The Info List - Music Of India

The music of India
includes multiple varieties of classical music, folk music, filmi, Indian rock
Indian rock
and Indian pop. India's classical music tradition, including Hindustani music
Hindustani music
and Carnatic, has a history spanning millennia and developed over several areas. Music
in India began as an integral part of socio-religious life.


1 History 2 Classical music

2.1 Hindustani music 2.2 Carnatic music

3 Light classical music 4 Folk music

4.1 Rabindra Sangeet
Rabindra Sangeet
( Music
of Bengal) 4.2 Bihu
of Assam 4.3 Dandiya 4.4 Uttarakhandi Music 4.5 Lavani 4.6 Rajasthan

5 Popular music

5.1 Filmi
music 5.2 Interaction with non-Indian music 5.3 Indian pop
Indian pop
music 5.4 Rock & metal music

5.4.1 Raga
rock 5.4.2 Indian rock

5.5 Dance music

6 Indian Hip Hop 7 Jazz
and blues 8 Western classical music 9 Patriotism and music 10 See also 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links


dancing and holding a trishula, an eroded painting in the Bhimbetka rock shelters
Bhimbetka rock shelters
(c. 30,000 years ago).

Dancing Girl sculpture from the Indus Valley Civilization
Indus Valley Civilization
(c. 4,500 years ago).

The 30,000 years old paleolithic and neolithic cave paintings at the UNESCO world heritage site at Bhimbetka rock shelters
Bhimbetka rock shelters
in Madhya Pradesh shows music instruments and dance.[1] Dancing Girl sculpture (2500 BCE) was found from the Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) site.[2][3][4][5] There are IVC-era painting on pottery of man with dhol hanging from his neck and a women holding a drum under her left arm.[6] Vedas
(c. 1500 – c. 800 BCE Vedic period),[7][8][9][10] document rituals with performing arts and play.[11][12] For example, Shatapatha Brahmana (~800–700 BCE) has verses in chapter 13.2 written in the form of a play between two actors.[11] Tala or taal is an ancient music concept traceable to Vedic era texts of Hinduism, such as the Samaveda
and methods for singing the Vedic hymns.[13][14][15] Smriti (500 BCE to 100 BCE ) post-vedic Hindu texts[16][17][18] include Valmiki's Ramayana
(500 BCE to 100 BCE) which mentions dance and music (dance by Apsaras such as Urvashi, Rambha, Menaka, Tilottama Panchāpsaras, and Ravana's wives excelling in nrityageeta or "singing and dancing" and nritavaditra or "playing musical instruments"), music and singing by Gandharvas, several string instruments (vina, tantri, vipanci and vallaki similar to veena), wind instruments (shankha, venu and venugana - likely a mouth organ made by tying several flutes together), raga (including kaushika such as raag kaushik dhwani), vocal registers (seven svara or sur, ana or ekashurti drag note, murchana the regulated rise and fall of voice in matra and tripramana three-fold teen taal laya such as drut or quick, madhya or middle, and vilambit or slow), poetry recitation in Bala Kanda
Bala Kanda
and also in Uttara Kanda by Luv and Kusha in marga style.[19] Madhava Kandali, 14th century Assamese poet and writer of Saptakanda Ramayana, lists several instruments in his version of "Ramayana", such as mardala, khumuchi, bhemachi, dagar, gratal, ramtal, tabal, jhajhar, jinjiri, bheri mahari, tokari, dosari, kendara, dotara, vina, rudra-vipanchi, etc. (meaning that these instruments existed since his time in 14th century or earlier).[20] Classical music[edit] Main article: Indian classical music The two main traditions of Indian classical music
Indian classical music
are Carnatic music, which is found predominantly in the peninsular regions, and Hindustani music, which is found in the northern, eastern and central regions. The basic concepts of this music includes shruti (microtones), swaras (notes), alankar (ornamentations), raga (melodies improvised from basic grammars), and tala (rhythmic patterns used in percussion). Its tonal system divides the octave into 22 segments called Shrutis, not all equal but each roughly equal to a quarter of a whole tone of the Western music. Hindustani music[edit]

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Main article: Hindustani classical music The tradition of Hindustani music
Hindustani music
dates back to Vedic times where the hymns in the Sama Veda, an ancient religious text, were sung as Samagana and not chanted. It diverged from Carnatic music
Carnatic music
around the 13th-14th centuries CE, primarily due to Islamic influences[citation needed]. Developing a strong and diverse tradition over several centuries, it has contemporary traditions established primarily in India
but also in Pakistan and Bangladesh. In contrast to Carnatic music, the other main Indian classical music
Indian classical music
tradition originating from the South, Hindustani music
Hindustani music
was not only influenced by ancient Hindu musical traditions, historical Vedic philosophy and native Indian sounds but also enriched by the Persian performance practices of the Mughals. Classical genres are dhrupad, dhamar, khyal, tarana and sadra, and there are also several semi-classical forms. Carnatic music[edit]

