SQL (officially pronounced as /maɪ ˌɛskjuːˈɛl/ "My S-Q-L",)
is an open-source relational database management system (RDBMS).
Its name is a combination of "My", the name of co-founder Michael
Widenius's daughter, and "SQL", the abbreviation for Structured
Query Language. The My
SQL development project has made its source code
available under the terms of the GNU General Public License, as well
as under a variety of proprietary agreements. My
SQL was owned and
sponsored by a single for-profit firm, the Swedish company My
now owned by Oracle Corporation. For proprietary use, several paid
editions are available, and offer additional functionality.
SQL is a central component of the LAMP open-source web application
software stack (and other "AMP" stacks). LAMP is an acronym for
"Linux, Apache, MySQL, Perl/PHP/Python". Applications that use the
SQL database include: TYPO3, MODx, Joomla, WordPress, Simple
Machines Forum, phpBB, MyBB, and Drupal. My
SQL is also used in many
high-profile, large-scale websites, including Google (though
not for searches), Facebook, Twitter, Flickr, and
2.2 Release history
2.3 Legal disputes and acquisitions
3.3 Backup software
3.4 High availability software
3.5 Cloud deployment
4 User interfaces
4.1 Graphical user interfaces
4.2 Command-line interfaces
5 Application programming interfaces
6 Project forks
7 See also
10 External links
SQL is written in C and C++. Its
SQL parser is written in yacc, but
it uses a home-brewed lexical analyzer. My
SQL works on many system
platforms, including AIX, BSDi, FreeBSD, HP-UX, eComStation, i5/OS,
IRIX, Linux, macOS, Microsoft Windows, NetBSD, Novell NetWare,
OS/2 Warp, QNX, Oracle Solaris, Symbian, SunOS,
SCO OpenServer, SCO UnixWare, Sanos and Tru64. A port of My
OpenVMS also exists.
SQL server software itself and the client libraries use
dual-licensing distribution. They are offered under GPL version 2,
beginning from 28 June 2000 (which in 2009 has been extended with
a FLOSS License Exception) or to use a proprietary license.
Support can be obtained from the official manual. Free support
additionally is available in different IRC channels and forums. Oracle
offers paid support via its My
SQL Enterprise products. They differ in
the scope of services and in price. Additionally, a number of third
party organisations exist to provide support and services, including
MariaDB and Percona.
SQL has received positive reviews, and reviewers noticed it
"performs extremely well in the average case" and that the "developer
interfaces are there, and the documentation (not to mention feedback
in the real world via Web sites and the like) is very, very good".
It has also been tested to be a "fast, stable and true multi-user,
multi-threaded sql database server".
SQL was created by a Swedish company, My
SQL AB, founded by David
Axmark, Allan Larsson and Michael "Monty" Widenius. Original
development of My
SQL by Widenius and Axmark began in 1994. The
first version of My
SQL appeared on 23 May 1995. It was initially
created for personal usage from m
SQL based on the low-level language
ISAM, which the creators considered too slow and inflexible. They
created a new
SQL interface, while keeping the same API as mSQL. By
keeping the API consistent with the m
SQL system, many developers were
able to use My
SQL instead of the (proprietarily licensed) mSQL
antecedent.[dubious – discuss]
Additional milestones in My
SQL development included:
First internal release on 23 May 1995
Version 3.19: End of 1996, from www.tcx.se
Version 3.20: January 1997
Windows version was released on 8 January 1998 for Windows 95 and NT
Version 3.21: production release 1998, from www.mysql.com
Version 3.22: alpha, beta from 1998
Version 3.23: beta from June 2000, production release 22 January
Version 4.0: beta from August 2002, production release March 2003
Version 4.01: beta from August 2003, Jyoti[clarification
needed] adopts My
SQL for database tracking
Version 4.1: beta from June 2004, production release October 2004
(R-trees and B-trees, subqueries, prepared statements).
Version 5.0: beta from March 2005, production release October 2005
(cursors, stored procedures, triggers, views, XA transactions).
The developer of the Federated Storage Engine states that "The
Federated Storage Engine is a proof-of-concept storage engine",
but the main distributions of My
SQL version 5.0 included it and turned
it on by default. Documentation of some of the short-comings appears
SQL Federated Tables: The Missing Manual".
