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The Mughal emperors, from the early 16th century to the early 18th century, built and ruled the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
on the Indian subcontinent, mainly corresponding to the modern countries of India, Pakistan, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Bangladesh. The Mughals were a branch of the Timurid dynasty of Turkic origin from what is now Uzbekistan. Their power rapidly dwindled during the 18th century and the last of the emperors was deposed in 1857, with the establishment of the British Raj.[1] Mughal emperors
Mughal emperors
were of direct descent from Timur
Timur
(generally known in the West as Tamerlane the Great), and also affiliated with Genghis Khan, because of Timur’s marriage with a Genghizid princess. The Mughals also had significant Indian Rajput
Rajput
and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances, as emperors were born to Rajput
Rajput
and Persian princesses.[2][3] Only the first two Mughal emperors, Babur and Humayun, were fully Central Asian ( Turki or what is now known as Uzbek), whereas Akbar
Akbar
was half-Persian (his mother was of Persian origin), Jahangir
Jahangir
was half- Rajput
Rajput
and quarter-Persian, and Shah Jahan was three-quarters Rajput.[4] Nevertheless, all Mughals were of Turkic seeds. At their Empire's greatest extent in the late 17th and early 18th centuries, Mughals controlled much of the Indian subcontinent, extending from Bengal
Bengal
in the east to Kabul
Kabul
and Sindh
Sindh
in the west, Kashmir
Kashmir
in the north to the Kaveri
Kaveri
basin in the south.[5] Its population at the time has been estimated as between 110 and 150 million (a quarter of the world's population), over a territory of more than 3.2 million square kilometres (1.2 million square miles).[6]

Contents

1 Mughal Empire 2 List of Mughal Emperors 3 Family tree 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links

Mughal Empire[edit]

Genealogy of the Mughal Dynasty. Only principal offsprings of each emperor are provided in the chart.

The Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
(also referred to as Baburid Empire, Baburid Dynasty) was founded by Zahiriddin Muhammad Babur, a Timurid prince and ruler from Turan
Turan
or Turkistan, i.e. Central Asia (Uzbekistan). Babur
Babur
was a direct descendant to the Turkic Emperor Timur
Timur
on his father's side and also had links to Chagatai, the second son of the Mongol ruler Genghis Khan, on his mother’s side.[7] Ousted from his ancestral domains in Turkistan
Turkistan
by Sheybani Khan, the 14-year old Prince Babur
Babur
turned to India
India
to satisfy his ambitions. He established himself in Kabul
Kabul
and then pushed steadily southward into India
India
from Afghanistan
Afghanistan
through the Khyber Pass.[7] Babur's forces occupied much of northern India
India
after his victory at Panipat in 1526.[7] The preoccupation with wars and military campaigns, however, did not allow the new emperor to consolidate the gains he had made in India.[7] The instability of the empire became evident under his son, Humayun, who was driven out of India
India
and into Persia by rebels.[7] Humayun's exile in Persia established diplomatic ties between the Safavid and Mughal Courts, and led to increasing West Asian cultural influence in the Mughal court. The restoration of Mughal rule began after Humayun’s triumphant return from Persia in 1555, but he died from a fatal accident shortly afterwards.[7] Humayun's son, Akbar, succeeded to the throne under a regent, Bairam Khan, who helped consolidate the Mughal Empire in India.[7] Through warfare and diplomacy, Akbar
Akbar
was able to extend the empire in all directions, and controlled almost the entire Indian subcontinent north of the Godavari
Godavari
river. He created a new class of nobility loyal to him from the military aristocracy of India's social groups, implemented a modern government and supported cultural developments.[7] At the same time Akbar
Akbar
intensified trade with European trading companies. The Indian historian Abraham Eraly
Abraham Eraly
wrote that foreigners were often impressed by the fabulous wealth of the Mughal court, but the glittering court hid darker realities, namely that about a quarter of the empire's gross national product was owned by 655 families while the bulk of India's 120 million people lived in appalling poverty.[8] After suffering what appears to have been an epileptic seizure in 1578 while hunting tigers, which he regarded as a religious experience, Akbar
Akbar
grew disenchanted with Islam, and came to embrace a syncretistic mixture of Hinduism and Islam.[9] Akbar
Akbar
allowed free expression of religion and attempted to resolve socio-political and cultural differences in his empire by establishing a new religion, Din-i-Ilahi, with strong characteristics of a ruler cult.[7] He left his successors an internally stable state, which was in the midst of its golden age, but before long signs of political weakness would emerge.[7] Akbar's son, Jahangir, ruled the empire at its peak, but he was addicted to opium, neglected the affairs of the state, and came under the influence of rival court cliques.[7] During the reign of Jahangir's son, Shah Jahan, the culture and splendour of the luxurious Mughal court reached its zenith as exemplified by the Taj Mahal.[7] The maintenance of the court, at this time, began to cost more than the revenue.[7] Shah Jahan's eldest son, the liberal Dara Shikoh, became regent in 1658, as a result of his father's illness. However, a younger son, Aurangzeb, allied with the Islamic orthodoxy against his brother, who championed a syncretistic Hindu-Muslim religion and culture, and ascended to the throne. Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
defeated Dara in 1659 and had him executed.[7] Although Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
fully recovered from his illness, Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
declared him incompetent to rule and had him imprisoned. During Aurangzeb's reign, the empire gained political strength once more, but his religious conservatism and intolerance undermined the stability of Mughal society.[7] Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
expanded the empire to include almost the whole of South Asia, but at his death in 1707, many parts of the empire were in open revolt.[7] Aurangzeb's attempts to reconquer his family's ancestral lands in Central Asia - Turan
Turan
were not successful while his successful conquest of the Deccan region proved to be a Pyrrhic victory that cost the empire heavily in both blood and treasure.[10] A further problem for Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
was the army had always been based upon the land-owning aristocracy of northern India
India
who provided the cavalry for the campaigns, and the empire had nothing equivalent to the Janissary corps of the Ottoman Empire.[11] The long and costly conquest of the Deccan had badly dented the "aura of success" that surrounded Aurangzeb, and from the late 17th century onwards, the aristocracy become increasing unwilling to provide forces for the empire's wars as the prospect of being rewarded with land as a result of a successful war was seen as less and less likely.[12] Furthermore, the fact that at the conclusion of the conquest of the Deccan, Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
had very selectively rewarded some of the noble families with confiscated land in the Deccan had left those aristocrats who received no confiscated land as reward and for whom the conquest of the Deccan had cost dearly, feeling badly disgruntled and unwilling to participate in further campaigns.[13] Aurangzeb's son, Shah Alam, repealed the religious policies of his father, and attempted to reform the administration. However, after his death in 1712, the Mughal dynasty sank into chaos and violent feuds. In the year 1719 alone, four emperors successively ascended the throne.[7] During the reign of Muhammad Shah, the empire began to break up, and vast tracts of central India
India
passed from Mughal to Maratha hands. Mughal warfare had always been based upon heavy artillery for sieges, heavy cavalry for offensive operations and light cavalry for skirmishing and raids.[10] To control a region, the Mughals had always sought to occupy a strategic fortress in some region, which would serve as a nodal point from which the Mughal army would emerge to take on any enemy that challenged the empire.[10] This system was not only expensive, but also made the army somewhat inflexible as the assumption was always the enemy would retreat into a fortress to be besieged or would engage in a set-piece decisive battle of annihilation on open ground.[10] The militantly Hindu Marathas were expert horsemen who refused to engage in set-piece battles, but rather engaged in campaigns of guerrilla warfare, a war of raids, ambushes and attacks upon the Mughal supply lines.[10] The Marathas were unable to take the Mughal fortresses via storm or formal siege as they lacked the artillery, but by constantly intercepting supply columns, they were able to starve Mughal fortresses into submission.[10] Successive Mughal commanders refused to adjust their tactics and develop an appropriate counter-insurgency strategy, which led to the Mughals losing more and more ground to the Maratha.[10] The Indian campaign of Nader Shah
Nader Shah
of Persia culminated with the Sack of Delhi
Sack of Delhi
and shattered the remnants of Mughal power and prestige,[7] as well as drastically accelerating its decline and alarming other far-off invaders, including the later British. Many of the empire's elites now sought to control their own affairs, and broke away to form independent kingdoms.[7] The Mughal Emperor, however, continued to be the highest manifestation of sovereignty. Not only the Muslim gentry, but the Maratha, Hindu, and Sikh leaders took part in ceremonial acknowledgements of the emperor as the sovereign of India.[14] In the next decades, the Afghans, Sikhs, and Marathas battled against each other and the Mughals, only to prove the fragmented state of the empire. The Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II
Shah Alam II
made futile attempts to reverse the Mughal decline, and ultimately had to seek the protection of outside powers. In 1784, the Marathas under Mahadji Scindia
Mahadji Scindia
won acknowledgement as the protectors of the emperor in Delhi, a state of affairs that continued until after the Second Anglo-Maratha War. Thereafter, the British East India
India
Company became the protectors of the Mughal dynasty in Delhi.[14] After a crushed rebellion which he nominally led in 1857-58, the last Mughal, Bahadur Shah Zafar, was deposed by the British government, who then assumed formal control of a large part of the former empire,[7] marking the start of the British Raj. List of Mughal Emperors[edit]