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Main article: Carnatic music Carnatic music
Carnatic music
can be traced to the 14th - 15th centuries AD and thereafter. It originated in South India
during the rule of Vijayanagar Empire. Like Hindustani music, it is melodic, with improvised variations, but tends to have more fixed compositions. It consists of a composition with improvised embellishments added to the piece in the forms of Raga
Alapana, Kalpanaswaram, Neraval and, in the case of more advanced students, Raga, Tala, Pallavi. The main emphasis is on the vocals as most compositions are written to be sung, and even when played on instruments, they are meant to be performed in a singing style (known as gāyaki). Around 300 ragams are in use today. Annamayya
is the first known composer in Carnatic music. He is widely regarded as the Andhra Pada kavitā Pitāmaha (Godfather of Telugu song-writing). Purandara Dasa
Purandara Dasa
is considered the father of Carnatic music, while the later musicians Tyagaraja, Shyama Shastry
Shyama Shastry
and Muthuswami Dikshitar
Muthuswami Dikshitar
are considered the trinity of Carnatic music.[citation needed] Noted artists of Carnatic music
Carnatic music
include Ariyakudi Ramanuja Iyengar (the father of the current concert format), Semmangudi Srinivasa Iyer, Palaghat K.V. Narayanaswamy, Alathur Brothers, MS Subbulakshmi, Lalgudi Jayaraman
Lalgudi Jayaraman
and more recently Balamuralikrishna, TN Seshagopalan, K J Yesudas, N. Ramani, Umayalpuram K. Sivaraman, Sanjay Subrahmanyan, Manipallavam K.Sarangan, Balaji Shankar, TM Krishna, Bombay Jayashri, T S Nandakumar, Aruna Sairam
Aruna Sairam
Mysore Manjunath. Every December, the city of Chennai
in India
has its eight-week-long Music
Season, which is the world's largest cultural event[citation needed]. Carnatic music
Carnatic music
has served as the foundation for most music in South India, including folk music, festival music and has also extended its influence to film music in the past 100–150 years or so. Light classical music[edit] There are many types of music which comes under the category of light classical or semi-classical. Some of the forms are Thumri, Dadra, Ghazal, Chaiti, Kajri, Tappa, Natya Sangeet
Natya Sangeet
and Qawwali. These forms place emphasis on explicitly seeking emotion from the audience, as opposed to the classical forms. Folk music[edit]

Group of Dharohar folk musicians performing in Mehrangarh Fort, Jodhpur.

Main article: Indian folk music Rabindra Sangeet
Rabindra Sangeet
( Music
of Bengal)[edit] Main article: Rabindra Sangeet

Rabindranath Tagore's Bengali-language initials are worked into this "Ro-Tho" wooden seal, stylistically similar to designs used in traditional Haida carvings. Tagore embellished his manuscripts with such art.

Dance accompanied by Rabindra Sangeet

Rabindra Sangeet
Rabindra Sangeet
(Bengali: রবীন্দ্রসঙ্গীত Robindro Shonggit, Bengali pronunciation: [ɾobind̪ɾo ʃoŋɡit̪]), also known as Tagore songs, are songs written and composed by Rabindranath Tagore. They have distinctive characteristics in the music of Bengal, popular in India
and Bangladesh.[21] "Sangeet" means music, "Rabindra Sangeet" means music (or more aptly Songs) of Rabindra.

N. Ramani and N Rajam accompanied by T S Nandakumar

Tagore wrote some 2,230 songs in Bengali, now known as Rabindra Sangeet, using classical music and traditional folk music as sources.[22][23] Bihu
of Assam[edit]

Jeng Bihu
dancers at Rongali Bihu
celebration in Bangalore

(Assamese: বিহু) is the festival of New Year of Assam falling on mid-April. This is a festival of nature and mother earth where the first day is for the cows and buffaloes. The second day of the festival is for the man. Bihu
dances and songs accompanied by traditional drums and wind instruments are an essential part of this festival. Bihu
songs are energetic and with beats to welcome the festive spring. Assamese drums (dhol), Pepa(usually made from buffalo horn), Gogona are major instruments used. [24][25] Dandiya[edit]

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Main article: Dandiya Dandiya
or Raas is a form of Gujarati cultural dance that is performed with sticks. The present musical style is derived from the traditional musical accompaniment to the folk dance. It is practiced mainly in the state of Gujarat. There is also another type of dance and music associated with Dandiya/Raas called Garba. Uttarakhandi Music[edit]