Sun Microsystems acquired
MySQL AB in 2008.
Version 5.1: production release 27 November 2008 (event scheduler,
partitioning, plugin API, row-based replication, server log tables)
Version 5.1 contained 20 known crashing and wrong result bugs in
addition to the 35 present in version 5.0 (almost all fixed as of
SQL 5.1 and 6.0-alpha showed poor performance when used for data
warehousing – partly due to its inability to utilize multiple
CPU cores for processing a single query.
Sun Microsystems on 27 January 2010.
The day Oracle announced the purchase of Sun, Michael "Monty" Widenius
forked MySQL, launching MariaDB, and took a swath of My
SQL Server 5.5 was generally available (as of
December 2010[update]). Enhancements and features include:
The default storage engine is InnoDB, which supports transactions and
referential integrity constraints.
InnoDB I/O subsystem
Improved SMP support
SIGNAL and RESIGNAL statement in compliance with the
Support for supplementary
Unicode character sets utf16, utf32, and
New options for user-defined partitioning.
SQL Server 6.0.11-alpha was announced on 22 May 2009 as the last
release of the 6.0 line. Future My
SQL Server development uses a New
Release Model. Features developed for 6.0 are being incorporated into
The general availability of MySQL 5.6 was announced in February
2013. New features included performance improvements to the query
optimizer, higher transactional throughput in InnoDB, new NoSQL-style
memcached APIs, improvements to partitioning for querying and managing
very large tables, TIMESTAMP column type that correctly stores
milliseconds, improvements to replication, and better performance
monitoring by expanding the data available through the
InnoDB storage engine also included
support for full-text search and improved group commit performance.
The general availability of MySQL 5.7 was announced in October
SQL Server 8.0.0-dmr (Milestone Release) was announced 12 September
Latest minor version
Old version, no longer supported: 2013-12-03
Older version, yet still supported: 2018-01-15
Older version, yet still supported: 2018-01-15
Current stable version: 2018-01-15
Latest preview version of a future release: 2018-01-23
Older version, still supported
Latest preview version
Legal disputes and acquisitions
On 15 June 2001,
NuSphere sued My
SQL AB, TcX DataKonsult AB and its
original authors Michael ("Monty") Widenius and
David Axmark in U.S
District Court in Boston for "breach of contract, tortious
interference with third party contracts and relationships and unfair
MySQL AB sued Progress
NuSphere for copyright and trademark
infringement in United States district court.
NuSphere had allegedly
violated MySQL's copyright by linking MySQL's GPL'ed code with
NuSphere Gemini table without being in compliance with the
license. After a preliminary hearing before Judge Patti Saris on
27 February 2002, the parties entered settlement talks and eventually
settled. After the hearing, FSF commented that "Judge Saris made
clear that she sees the GNU GPL to be an enforceable and binding
In October 2005,
Oracle Corporation acquired
Innobase OY, the Finnish
company that developed the third-party
InnoDB storage engine that
SQL to provide such functionality as transactions and foreign
keys. After the acquisition, an Oracle press release mentioned that
the contracts that make the company's software available to My
would be due for renewal (and presumably renegotiation) some time in
2006. During the My
SQL Users Conference in April 2006, MySQL
issued a press release that confirmed that My
agreed to a "multi-year" extension of their licensing agreement.
In February 2006,
Oracle Corporation acquired Sleepycat Software,
makers of the Berkeley DB, a database engine providing the basis for
SQL storage engine. This had little effect, as Berkeley DB
was not widely used, and was dropped (due to lack of use) in MySQL
5.1.12, a pre-GA release of My
SQL 5.1 released in October 2006.
In January 2008,
Sun Microsystems bought My
SQL for $1 billion.
In April 2009,
Oracle Corporation entered into an agreement to
purchase Sun Microsystems, then owners of My
SQL copyright and
trademark. Sun's board of directors unanimously approved the deal. It
was also approved by Sun's shareholders, and by the U.S. government on
20 August 2009. On 14 December 2009, Oracle pledged to continue to
enhance MySQL as it had done for the previous four years.
A movement against Oracle's acquisition of MySQL, to "Save MySQL"
from Oracle was started by one of the My
SQL founders, Monty Widenius.