Portrait Titular Name Birth Name Birth Reign Death Notes

Bābur بابر‬ Zahir-ud-din Muhammad ظہیر الدین محمد‬ 23 February 1483, Andijan 1 April 1526 – 26 December 1530 4 years 8 months 25 days or 56 months 25 days or 247 weeks 1 days or 1730 days

26 December 1530 (aged 47)

Humayun ہمایوں‬ Nasir-ud-din Muhammad Humayun نصیر الدین محمد ہمایوں‬ 17 March 1508 26 December 1530&Nbsp;– 17 May 1540 9 years 4 months 21 days or 112 months 21 days or 490 weeks 0 days or 3430 days and 11 months 5 days or 11 months 5 days or 48 weeks 3 days or 339 days Total 3,769 days 22 February 1555 - 27 January 1556

27 January 1556 (aged 48) Humayun
Humayun
was overthrown in 1540 by Sher Shah Suri
Sher Shah Suri
of the Suri dynasty but returned to the throne in 1555 after the death of Islam Shah Suri (Sher Shah Suri's son and successor).

Akbar-e-Azam اکبر اعظم‬ Jalal-ud-din Muhammad جلال الدین محمد اکبر‬ 14 October 1542 27 January 1556 – 27 October 1605 49 years 9 months 0 days or 597 months 0 days or 2595 weeks 6 days or 18171 days

27 October 1605 (aged 63) His mother was Persian princess Hamida Banu Begum.[15]

Jahangir جہانگیر‬ Nur-ud-din Muhammad Salim نور الدین محمد سلیم‬ 20 September 1569 15 October 1605 – 8 October 1627 21 years 11 months 23 days or 263 months 23 days or 1146 weeks 6 days or 8028 days

28 October 1627 (aged 58) His mother was Rajput
Rajput
princess Mariam-uz-Zamani.[16]

Shah-Jahan-e-Azam شاہ جہان اعظم‬ Shahab-ud-din Muhammad Khurram شہاب الدین محمد خرم‬ 5 January 1592 8 November 1627 – 2 August 1658 30 years 8 months 25 days or 368 months 25 days or 1603 weeks 4 days or 11225 days

22 January 1666 (aged 74) His mother was Rajput
Rajput
princess Jagat Gosaini.[17] Built Taj Mahal.

Alamgir I عالمگیر‬ Muhy-ud-din Muhammad Aurangzeb محی الدین محمداورنگزیب ‬ 4 November 1618 31 July 1658 – 3 March 1707 48 years 7 months 0 days or 583 months 0 days or 2535 weeks 1 days or 17746 days

3 March 1707 (aged 88) His mother was Persian princess Mumtaz Mahal. He was married to Safavid Dynasty
Safavid Dynasty
Princess Dilras Banu Begum. After his death, His younger Son Azam Shah
Azam Shah
became the King (for 1 year) .[18]

Bahadur Shah بہادر شاہ‬ Qutb ud-Din Muhammad Mu'azzam Shah Alam قطب الدین محمد معزام ‬ 14 October 1643 19 June 1708 – 27 February 1712 (3 years, 253 days)

27 February 1712 (aged 68) He made settlements with the Marathas, tranquilised the Rajputs, and became friendly with the Sikhs in the Punjab.