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Uttarakhandi folk music had its root in the lap of nature and the hilly terrain of the region. Common themes in the folk music of Uttarakhand
are the beauty of nature, various seasons, festivals, religious traditions, cultural practices, folk stories, historical characters, and the bravery of ancestors. The folk songs of Uttarakhand
are a reflection of the cultural heritage and the way people live their lives in the Himalayas. Musical instruments used in Uttarakhand
music include the Dhol, Damoun, Turri, Ransingha, Dholki, Daur, Thali, Bhankora and Masakbhaja. Tabla
and Harmonium
are also sometimes used, especially in recorded folk music from the 1960s onwards. Generic Indian and global musical instruments have been incorporated in modern popular folks by singers like Narendra Singh Negi, Mohan Upreti, Gopal Babu Goswami, and Chandra Singh Rahi. Lavani[edit] Main article: Lavani Lavani
comes from the word Lavanya which means beauty. This is one of the most popular forms of dance and music that is practiced all over Maharashtra. It has, in fact, become a necessary part of the Maharashtrian folk dance performances. Traditionally, the songs are sung by female artists, but male artists may occasionally sing Lavanis. The dance format associated with Lavani
is known as Tamasha. Lavani
is a combination of traditional song and dance, which particularly performed to the enchanting beats of 'Dholaki', a drum-like instrument. Dance performed by attractive women wearing nine-yard saris. They are sung in a quick tempo. Lavani
originated in the arid region of Maharashtra
and Madhya Pradesh. Rajasthan[edit] Main article: Music
of Rajasthan

A traditional Indian folk singer practicing in front of Mehrangarh Fort.