The petition of 50,000+ developers and users called upon the European
Commission to block approval of the acquisition. At the same time,
several Free Software opinion leaders (including Eben Moglen, Pamela
Jones of Groklaw, Jan Wildeboer and Carlo Piana, who also acted as
co-counsel in the merger regulation procedure) advocated for the
unconditional approval of the merger. As part of the
negotiations with the European Commission, Oracle committed that MySQL
server will continue until at least 2015 to use the dual-licensing
strategy long used by My
SQL AB, with proprietary and GPL versions
available. The antitrust of the EU had been "pressuring it to divest
SQL as a condition for approval of the merger". But, as revealed by
WikiLeaks, the US Department of Justice, at the request of Oracle,
pressured the EU to approve the merger unconditionally. The
European Commission eventually unconditionally approved Oracle's
acquisition of My
SQL on 21 January 2010.
In January 2010, before Oracle's acquisition of MySQL, Monty Widenius
started a GPL-only fork, MariaDB.
MariaDB is based on the same code
base as My
SQL server 5.5 and aims to maintain compatibility with
SQL is offered under two different editions: the open source MySQL
Community Server and the proprietary Enterprise Server. MySQL
Enterprise Server is differentiated by a series of proprietary
extensions which install as server plugins, but otherwise shares the
version numbering system and is built from the same code base.
Major features as available in My
A broad subset of ANSI
SQL 99, as well as extensions
Stored procedures, using a procedural language that closely adheres to
Online DDL when using the
InnoDB Storage Engine.
Performance Schema that collects and aggregates statistics about
server execution and query performance for monitoring purposes.
A set of
SQL Mode options to control runtime behavior, including a
strict mode to better adhere to
X/Open XA distributed transaction processing (DTP) support; two phase
commit as part of this, using the default
InnoDB storage engine
Transactions with savepoints when using the default
Engine. The NDB Cluster Storage Engine also supports transactions.
ACID compliance when using
InnoDB and NDB Cluster Storage Engines
Sub-SELECTs (i.e. nested SELECTs)
Built-in replication support (i.e., master-master replication and
master-slave replication) with one master per slave, many slaves per
Multi-master replication is provided in My
and multi-master support can be added to unclustered configurations
using Galera Cluster.
Full-text indexing and searching[a]
Embedded database library
Partitioned tables with pruning of partitions in optimizer
Shared-nothing clustering through My
Multiple storage engines, allowing one to choose the one that is most
effective for each table in the application.[c]
Native storage engines InnoDB, MyISAM, Merge, Memory (heap),
Federated, Archive, CSV, Blackhole, NDB Cluster.
Commit grouping, gathering multiple transactions from multiple
connections together to increase the number of commits per second.
The developers release minor updates of the My
SQL Server approximately
every two months. The sources can be obtained from MySQL's website or
GitHub repository, both under the GPL license.
When using some storage engines other than the default of InnoDB,
SQL does not comply with the full
SQL standard for some of the
implemented functionality, including foreign key references  and
Up until My
SQL 5.7, triggers are limited to one per action / timing,
meaning that at most one trigger can be defined to be executed after
an INSERT operation, and one before INSERT on the same table. No
triggers can be defined on views.
SQL database's inbuilt functions like UNIX_TIMESTAMP() will return 0
UTC on 19 January 2038. Recently, there had been an
attempt to solve the problem which had been assigned to the internal
SQL can be built and installed manually from source code, but it is
more commonly installed from a binary package unless special
customizations are required. On most
Linux distributions, the package
management system can download and install My
SQL with minimal effort,
though further configuration is often required to adjust security and
LAMP software bundle, displayed here together with Squid.
SQL began as a low-end alternative to more powerful
proprietary databases, it has gradually evolved to support
higher-scale needs as well. It is still most commonly used in small to
medium scale single-server deployments, either as a component in a
LAMP-based web application or as a standalone database server. Much of
MySQL's appeal originates in its relative simplicity and ease of use,
which is enabled by an ecosystem of open source tools such as
phpMyAdmin. In the medium range, My
SQL can be scaled by deploying it
on more powerful hardware, such as a multi-processor server with
gigabytes of memory.