Jahandar Shah جہاندار شاہ‬ Ma'az-ud-Din Jahandar Shah
Jahandar Shah
Bahadur معز الدین جہاندار شاہ بہادر ‬ 9 May 1661 27 February 1712 – 11 February 1713 (0 years, 350 days)

12 February 1713 (aged 51) Highly influenced by his Grand Vizier
Grand Vizier
Zulfikar Khan.

Farrukhsiyar فرخ سیر‬ Farrukhsiyar فرخ سیر‬ 20 August 1685 11 January 1713 – 28 February 1719 (6 years, 48 days)

29 April 1719 (aged 33) Granted a firman to the East India
India
Company in 1717 granting them duty-free trading rights for Bengal, strengthening their posts on the east coast. The firman or decree helped British East India
India
company to import goods into Bengal
Bengal
without paying customs duty to the government.

Rafi ud-Darajat رفیع اُد درجات‬ Rafi ud-Darajat رفیع اُد درجات‬ 30 November 1699 28 February – 6 June 1719 (0 years, 98 days)

9 June 1719 (aged 19) Rise of Syed Brothers
Syed Brothers
as power brokers.

Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
II شاہ جہاں دوم‬ Rafi ud-Daulah شاہ جہاں دوم‬ June 1696 6 June 1719 – 19 September 1719 (0 years, 105 days)

19 September 1719 (aged 23) ----

Muhammad Shah محمد شاہ‬ Roshan Akhtar Bahadur روشن اختر بہادر‬ 17 August 1702 27 September 1719 – 26 April 1748 (28 years, 212 days)

26 April 1748 (aged 45) Got rid of the Syed Brothers. Fought a long war with the Marathas, losing Deccan and Malwa
Malwa
in the process. Suffered the invasion of Nader Shah of Persia in 1739. He was the last emperor to possess effective control over the empire.

Ahmad Shah Bahadur احمد شاہ بہادر‬ Ahmad Shah Bahadur احمد شاہ بہادر‬ 23 December 1725 26 April 1748 – 2 June 1754 1 January 1775 (aged 49) Mughal forces defeated by the Marathas at the Battle of Sikandarabad.

Alamgir II عالمگیر دوم‬ Aziz-ud-din عزیز اُلدین‬ 6 June 1699 2 June 1754 – 29 November 1759 (5 years, 180 days)

29 November 1759 (aged 60) Domination of Vizier
Vizier
Imad-ul-Mulk.

[[File:]] Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
III شاہ جہاں سوم‬ Muhi-ul-millat محی اُلملت‬ 1711 10 December 1759 – 10 October 1760 1772 (aged 60–61) Consolidation of the Nizam of Bengal, Bihar, and Odisha, during the Battle of Buxar. Hyder Ali
Hyder Ali
becomes Sultan
Sultan
of Mysore
Mysore
in 1761.

Shah Alam II شاہ عالم دوم‬ Ali Gauhar علی گوہر‬ 25 June 1728 24 December 1759 – 19 November 1806 (46 years, 330 days) 19 November 1806 (aged 78) The death of Tipu Sultan
Sultan
of Mysore
Mysore
in 1799.

Akbar
Akbar
Shah II اکبر شاہ دوم‬ Mirza Akbar مرزا اکبر‬ 22 April 1760 19 November 1806 – 28 September 1837 28 September 1837 (aged 77) Titular figurehead under British protection.

Bahadur Shah II بہادر شاہ دوم‬ Abu Zafar Sirajuddin Muhammad Bahadur Shah Zafar ابو ظفر سراج اُلدین محمد بہادر شاہ ظفر‬ 24 October 1775 28 September 1837 – 23 September 1857 (19 years, 360 days) 7 November 1862 (aged 87) Last Mughal Emperor. Deposed by the British and was exiled to Burma after the Indian Rebellion of 1857.

Note:The Mughal Emperors practised polygamy. Besides their wives, they also had a number of concubines in their harem, who produced children. This makes it difficult to identify all the offspring of each emperor.[19] Family tree[edit] See also: List of the mothers of the Mughal Emperors Family tree of the first seven Mughal emperors:

Babur

 

Maham Begum (Turkic)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Humayun

 

Hamida Banu Begum (Persian)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Akbar
Akbar
the Great

 

Mariam-uz-Zamani (Rajput)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jahangir

 

Jagat Gosaini (Rajput)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shah Jahan

 

Mumtaz Mahal (Persian)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aurangzeb

 

Dilras Banu Begum (Persian)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Azam Shah

 

 

 

See also[edit]

Mughal (other) Mughal-Mongol genealogy

References[edit]