has a very diverse cultural collection of musician castes, including Langas, Sapera, Bhopa, Jogi and Manganiyar
(lit. "the ones who ask/beg"). Rajasthan
Diary quotes it as a soulful, full-throated music with harmonious diversity. The melodies of Rajasthan
come from a variety of instruments. The stringed variety includes the Sarangi, Ravanahatha, Kamayacha, Morsing and Ektara. Percussion instruments come in all shapes and sizes from the huge Nagaras and Dhols to the tiny Damrus. The Daf and Chang are a favorite of Holi
(the festival of colours) revelers. Flutes and bagpipers come in local flavors such as Shehnai, Poongi, Algoza, Tarpi, Been and Bankia. Rajasthani music is derived from a combination of string instruments, percussion instruments and wind instruments accompanied by renditions of folk singers. It enjoys a respectable presence in Bollywood music as well[citation needed]. Popular music[edit] Filmi
music[edit] Main articles: Filmi
and Music
of Bollywood The biggest form of Indian popular music is filmi, or songs from Indian films, it makes up 72% of the music sales in India.[26] The film industry of India
supported music by according reverence to classical music while utilising the western orchestration to support Indian melodies. Music
composers, like R. D. Burman, Shankar Jaikishan, S. D. Burman, Madan Mohan, Naushad Ali, O. P. Nayyar, Hemant Kumar, C. Ramchandra, Salil Chowdhury, Kalyanji Anandji, Ilaiyaraaja, A. R. Rahman, Jatin Lalit, Anu Malik, Nadeem-Shravan, Harris Jayaraj, Himesh Reshammiya, Vidyasagar, Shankar Ehsaan Loy, Salim-Sulaiman, Pritam, M.S. Viswanathan, K. V. Mahadevan, Ghantasala and S. D. Batish employed the principles of harmony while retaining classical and folk flavor. Reputed names in the domain of Indian classical music like Ravi Shankar, Vilayat Khan, Ali Akbar Khan
Ali Akbar Khan
and Ram Narayan
Ram Narayan
have also composed music for films. Traditionally, in Indian films, the voice for the songs is not provided by the actors, they are provided by the professional playback singers, to sound more developed, melodious and soulful, while actors lipsynch on the screen. In the past, only a handful of singers provided the voice in Hindi films. These include K. J. Yesudas, Mohammed Rafi, Mukesh, S.P. Balasubrahmanyam, T.M. Soundararajan, Hemant Kumar, Manna Dey, P. Susheela, Lata Mangeshkar, Asha Bhonsle, K.S. Chitra, Geeta Dutt, S. Janaki, Shamshad Begum, Suraiya, Noorjahan
and Suman Kalyanpur. Recent playback singers include Udit Narayan, Kumar Sanu, Kailash Kher, Alisha Chinai, KK, Shaan, Madhushree, Shreya Ghoshal, Nihira Joshi, Kavita Krishnamurthy, Hariharan (singer), Ilaiyaraaja, A.R. Rahman, Sonu Nigam, Sukhwinder Singh, Kunal Ganjawala, Anu Malik, Sunidhi Chauhan, Anushka Manchanda, Raja Hasan, Arijit Singh
Arijit Singh
and Alka Yagnik. Rock bands like Indus Creed, Indian Ocean, Silk Route and Euphoria exist and have gained mass appeal with the advent of cable music television. Interaction with non-Indian music[edit] See also: Indo jazz, Raga
rock, Psychedelic music, Indo-Caribbean music, Asian Underground, and Bhangra (music) In the late 1970s and early 1980s, rock and roll fusions with Indian music were well known throughout Europe
and North America. Ali Akbar Khan's 1955 performance in the United States
United States
was perhaps the beginning of this trend. Jazz
pioneers such as John Coltrane—who recorded a composition entitled 'India' during the November 1961 sessions for his album Live At The Village Vanguard
Village Vanguard
(the track was not released until 1963 on Coltrane's album Impressions)—also embraced this fusion. George Harrison (of the Beatles) played the sitar on the song "Norwegian Wood (This Bird Has Flown)" in 1965, which sparked interest from Shankar, who subsequently took Harrison as his apprentice. Jazz
innovator Miles Davis recorded and performed with musicians like Khalil Balakrishna, Bihari Sharma, and Badal Roy in his post-1968 electric ensembles. Virtuoso jazz guitarist John McLaughlin spent several years in Madurai learning Carnatic music
Carnatic music
and incorporated it into many of his acts including Shakti which featured prominent Indian musicians. Other Western artists such as the Grateful Dead, Incredible String Band, the Rolling Stones, the Move and Traffic soon incorporated Indian influences and instruments, and added Indian performers. Legendary Grateful Dead
Grateful Dead
frontman Jerry Garcia joined guitarist Sanjay Mishra on his classic CD "Blue Incantation" (1995). Mishra also wrote an original score for French Director Eric Heumann for his film Port Djema (1996) which won best score at Hamptons film festival and The Golden Bear at Berlin. in 2000 he recorded Rescue with drummer Dennis Chambers (Carlos Santana, John McLaughlin et al.) and in 2006 Chateau Benares with guests DJ Logic and Keller Williams (guitar and bass). Though the Indian music
Indian music
craze soon died down among mainstream audiences, die-hard fans and immigrants continued the fusion. In 1985, a beat-oriented, Raga
Rock hybrid called Sitar
Power by Ashwin Batish reintroduced sitar in western nations. Sitar
Power drew the attention of a number of record labels and was snapped up by Shanachie Records of New Jersey to head their World Beat Ethno Pop division. In the late 1980s, Indian-British artists fused Indian and Western traditions to make the Asian Underground. Since the 1990s, Canadian born musician Nadaka who has spent most of his life in India, has been creating music that is an acoustic fusion of Indian classical music with western styles. One such singer who has merged the Bhakti sangeet tradition of India