There are, however, limits to how far performance can scale on a
single server ('scaling up'), so on larger scales, multi-server MySQL
('scaling out') deployments are required to provide improved
performance and reliability. A typical high-end configuration can
include a powerful master database which handles data write operations
and is replicated to multiple slaves that handle all read
operations. The master server continually pushes binlog events to
connected slaves so in the event of failure a slave can be promoted to
become the new master, minimizing downtime. Further improvements in
performance can be achieved by caching the results from database
queries in memory using memcached, or breaking down a database into
smaller chunks called shards which can be spread across a number of
distributed server clusters.
mysqldump is a logical backup tool included with both community and
enterprise editions of MySQL. It supports backing up from all storage
SQL Enterprise Backup is a hot backup utility included as
part of the My
SQL Enterprise subscription from Oracle, offering native
InnoDB hot backup, as well as backup for other storage engines.
XtraBackup is an open-source My
SQL hot backup software program.
Features include hot, non-locking backups for
incremental backups, streaming, parallel-compressed backups,
throttling based on the number of I/O operations per second, etc.
High availability software
SQL Fabric is an integrated system for managing a collection of
SQL servers, and a framework on top of which high availability and
database sharding is built. My
SQL Fabric is open-source, and supports
procedure execution in the presence of failure, providing an execution
model usually called resilient execution. My
SQL client libraries are
extended so they are hiding the complexities of handling failover in
the event of a server failure, as well as correctly dispatching
transactions to the shards.
Main article: Cloud database
SQL can also be run on cloud computing platforms such as Microsoft
Azure, Amazon EC2, Oracle Cloud Infrastructure. Some common deployment
models for My
SQL on the cloud are:
Virtual machine image
In this implementation, cloud users can upload a machine image of
their own with My
SQL installed, or use a ready-made machine image with
an optimized installation of My
SQL on it, such as the one provided by
SQL as a service
Some cloud platforms offer My
SQL "as a service". In this
configuration, application owners do not have to install and maintain
SQL database on their own. Instead, the database service
provider takes responsibility for installing and maintaining the
database, and application owners pay according to their usage.
Notable cloud-based My
SQL services are the Amazon Relational Database
Service; Oracle My
SQL Cloud Service, Rackspace; HP Converged Cloud;
Heroku and Jelastic.
the data base service provider takes responsibility for maintaining
Graphical user interfaces
A graphical user interface (GUI) is a type of interface that allows
users to interact with electronic devices or programs through
graphical icons and visual indicators such as secondary notation, as
opposed to text-based interfaces, typed command labels or text
navigation. GUIs are easier to learn than command-line interfaces
(CLIs), which require commands to be typed on the keyboard.
Third-party proprietary and free graphical administration applications
(or "front ends") are available that integrate with My
SQL and enable
users to work with database structure and data visually. Some
well-known front ends are:
SQL Workbench running on macOS
SQL Workbench is the official integrated environment for MySQL. It
was developed by My
SQL AB, and enables users to graphically administer
SQL databases and visually design database structures. MySQL
Workbench replaces the previous package of software, My
SQL GUI Tools.
Similar to other third-party packages, but still considered the
SQL front end, My
SQL Workbench lets users manage
database design & modeling,
SQL development (replacing My
Database administration (replacing My
SQL Workbench is available in two editions, the regular free and
open source Community Edition which may be downloaded from the MySQL
website, and the proprietary Standard Edition which extends and
improves the feature set of the Community Edition.
Adminer (formerly known as phpMinAdmin) is a free My
SQL front end for
managing content in My
SQL databases (since version 2, it also works on
PostgreSQL, MS SQL, SQLite and Oracle
distributed under the Apache license (or GPL v2) in the form of a
PHP file (around 300 KiB in size), and is capable of managing
multiple databases, with many CSS skins available. Its author is Jakub
Vrána who started to develop this tool as a light-weight alternative
to phpMyAdmin, in July 2007.
ClusterControl is an end-to-end My
SQL management system GUI that
provides the ability to deploy, monitor, manage and scale MySQL
instances from a single interface. It is developed by Severalnines.
The Community version of ClusterControl is free to use and let's the
user deploy and monitor their My
SQL instances. Advanced features like
load balancing, backup & restore, failover, etc are part of a paid
Database Workbench is a software application for development and
administration of multiple relational databases using SQL, with
interoperationality between different database systems, developed by
Because Databases Workbench supports multiple database systems, it can
provide software developers with the same interface and development
environment for these otherwise different database systems and also
includes cross database tools.
