHK, was formerly (until 1951) the Japanese Symphony Orchestra. Its website details the orchestra's history and ongoing concert programme.[14] Since 1953, NHK has broadcast the Kōhaku Uta Gassen
Kōhaku Uta Gassen
song contest on New Year's Eve, ending shortly before Midnight. Drama[edit] A sentimental morning show, a weekly jidaigeki and a year-long show, the ‘‘Taiga drama’’, spearhead the network’s fiction offerings. NHK
NHK
is also making efforts at broadcasting dramas made in foreign countries as "Overseas Drama (海外ドラマ, Kaigai Dorama)". Children[edit] The longest running children’s show in Japan, Okaasan to Issho (おかあさんといっしょ, With Mother, 1959[15]), still airs to this day[when?] on NHK-ETV. History[edit] NHK's earliest forerunner was the Tokyo
Tokyo
Broadcasting Station (東京放送局) founded in 1924 under the leadership of Count Gotō Shinpei. Tokyo
Tokyo
Broadcasting Station, along with separate organizations in Osaka and Nagoya, began radio broadcasts in 1925. The three stations merged under the first incarnation of NHK
NHK
in August 1926.[16] NHK
NHK
was modelled on the BBC
BBC
of the United Kingdom,[3] and the merger and reorganisation was carried out under the auspices of the pre-war Ministry of Communications.[17] NHK's second radio network began in 1931, and the third radio network (FM) began in 1937. Radio
Radio
broadcasting[edit] NHK
NHK
began shortwave broadcasting on an experimental basis in the 1930s, and began regular English- and Japanese-language shortwave broadcasts in 1935 under the name Radio
Radio
Japan, initially aimed at ethnic Japanese listeners in Hawaii
Hawaii
and the west coast of North America. By the late 1930s NHK's overseas broadcasts were known as Radio
Radio
Tokyo, which became an official name in 1941. In November 1941, the Imperial Japanese Army
Imperial Japanese Army
nationalised all public news agencies and coordinated their efforts via the Information Liaison Confidential Committee.[citation needed] All published and broadcast news reports became official announcements of the Imperial Army General Headquarters in Tokyo
Tokyo
for the duration of World War II. The famous Tokyo
Tokyo
Rose wartime programs were broadcasts by NHK.[3] NHK also broadcast the Gyokuon-hōsō, the surrender speech made by Emperor Hirohito, in August 1945. Following the war, in September 1945, the Allied occupation administration under General Douglas MacArthur
Douglas MacArthur
banned all international broadcasting by NHK, and repurposed several NHK facilities and frequencies for use by the Far East Network (now American Forces Network). Japanese-American radio broadcaster Frank Shozo Baba joined NHK
NHK
during this time and led an early post-war revamp of its programming. Radio
Radio
Japan
Japan
resumed overseas broadcasts in 1952. A new Broadcasting Act ("Hōsō Hō") was enacted in 1950, which made NHK
NHK
a listener-supported independent corporation and simultaneously opened the market for commercial broadcasting in Japan.[18] NHK started television broadcasting in the same year, followed by its Educational TV channel in 1959 and color television broadcasts in 1960. NHK
NHK
opened the first stage of its current headquarters in the special ward of Japan's capital city Shibuya
Shibuya
as an international broadcasting center for the 1964 Summer Olympics, the first widely televised Olympic Games. The complex was gradually expanded through 1973, when it became the headquarters for NHK. The previous headquarters adjacent to Hibiya Park
Hibiya Park
was redeveloped as the Hibiya City high-rise complex. Satellite broadcasting[edit] NHK
NHK
began satellite broadcasting with the NHK
NHK
BS 1 channel in 1984, followed by NHK
NHK
BS 2 in 1985.[19] Both channels began regular broadcasts in 1989. In April 2011, BS 1 was rebranded while BS 2 channel ceased broadcasting and was replaced by "BS Premium" which broadcasts on the channel formerly used by BShi. Both channels currently air in HD. International satellite broadcasts to North America
North America
and Europe began in 1995, which led to the launch of NHK World
NHK World
in 1998. It became free-to-air over the Astra 19.2°E
Astra 19.2°E
(Astra 1L) and Eurobird satellites in Europe in 2008.[20] NHK
NHK
began digital television broadcasting in December 2000 through BS Digital, followed by terrestrial digital TV broadcasts in three major metropolitan areas in 2003. Its digital television coverage gradually expanded to cover almost all of Japan
Japan
by July 2011, when analog transmissions were discontinued (except in certain areas affected by the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami
2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami
where it was discontinued in 2012). Studies of Broadcasting[edit]

Studies of Broadcasting  

ISO 4 abbreviation

Stud. Broadcast.