with the western non- Indian music
Indian music
is Krishna Das and sells music records of his musical sadhana. Another example is the Indo-Canadian musician Vandana Vishwas
Vandana Vishwas
who has experimented with western music in her 2013 album Monologues. In the new millennium, American hip-hop has featured Indian filmi and bhangra. Mainstream hip-hop artists have sampled songs from Bollywood movies and have collaborated with Indian artists. Examples include Timbaland's "Indian Flute", Erick Sermon
Erick Sermon
and Redman's "React", Slum Village's "Disco", and Truth Hurts' hit song "Addictive", which sampled a Lata Mangeshkar
Lata Mangeshkar
song, and The Black Eyed Peas
The Black Eyed Peas
sampled Asha Bhosle's song "Yeh Mera Dil" in their hit single "Don't Phunk With My Heart". In 1997, the British band Cornershop paid tribute to Asha Bhosle with their song Brimful of Asha, which became an international hit. British-born Indian artist Panjabi MC
Panjabi MC
also had a Bhangra hit in the U.S. with "Mundian To Bach Ke" which featured rapper Jay-Z. Asian Dub Foundation are not huge mainstream stars, but their politically charged rap and punk rock influenced sound has a multi-racial audience in their native UK. In 2008, international star Snoop Dogg
Snoop Dogg
appeared in a song in the film Singh Is Kinng. In 2007, hip-hop producer Madlib released Beat Konducta Vol 3–4: Beat Konducta in India; an album which heavily samples and is inspired by the music of India. Sometimes, the music of India
will fuse with the traditional music of other countries. For example, Delhi
2 Dublin, a band based in Canada, is known for fusing Indian and Irish music, and Bhangraton is a fusion of Bhangra music with reggaeton, which itself is a fusion of hip hop, reggae, and traditional Latin American music.[27] In a more recent example of Indian-British fusion, Laura Marling
Laura Marling
along with Mumford and Sons
Mumford and Sons
collaborated in 2010 with the Dharohar Project on a four-song EP.[28] The British band Bombay Bicycle Club
Bombay Bicycle Club
also sampled the song "Man Dole Mera Tan Dole" for their single "Feel".[29] Indian pop
Indian pop
music[edit] Main article: Indian pop See also: Asian Underground, Bhangra (music), and Bhangragga Indian pop
Indian pop
music is based on an amalgamation of Indian folk and classical music, and modern beats from different parts of the world. Pop music really started in the South Asian
South Asian
region with the playback singer Ahmed Rushdi's song ‘Ko Ko Korina’ in 1966, followed initially by Mohammad Rafi
Mohammad Rafi
in the late 1960s and then by Kishore Kumar in the early 1970s.[30] After that, much of Indian Pop music comes from the Indian Film Industry, and until the 1990s, few singers like Usha Uthup, Sharon Prabhakar, and Peenaz Masani outside it were popular. Since then, pop singers in the latter group have included Daler Mehndi, Baba Sehgal, Alisha Chinai, KK, Shantanu Mukherjee
Shantanu Mukherjee
a.k.a. Shaan, Sagarika, Colonial Cousins (Hariharan, Lesle Lewis), Lucky Ali, and Sonu Nigam, and music composers like Zila Khan or Jawahar Wattal, who made top selling albums with, Daler Mehndi, Shubha Mudgal, Baba Sehgal, Shweta Shetty and Hans Raj Hans.[31] Besides those listed above, popular Indi-pop singers include Gurdas Maan, Sukhwinder Singh, Papon, Zubeen Garg, Raghav Sachar
Raghav Sachar
Rageshwari, Vandana Vishwas, Devika Chawla, Bombay Vikings, Asha Bhosle, Sunidhi Chauhan, Anushka Manchanda, Bombay Rockers, Anu Malik, Jazzy B, Malkit Singh, Raghav, Jay Sean, Juggy D, Rishi Rich, Sheila Chandra, Bally Sagoo, Punjabi MC, Bhangra Knights, Mehnaz, Sanober and Vaishali Samant.[citation needed] Recently, Indian pop
Indian pop
has taken an interesting turn with the "remixing" of songs from past Indian movie songs, new beats being added to them. Rock & metal music[edit] Raga
rock[edit] Main article: Raga
rock See also: Psychedelic rock Raga rock
Raga rock
is rock or pop music with a heavy Indian influence, either in its construction, its timbre, or its use of instrumentation, such as the sitar and tabla. Raga
and other forms of classical Indian music began to influence many rock groups during the 1960s; most famously the Beatles. The first traces of "raga rock" can be heard on songs such as "See My Friends" by the Kinks and the Yardbirds' "Heart Full of Soul", released the previous month, featured a sitar-like riff by guitarist Jeff Beck.[32][33] The Beatles
The Beatles
song "Norwegian Wood (This Bird Has Flown)", which first appeared on the band's 1965 album Rubber Soul, was the first western pop song to actually incorporate the sitar (played by lead guitarist George Harrison).[33][34] The Byrds' March 1966 single "Eight Miles High" and its B-side "Why" were also influential in originating the musical subgenre. Indeed, the term "raga rock" was coined by The Byrds' publicist in the press releases for the single and was first used in print by journalist Sally Kempton in her review of "Eight Miles High" for The Village Voice.[35][36] George Harrison's interest in Indian music, popularised the genre in the mid-1960s with songs such as "Love You To", "Tomorrow Never Knows" (credited to Lennon-McCartney), "Within You Without You" and "The Inner Light".[37][38][39] The rock acts of the sixties both in turn influenced British and American groups and Indian acts to develop a later form of Indian rock. Indian rock[edit] Main article: Indian rock