Database Workbench supports the following relational databases: Oracle
SQL Anywhere, Firebird, NexusDB,
SQL and MariaDB.
Database Workbench 5 runs on 32-bit or
64 bit Windows platforms. Under Linux,
FreeBSD or macOS Database
Workbench can operate using Wine.
DBEdit is a database editor, which can connect to an Oracle, DB2,
SQL and any database that provides a JDBC driver. It runs on
Linux and Solaris.
DBEdit is free and open source software
and distributed under the GNU General Public License. The source code
is hosted on SourceForge.
HeidiSQL, previously known as MySQL-Front, is a free and open source
client, or frontend for My
SQL (and for its forks like
Microsoft SQL Server
Microsoft SQL Server and PostgreSQL. Heidi
developed by German programmer Ansgar Becker and a few other
contributors in Delphi. To manage databases with HeidiSQL, users must
login to a local or remote My
SQL server with acceptable credentials,
creating a session. Within this session users may manage MySQL
Databases within the connected My
SQL server, disconnecting from the
server when done. Its feature set is sufficient for most common and
advanced database, table and data record operations but remains in
active development to move towards the full functionality expected in
LibreOffice Base allows the creation and management of databases,
preparation of forms and reports that provide end users easy access to
data. Like Microsoft Access, it can be used as a front-end for various
database systems, including Access databases (JET),
ODBC data sources,
SQL or PostgreSQL
Navicat is a series of graphical database management and development
software produced by PremiumSoft CyberTech Ltd. for MySQL, MariaDB,
Oracle, SQLite, Postgre
SQL and Microsoft
SQL Server. It has an
Explorer-like graphical user interface and supports multiple database
connections for local and remote databases. Its design is made to meet
the needs of a variety of audiences, from database administrators and
programmers to various businesses/companies that serve clients and
share information with partners.
Navicat is a cross-platform tool and works on Microsoft Windows,
OS X and
Linux platforms. Upon purchase, users are able to select
a language for the software from eight available languages: English,
French, German, Spanish, Japanese, Polish, Simplified Chinese and
OpenOffice.org Base is freely available and can manage My
if the entire suite is installed.
phpMyAdmin is a free and open source tool written in
PHP intended to
handle the administration of My
SQL with the use of a web browser. It
can perform various tasks such as creating, modifying or deleting
databases, tables, fields or rows; executing
SQL statements; or
managing users and permissions. The software, which is available in 78
languages, is maintained by The phpMyAdmin Project.
It can import data from CSV and SQL, and transform stored data into
any format using a set of predefined functions, like displaying
BLOB-data as images or download-links.
SQLBuddy is an open-source web-based application written in PHP
intended to handle the administration of My
SQL and SQLite with the use
of a Web browser. The project places an emphasis on ease of
installation and a simple user interface.
SQLyog is a GUI tool available in free as well as paid versions. Data
manipulations (e.g., insert, update, and delete) may be done from a
spreadsheet-like interface. Its editor has syntax highlighting and
various automatic formatting options. Both raw table data and a result
set from a query can be manipulated. Its data search feature uses
Google-like search syntax and translates to
SQL transparently for the
user. It has a backup tool for performing unattended backups. Backups
may be compressed and optionally stored as a file-per-table as well as
identified with a timestamp.
Toad for MySQL
Toad for My
SQL is a software application from Dell Software that
database developers, database administrators and data analysts use to
manage both relational and non-relational databases using SQL. Toad
supports many databases and environments. It runs on all 32-bit/64-bit
Windows platforms, including
Microsoft Windows Server, Windows XP,
Windows Vista, Windows 7 and 8 (32-Bit or 64-Bit). Dell Software has
also released a Toad Mac Edition. Dell provides Toad in commercial and
trial/freeware versions. The freeware version is available from the
Webmin is a web-based system configuration tool for Unix-like systems,
although recent versions can also be installed and run on Windows.
With it, it is possible to configure operating system internals, such
as users, disk quotas, services or configuration files, as well as
modify and control open source apps, such as the Apache HTTP Server,
PHP or MySQL.