Discipline Broadcasting science

Language English

Publication details

Publication history

1963-1999

Indexing

ISSN 0585-7325

OCLC no. 474034025

From 1963 to 1999 NHK
NHK
published Studies of broadcasting: an international annual of broadcasting science.[21] Controversies[edit] In February 2017, a male reporter who belonged to NHK
NHK
was arrested over an alleged sexual attack against a woman,[22] and in March a fresh arrest warrant that was related to a similar crime was issued. In response to this, NHK
NHK
said that it apologised again to the victims and its customers.[23] NHK
NHK
ban on employee stock market trading[edit] In 2007, three employees of NHK
NHK
were fined and fired for insider trading. They had profited by trading shares based on exclusive NHK knowledge.[24] On 11 July 2008, NHK
NHK
introduced a ban prohibiting stock trading by employees, numbering around 5,700, who had access to its internal news information management system. The employees were required to pledge in writing that they would not trade in stocks, and were required to gain approval from senior staff in order to sell shares they already held. NHK
NHK
banned short-term stock trading completed in periods of six months or less for all other employees.[25] The ban did not extend to employees' families, nor did NHK
NHK
request any reports on their transactions.[24] Criticism over comments about Japanese wartime history[edit] NHK
NHK
has occasionally faced various criticisms for its treatment of Japan's wartime history.[26] Katsuto Momii
Katsuto Momii
(籾井勝人), 21st head of NHK, caused controversy[27][28] by discussing Japan's actions in the Second World War at his first news conference after being appointed on 20 December 2013. It was reported Momii said NHK
NHK
should support the Japanese government in its territorial dispute with China and South Korea.[29] He also caused controversy by playing down the issue of the enforced sexual slavery of the so-called comfort women by the Japanese military in World War Two by, according to the Taipei Times, stating "[South] Korea’s statements that Japan
Japan
is the only nation that forced this are puzzling. ‘Give us money, compensate us,’ they say, but since all of this was resolved by the Japan-Korea peace treaty, why are they reviving this issue? It’s strange."[30] It was subsequently reported by the Japan
Japan
Times that on his first day at NHK
NHK
Momii asked members of the executive team to hand in their resignation on the grounds they had all been appointed by his predecessor.[31] At the end of April 2014, a number of Civil Society groups protested at Katsuto Momii's continuing tenure as Director General of NHK.[32] One of the groups, the Viewers' Community to Observe and Encourage NHK (NHKを監視・激励する視聴者コミュニティ), issued a public letter asking for the resignation of Momii on the grounds the remarks he made at his inaugural press conference were explosive. The letter states if Momii does not resign by the end of April that its members would freeze their payments of the licence fee for half a year.[33] On 17 October 2014, The Times
The Times
claimed to have received internal NHK documents which banned any reference to the Rape of Nanking, to Japan's use of wartime sex slaves during World War Two, and to its territorial dispute with China in its English-language broadcasting.[34] Karōshi[edit] On 24 July 2013, a reporter at NHK
NHK
Metropolitan Broadcasting Center died of congestive heart failure. In May 2014 Shibuya
Shibuya
Labor Standards Inspection Office of the Tokyo
Tokyo
Labor Bureau certified it as a karōshi (overwork death). Although NHK
NHK
did not report on this matter, it was announced in October 2017. Ryoichi Ueda, the chairman of NHK, visited the reporter's parents' home and apologized to them.[35][36][37][38] See also[edit]

Domo-kun Hobankyo - Organization based in Japan
Japan
that enforces Fuji Television copyright issues ISDB Media of Japan Japan
Japan
Prize Contest (NHK) Japanese television programs NHK
NHK
Science & Technology Research Laboratories NHK
NHK
Spring Company TV Japan
Japan
- a mixed Japanese/English-language cable network partially owned by NHK
NHK
airing in the United States Ultra High Definition Television Takashi Tachibana (activist) China Central Television

References[edit] Notes[edit]