Nicotine playing at 'Pedal To The Metal', TDS, Indore, India
in 2014. The band is known for being the pioneer of Metal Music
in Central India.

The rock music "scene" in India
is small compared to the filmi or fusion musicality "scenes" but as of recent years has come into its own, achieving a cult status of sorts. Rock music in India
has its origins in the 1960s when international stars such as the Beatles visited India
and brought their music with them. These artists' collaboration with Indian musicians such as Ravi Shankar
Ravi Shankar
and Zakir Hussain have led to the development of raga rock. International shortwave radio stations such as The Voice of America, BBC, and Radio Ceylon played a major part in bringing Western pop, folk, and rock music to the masses. Indian rock
Indian rock
bands began to gain prominence only much later, around the late 1980s. It was around this time that the rock band Indus Creed
Indus Creed
formerly known as The Rock Machine got itself noticed on the international stage with hits like Rock N Roll Renegade. Other bands quickly followed. As of now, the rock music scene in India
is quietly growing day by day and gathering more support. With the introduction of MTV in the early 1990s, Indians began to be exposed to various forms of rock such as grunge and speed metal. This influence can be clearly seen in many Indian bands today. The cities of the North Eastern Region, mainly Guwahati and Shillong, Kolkata, Delhi, Mumbai
and Bangalore
have emerged as major melting pots for rock and metal enthusiasts. Bangalore
has been the hub for rock and metal movement in India. Some prominent bands include Dorian Platonic, Nicotine, Cannibals, Phinix, Just, Voodoo Child, Rubella, Crystal Ann, Morgue, Indian Ocean, Kryptos, Pentagram, Thermal and a Quarter, Abandoned Agony, No Idea, Zero, Half Step Down, Scribe, Eastern Fare, Demonic Resurrection, Zygnema, Motherjane, Soulmate, Avial and Parikrama. The future looks encouraging thanks to entities such as Green Ozone, DogmaTone
Records, Eastern Fare
Eastern Fare
Foundation, that are dedicated to promoting and supporting Indian rock. From Central India, Nicotine, an Indore-based metal band, is widely credited of being the pioneer of metal music in the region.[40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50] Dance music[edit] Main articles: Dance in India, Hindi Dance Music, Music
of Bollywood, Goa trance, Psychedelic trance, Charanjit Singh (musician), and Electronica Indian Hip Hop[edit] Main article: Indian hip hop Jazz
and blues[edit] Main articles: Jazz in India
Jazz in India
and Indian blues Western classical music[edit] The spread and following of Western classical music in India
is almost entirely non-existent. It is mainly patronised by the Indian Zoroastrian
community and small esoteric groups with historical exposure to Western classical music. Another esoteric group with significant patronage is the Protestant Christian community in Chennai and Bangalore.[citation needed] Western Music
education is also severely neglected and pretty rare in India. Western keyboard, drums and guitar instruction being an exception as it has found some interest; mainly in an effort to create musicians to service contemporary popular Indian music. Many reasons have been cited for the obscurity of Western classical music in India, a country rich in its musical heritage by its own right, however, the two main reasons are an utter lack of exposure and a passive disinterest in what is considered esoteric at best. Also, the difficulty in importing Western musical instruments and their rarity has also contributed to the obscurity of classical Western music.[citation needed] Despite more than a century of exposure to Western classical music and two centuries of British colonialism, classical music in India
has never gained more than 'fringe' popularity. Many attempts to popularise Western classical music in India
have failed in the past due to disinterest and lack of sustained efforts.[citation needed] Today, Western classical music education has improved with the help of numerous institutions in India. Institutions like KM Music Conservatory (founded by Oscar-winning Composer A.R.Rahman), Calcutta School of Music, Bangalore
School of Music, Eastern Fare
Eastern Fare
Music Foundation,[51] Delhi
School of Music, UstadGah Foundation, Delhi Music
Academy, Guitarmonk
and many others are dedicated to contributing to the progress or growth and supporting Western classical music. In 1930, notable Mehli Mehta set up the Bombay Symphony Orchestra. There is 'Melody Academy' in Darjeeling established in the early 1980s by Mr. Jiwan Pradhan who single-handedly has brought the western music in the hills of Darjeeling which is very rich in its musical heritage. The Bombay Chamber Orchestra[52] (BCO) was founded in 1962. In 2006, the Symphony Orchestra of India
was founded, housed at the NCPA in Mumbai. It is today the only professional symphony orchestra in India
and presents two concert seasons per year, with world-renowned conductors and soloists. Some prominent Indians in Western classical music are:

Andre de Quadros, Conductor and Music
Educator. Zubin Mehta, conductor. Mehli Mehta, Father of Zubin, violinist and founding conductor of the Bombay Symphony Orchestra. Anil Srinivasan, pianist. Ilaiyaraaja, the first Indian to compose a full symphony performed by the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra
Royal Philharmonic Orchestra
in London's Walthamstow Town Hall. Naresh Sohal, British Indian-born composer. Param Vir, British Indian-born composer. Karishmeh Felfeli, Indian-born Irani pianist and radio broadcaster.

Patriotism and music[edit]

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Patriotic feelings have been instigated within Indians through music since the era of the freedom struggle. Jana Gana Mana, the national anthem of India
by Rabindranath Tagore, is largely credited[citation needed] for uniting India
through music and Vande Mataram
Vande Mataram
by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay as the national song of India. Post-independence songs such as Aye mere watan ke logo, Mile Sur Mera Tumhara, Ab Tumhare Hawale Watan Saathiyo, Maa Tujhe Salaam by A.R.Rahman
have been responsible for consolidating feelings of national integration and unity in diversity. See also[edit]

Indian classical music
Indian classical music

Carnatic music Rabindra Sangeet Odissi Music Eastern Fare
Eastern Fare
Foundation Hindustani classical music Indian musical instruments Indian Music
Industry List of regional genres of music Music
of Rajasthan Music
of South Asia Middle Eastern music Sangita Ratnakara