Webmin is largely based on Perl, running as its own process and web
server. It defaults to TCP port 10000 for communicating, and can be
configured to use SSL if OpenSSL is installed with additional required
It is built around modules, which have an interface to the
configuration files and the
Webmin server. This makes it easy to add
new functionality. Due to Webmin's modular design, it is possible for
anyone who is interested to write plugins for desktop configuration.
Webmin also allows for controlling many machines through a single
interface, or seamless login on other webmin hosts on the same subnet
A command-line interface is a means of interacting with a computer
program where the user issues commands to the program by typing in
successive lines of text (command lines). My
SQL ships with many
command line tools, from which the main interface is the mysql
SQL Utilities is a set of utilities designed to perform common
maintenance and administrative tasks. Originally included as part of
SQL Workbench, the utilities are a stand-alone download
available from Oracle.
Percona Toolkit is a cross-platform toolkit for MySQL, developed in
Percona Toolkit can be used to prove replication is working
correctly, fix corrupted data, automate repetitive tasks, and speed up
Percona Toolkit is included with several
CentOS and Debian, and packages are available for Fedora and
Ubuntu as well.
Percona Toolkit was originally developed as Maatkit,
but as of late 2011, Maatkit is no longer developed.
Application programming interfaces
Many programming languages with language-specific APIs include
libraries for accessing My
SQL databases. These include MySQL
Connector/Net for integration with Microsoft's Visual Studio
(languages such as C# and VB are most commonly used) and the JDBC
driver for Java. In addition, an
ODBC interface called MySQL
ODBC allows additional programming languages that support
ODBC interface to communicate with a My
SQL database, such as ASP
or ColdFusion. The HTSQL – URL-based query method also ships
with a My
SQL adapter, allowing direct interaction between a MySQL
database and any web client via structured URLs.
A variety of My
SQL forks exist, including the following.
MariaDB is a community-developed fork of the My
SQL relational database
management system intended to remain free under the GNU GPL. Being a
fork of a leading open source software system, it is notable for being
led by the original developers of MySQL, who forked it due to concerns
over its acquisition by Oracle. Contributors are required to share
their copyright with the
MariaDB intends to
maintain high compatibility with MySQL, ensuring a "drop-in"
replacement capability with library binary equivalency and exact
matching with My
SQL APIs and commands. There are some documented
differences and incompatibilities between versions of My
MariaDB, however, and some tools for interacting with MySQL, such
as the My
SQL Workbench, are not fully compatible with MariaDB. It
XtraDB storage engine for replacing InnoDB, as well
as a new storage engine, Aria, that intends to be both a transactional
and non-transactional engine perhaps even included in future versions
Percona Server, forked by Percona, aims to retain close compatibility
to the official My
SQL releases, while focusing on performance and
increased visibility into server operations. Also included in
Percona Server is XtraDB, Percona's fork of the
InnoDB Storage Engine.
Percona freely includes a number of scalability, availability,
security and backup features only available in MySQL's commercial
Drizzle was a free software/open source relational database management
system (DBMS) that was forked from the now-defunct 6.0 development
branch of the My
SQL DBMS. Like MySQL, Drizzle had a client/server
architecture and uses
SQL as its primary command language. Drizzle was
distributed under version 2 and 3 of the GNU General Public License
(GPL) with portions, including the protocol drivers and replication
messaging under the BSD license.
SQL was a software branch of My
SQL 5.6, and was announced on
27 March 2014 by Facebook, Google, LinkedIn and
Twitter as a joint
effort to provide a centralized development structure for extending
SQL with new features specific to its large-scale deployments, such
as building large replicated databases running on server farms. Thus,
SQL opened a path toward deduplicating the efforts each
company had been putting into maintaining its own branch of MySQL, and
toward bringing together more developers. By combining the efforts of
these companies and incorporating various changes and new features
into MySQL, WebScale
SQL aimed at supporting the deployment of My
large-scale environments. The project's source code is
licensed under version 2 of the GNU General Public License, and is
hosted on GitHub.
Free software portal
Comparison of database tools
Comparison of My
SQL database engines
Comparison of relational database management systems
^ Initially, it was a MyISAM-only feature; supported by
the release of My
^ Prior to My
UTF-8 and UCS-2 encoded strings are limited to
the BMP; My
SQL 5.5.3 and later use utf8mb4 for full unicode support.
^ In My
SQL 5.0, storage engines must be compiled in; since My
storage engines can be dynamically loaded at run time.
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