^ 日本放送協会平成17年度業務報告書 - NHK
NHK
Business Report 2015(p.42) ^ NHK: Profile Archived 14 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b c Sidensticker, Edward. (1990). Tokyo
Tokyo
Rising: The City Since the Great Earthquake, p. 67. ^ "NHK受信料の窓口-英語". Retrieved 27 July 2015.  ^ NHK
NHK
Corporate Information Receiving Fee System. Nhk.or.jp. Retrieved on 29 July 2014. ^ Asahi.com: IHT/Asahi: 24 February 2005 ^ NHK.or.jp Archived 11 April 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Summary of Press Conference (November 2006): On the demanding of fee payment through legal proceedings ^ Ellis S Krauss Broadcasting politics in Japan: NHK
NHK
and television news Cornell University
Cornell University
Press 2000 pp39-40 ^ " NHK
NHK
Caught Manipulating Truth About Radiation Danger Again". Retrieved 27 July 2015.  ^ [1], accessed 5 January 2012 ^ Corkill, Edan, "Planning pays off as NHK
NHK
takes its quake news global", Japan
Japan
Times, 20 March 2011, p. 9. ^ An actual recording of an emergency broadcast in English, Mandarin, Korean and Portuguese Archived 4 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Broadcast Schedules. Premierleague.com (10 September 2013). Retrieved on 2014-07-29. ^ " NHK Symphony Orchestra
NHK Symphony Orchestra
website" Archived 26 August 2010 at the Wayback Machine. Referenced 24 November 2010 ^ "50 Years of NHK
NHK
Television". Categories. NHK
NHK
World. p. 45. Retrieved 13 September 2009.  ^ NHK
NHK
Corporate Information History. Nhk.or.jp. Retrieved on 29 July 2014. ^ "Regular Radio
Radio
Broadcasting Begins". Archived from the original on 8 June 2002. Retrieved 27 July 2015.  ^ "Broadcast Law: Broadcasting for the Public". Archived from the original on 18 October 2015. Retrieved 27 July 2015.  ^ NHK.or.jp Archived 25 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ " NHK World
NHK World
currently fta on 28E - Techwatch forums". Retrieved 27 July 2015.  ^ "Studies of broadcasting: an international annual of broadcasting science". OCLC. Retrieved 18 October 2015.  ^ Yamagata cops: NHK
NHK
reporter raped woman in residence The Tokyo Reporter, 6 February 2017 ^ New arrest warrant served on ex- NHK
NHK
reporter over another rape The Japan
Japan
Times, 15 March 2017 ^ a b Jiji Press (11 July 2008). " NHK
NHK
Bans Stock Trading for Many Employees". Archived from the original on 20 October 2014. Retrieved 20 October 2014.  ^ Kyodo News (12 July 2008). " NHK
NHK
bans stock trades by reporters". Retrieved 20 October 2014.  ^ Henry Laurence (April 2005). "Censorship at NHK
NHK
and PBS". JPRI Critique. Japan
Japan
Policy Research Institute.  ^ BBC
BBC
News - Japan
Japan
NHK
NHK
boss Momii sparks WWII 'comfort women' row. Bbc.co.uk (26 January 2014). Retrieved on 2014-07-29. ^ Japan
Japan
TV chief dismisses wartime sex slavery - Asia-Pacific. Al Jazeera English. Retrieved on 29 July 2014. ^ New NHK
NHK
chief: 'comfort women' only wrong per 'today's morality'; programming must push Japan's territorial stances. The Japan
Japan
Times. Retrieved on 29 July 2014. ^ " NHK
NHK
chairman says fuss over 'comfort women' perplexing". Taipei Times. 27 January 2014. Retrieved 21 November 2014.  ^ " NHK
NHK
chief 'asked senior management to quit' on first day in office". The Japan
Japan
Times. Retrieved 22 February 2014.  ^ Viewers target NHK
NHK
chief Momii. The Japan
Japan
Times. Retrieved on 29 July 2014. ^ "NHKを監視・激励する視聴者コミュニティ". NHKを監視・激励する視聴者コミュニティ. Retrieved 27 July 2015.  ^ Parry, Richard Lloyd (17 October 2014). "Japan's 'BBC' bans any reference to wartime 'sex slaves'". Retrieved 20 October 2014.  ^ NHK会長、過労死記者の両親に直接謝罪:朝日新聞デジタル ^ NHK会長が両親に謝罪 女性記者の過労死で :日本経済新聞 ^ 【NHK記者過労死】NHK会長、両親に謝罪 31歳女性記者 ... - 産経ニュース ^ 過労死:NHK会長、記者の遺族に謝罪 - 毎日新聞

Further reading[edit]

Johnston, Eric. (7 July 2009). Japan
Japan
Times: NHK
NHK
a fount of info, a lot of it from the government Japan
Japan
Times, p. 3. Seidensticker, Edward. (1990). “ Tokyo
Tokyo
Rising: The City Since the Great Earthquake” New York: Knopf. ISBN 0-394-54360-2.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to NHK.

Official website (in Japanese) NHK
NHK
official YouTube channel (in Japanese) NHK
NHK
official YouTube channel (in English) NHK
NHK
online English NHK
NHK
WORLD English NHK
NHK
Science & Technical Research Laboratories NHK/digital NHK
NHK
at Anime News Network's encyclopedia NHK
NHK
Enterprises at Anime News Network's encyclopedia NHK
NHK
Enterprises 21 at Anime News Network's encyclopedia

Coordinates: 35°39′55.07″N 139°41′45.41″E / 35.6652972°N 139.6959472°E / 35.6652972; 139.6959472

v t e

Terrestrial television
Terrestrial television
networks in Japan

Commercial networks

ANN (TV Asahi) FNN/FNS (Fuji Television) JNN (TBS) NNN/NNS (NTV) TXN (TV Tokyo) Independent Stations (JAITS)

Public television (NHK)

NHK
NHK
General TV NHK
NHK
Educational TV

Other

Open University of Japan

v t e

Broadcast radio networks in Japan

Commercial

AM

JRN ( Japan
Japan
Radio
Radio
Network) NRN (National Radio
Radio
Network)

FM

JFN ( Japan
Japan
FM Network) JFL ( Japan
Japan
FM League) MegaNet (Megalopolis Radio
Radio
Network)

Shortwave

Radio
Radio
Nikkei

NHK
NHK
(Public)

AM

Radio
Radio
1 Radio
Radio
2

.