^ Kapila Vatsyayan (1982). Dance In Indian Painting. Abhinav Publications. pp. 12–19. ISBN 978-81-7017-153-9.  ^ "Collections:Pre-History & Archaeology". National Museum, New Delhi. Retrieved 3 February 2014.  ^ Nalapat, Dr Suvarna (2013-02-16). Origin of Indians and their Spacetime. D C Books. ISBN 9789381699188.  ^ Singh, Upinder (2008). A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India : from the Stone Age to the 12th century. New Delhi: Pearson Education. p. 162. ISBN 9788131711200. Retrieved 15 November 2014.  ^ McIntosh, Jane R. (2008). The Ancient Indus Valley : New Perspectives. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. pp. 281, 407. ISBN 9781576079072. Retrieved 15 November 2014.  ^ origin of Indian music
Indian music
and arts. Shodhganga. ^ see e.g. MacDonell 2004, pp. 29–39; Sanskrit
literature (2003) in Philip's Encyclopedia. Accessed 2007-08-09 ^ see e.g. Radhakrishnan & Moore 1957, p. 3; Witzel, Michael, " Vedas
and Upaniṣads", in: Flood 2003, p. 68; MacDonell 2004, pp. 29–39; Sanskrit
literature (2003) in Philip's Encyclopedia. Accessed 2007-08-09 ^ Sanujit Ghose (2011). "Religious Developments in Ancient India" in Ancient History Encyclopedia. ^ Gavin D. Flood (1996). An Introduction to Hinduism. Cambridge University Press. pp. 37–39. ISBN 978-0-521-43878-0.  ^ a b ML Varadpande (1990), History of Indian Theatre, Volume 1, Abhinav, ISBN 978-8170172789, page 48 ^ Maurice Winternitz 2008, pp. 181–182. ^ Sorrell & Narayan 1980, pp. 3-4. ^ Guy L. Beck (2012). Sonic Liturgy: Ritual and Music
in Hindu Tradition. University of South Carolina Press. pp. 63–64. ISBN 978-1-61117-108-2.  ^ William Alves (2013). Music
of the Peoples of the World. Cengage Learning. p. 266. ISBN 1-133-71230-4.  ^ Patrick Olivelle 1999, pp. xxiii. ^ Jan Gonda (1970 through 1987), A History of Indian Literature, Volumes 1 to 7, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3-447-02676-5 ^ Teun Goudriaan and Sanjukta Gupta (1981), Hindu Tantric and Śākta Literature, A History of Indian Literature, Volume 2, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3-447-02091-6, pages 7–14 ^ Ananda W. P. Guruge, 1991, The Society of the Ramayana, Page 180-200. ^ Suresh Kant Sharma and Usha Sharma, 2005, Discovery of North-East India, Page 288. ^ Ghosh, p. xiii ^ Huke, Robert E. (2009). "West Bengal". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 2009-10-06.  ^ Tagore: At Home in the World ISBN 978-8-132-11084-2 pp. 253-254 ^ " Bihu
Dance".  ^ "Bihu- Most prominent amongst folk dance forms of Assam".  ^ Pinglay, Prachi (December 10, 2009). "Plans to start India
music awards". BBC News. Retrieved May 19, 2010.  ^ reggaetonline.net ^ Irwin, Colin (2010-09-03). "A triumphant experiment that feels surprisingly authentic". BBC review.  ^ Pundir, Pallavi (March 15, 2013). "A Little This, A Little That". Indian Express.  ^ "Socio-political History of Modern Pop Music
in Pakistan". Chowk. Archived from the original on 2010-06-18. Retrieved 2008-06-27.  ^ " Music
man with a golden touch". The Hindu. December 9, 2002.  ^ Miller, Andy. (2003). The Kinks
The Kinks
are the Village Green Preservation Society (33⅓ series). Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 3. ISBN 0-8264-1498-2.  ^ a b Bellman, Jonathan. (1997). The Exotic in Western Music. Northeastern. p. 297. ISBN 1-55553-319-1.  ^ Lewisohn, Mark. (1989). The Complete Beatles Recording Sessions. The Hamlyn Publishing Group. p. 63. ISBN 0-600-55784-7.  ^ Bellman, Jonathan. (1997). The Exotic in Western Music. Northeastern Publishing. p. 351. ISBN 1-55553-319-1.  ^ Hjort, Christopher. (2008). So You Want To Be A Rock 'n' Roll Star: The Byrds
The Byrds
Day-By-Day (1965-1973). Jawbone Press. p. 88. ISBN 1-906002-15-0.  ^ Lavezzoli, Peter. (2007). The Dawn of Indian music
Indian music
in the West. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 293. ISBN 0-8264-2819-3.  ^ Lavezzoli, Peter. (2007). The Dawn of Indian music
Indian music
in the West. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 175. ISBN 0-8264-2819-3.  ^ Pedler, Dominic (2003). The Songwriting Secrets of the Beatles. London: Omnibus Press. p. 524. ISBN 978-0-7119-8167-6.  ^ "Does Indore have the mettle for metal? - DNA - English News & Features - Art & Culture - dnasyndication.com<". dnasyndication.com. Retrieved 18 August 2015.  ^ "Metal mania". educationinsider.net. Retrieved 18 August 2015.  ^ "Indore has a bandtastic time!". dnaindia.com. Retrieved 18 August 2015.  ^ "The 10 Famous Rock Bands of India
- Sinlung". sinlung.com. Retrieved 18 August 2015.  ^ "Best Rock Bands In India". indiaonline.in. Retrieved 18 August 2015.  ^ "The 10 Famous Rock Bands of India". walkthroughindia.com. Retrieved 18 August 2015.  ^ "Almost There: 6 Awesome Indian Music
Bands To Look Forward To". Youth Ki Awaaz. Retrieved 18 August 2015.  ^ "# 12 Prominent Indian Rock Bands Who Gave a New Definition To The Music". Witty9. Retrieved 18 August 2015.  ^ "12 Cities That are Home to Awesome Bands and You Probably Din't Know It!". Travel India. Retrieved 18 August 2015.  ^ Neelima K. "Top 10 Rock Bands in India". Top List Hub. Retrieved 18 August 2015.  ^ "DNA E-Paper - Daily News & Analysis -Mumbai, India". dnaindia.com. Retrieved 18 August 2015.  ^ "Outstanding Results for Eastern Fare
Eastern Fare
in Trinity Guildhall Exam". G News. November 18, 2009.  ^ bcoindia.co.in

Further reading[edit]

Day; Joshi, O. P. (1982). "The changing social structure of music in India". International Social Science Journal. 34 (94): 625.  Day, Charles Russell (1891). The Music
and Musical instruments of Southern India
and the Deccan. Adam Charles Black, London.  Clements, Sir Ernest (1913). Introduction to the Study of Indian Music. Longmans, Green & Co., London.  Strangways, A.H. Fox (1914). The Music
of Hindostan. Oxford at The Clarendon Press, London.  Popley, Herbert Arthur (1921). The Music
of India. Association Press, Calcutta.  Killius, Rolf. Ritual Music
and Hindu Rituals of Kerala. New Delhi: B.R. Rhythms, 2006.  Moutal, Patrick (2012). Hindustāni Gata-s Compilation: Instrumental themes in north Indian classical music. Rouen: Patrick Moutal Publisher. ISBN 978-2-9541244-1-4.  Moutal, Patrick (1991). A Comparative Study of Selected Hindustāni Rāga-s. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt Ltd. ISBN 81-215-0526-7.  Moutal, Patrick (1991). Hindustāni Rāga-s Index. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt Ltd.  Manuel, Peter. Thumri in Historical and Stylistic Perspectives. New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1989.  Manuel, Peter. Cassette Culture: Popular Music
and Technology in North India. University of Chicago Press, 1993. ISBN 0-226-50401-8.  Wade, Bonnie C. (1987). Music
in India: the Classical Traditions. New Dehi, India: Manohar, 1987, t.p. 1994. xix, [1], 252 p., amply ill., including with examples in musical notation. ISBN 81-85054-25-8 Maycock, Robert and Hunt, Ken. "How to Listen - a Routemap of India". 2000. In Broughton, Simon and Ellingham, Mark with McConnachie, James and Duane, Orla (Ed.), World Music, Vol. 2: Latin & North America, Caribbean, India, Asia and Pacific, pp 63–69. Rough Guides Ltd, Penguin Books. ISBN 1-85828-636-0 Hunt, Ken. "Ragas and Riches". 2000. In Broughton, Simon and Ellingham, Mark with McConnachie, James and Duane, Orla (Ed.), World Music, Vol. 2: Latin & North America, Caribbean, India, Asia and Pacific, pp 70–78. Rough Guides Ltd, Penguin Books. ISBN 1-85828-636-0. "Hindu music." (2011). Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th Edition, 1. Emmie te Nijenhuis (1977), A History of Indian Literature: Musicological Literature, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3447018319, OCLC 299648131 Natya Sastra Ancient Indian Theory and Practice of Music
(translated by M. Ghosh)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Music
of India.

BBC Radio 3 Audio (45 minutes): The Nizamuddin shrine in Delhi. Accessed November 25, 2010. BBC Radio 3 Audio (45 minutes): A mahfil Sufi gathering in Karachi. Accessed November 25, 2010. BBC Radio 3 Audio (60 minutes): The Misra brothers perform Vedic chant. Accessed November 25, 2010. BBC Radio 3 Audio (60 minutes): Rikhi Ram and sons, Nizami brothers. Accessed November 25, 2010. BBC Radio 3 Audio (60 minutes): Rajasthan, Bombay and Trilok Gurtu. Accessed November 25, 2010. BBC Radio 3 Audio (45 minutes): Gujarat - Praful Dave. Accessed November 25, 2010. BBC Radio 3 Audio (45 minutes): Courtesan songs and music of the Bauls. Accessed November 25, 2010. BBC Radio 3 Audio (60 minutes): Music
from the Golden Temple of Amritsar. Accessed November 25, 2010. India
- The first ever Indian Music
domain and website registered. Accessed May 17, 2014. (in English) (in French) Hindustani Rag Sangeet Online - A rare collection of more than 800 audio and video archives from 1902

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v t e

Indian music


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Hindustani classical music

Types of compositions

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Powada Gan Gavlan Lavani Kirtan

v t e

Rāgas as per Performance Time


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Pancham Nand Rageshri Shivranjani Tilak Kamod


Bhairavi Charukeshi Dhani Gara JanaSammohini Kafi Mand Piloo Vrindavani Sarang


Gaud Malhar