^ Spear 1990, pp. 147–148 ^ Jeroen Duindam (2015), Dynasties: A Global History of Power, 1300–1800, page 105, Cambridge University Press ^ Mohammada, Malika (January 1, 2007). The Foundations of the Composite Culture in India. Aakar Books. p. 300. ISBN 978-8-189-83318-3.  ^ Dirk Collier (2016). The Great Mughals and their India. Hay House. p. 15.  ^ Chandra, Satish. Medieval India: From Sultanate To The Mughals. p. 202.  ^ Richards, John F. (January 1, 2016). Johnson, Gordon; Bayly, C. A., eds. The Mughal Empire. The New Cambridge history of India: 1.5. I. The Mughals and their Contemporaries. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 1, 190. doi:10.2277/0521251192. ISBN 978-0521251198.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Berndl, Klaus (2005). National Geographic visual history of the world. University of Michigan. pp. 318–320. ISBN 978-0521522915.  ^ Eraly, Abraham The Mughal Throne The Sage of India's Great Emperors, London: Phonenix, 2004 page 520. ^ Eraly, Abraham The Mughal Throne The Sage of India's Great Emperors, London: Phonenix, 2004 page 191. ^ a b c d e f g D'souza, Rohan "Crisis before the Fall: Some Speculations on the Decline of the Ottomans, Safavids and Mughals" pages 3-30 from Social Scientist, Volume 30, Issue # 9/10, September–October 2002 page 21. ^ D'souza, Rohan "Crisis before the Fall: Some Speculations on the Decline of the Ottomans, Safavids and Mughals" pages 3-30 from Social Scientist, Volume 30, Issue # 9/10, September–October 2002 page 22. ^ D'souza, Rohan "Crisis before the Fall: Some Speculations on the Decline of the Ottomans, Safavids and Mughals" pages 3-30 from Social Scientist, Volume 30, Issue # 9/10, September–October 2002 pages 22-23. ^ D'souza, Rohan "Crisis before the Fall: Some Speculations on the Decline of the Ottomans, Safavids and Mughals" pages 3-30 from Social Scientist, Volume 30, Issue # 9/10, September–October 2002 pages 21-22. ^ a b Bose, Sugata Bose; Ayesha Jalal (2004). Modern South Asia: History, Culture, Political Economy. Routledge. p. 41. ISBN 978-0203712535.  ^ Begum, Gulbadan (1902). The History of Humayun
Humayun
(Humayun-Nama). Royal Asiatic Society. pp. 237–9.  ^ Marc Jason Gilbert (2017). South Asia in World History. Oxford University Press. p. 79.  ^ Emperor of Hindustan Jahangir
Jahangir
(2010). The Tuzuk-I-Jahangiri; Or, Memoirs of Jahangir
Jahangir
Translated by Alexander Rogers Edited by Henry Beveridge. General Books LLC. p. 18. ISBN 978-1-152-49040-6.  ^ Mohammada, Malika (January 1, 2007). The Foundations of the Composite Culture in India. Aakar Books. p. 300. ISBN 978-8-189-83318-3.  ^ Dalrymple, William (2006). The Last Mughal. London: Bloomsbury Publishing Plc. p. 44. ISBN 978-1-4088-0092-8. 

 This article incorporates public domain material from the Library of Congress Country Studies website http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/. - India
India
Pakistan

Further reading[edit]

Majumdar, Ramesh Chandra; Pusalker, A. D.; Majumdar, A. K., eds. (1960). The History and Culture of the Indian People. VI: The Delhi Sultanate. Bombay: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan.  Majumdar, Ramesh Chandra; Pusalker, A. D.; Majumdar, A. K., eds. (1973). The History and Culture of the Indian People. VII: The Mughal Empire. Bombay: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. 

External links[edit]

Aurangzeb, as he was according to Mughal Records British India

v t e

Mughal Empire

Emperors

Babur Humayun Akbar Jahangir Shah Jahan Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
(Alamgir) Muhammad Azam Shah Bahadur Shah I Jahandar Shah Farrukhsiyar Rafi ud-Darajat Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
II Muhammad Shah Ahmad Shah Bahadur Alamgir II Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
III Shah Alam II Akbar
Akbar
II Bahadur Shah II

Battles and conflicts

Battle of Panipat (1526) Gujarat conquest Battle of Khanwa Battle of Ghaghra Siege of Sambhal Battle of Panipat (1556) Battle of Thanesar Siege of Chittorgarh Siege of Ranthambore Battle of Tukaroi Battle of Raj Mahal Battle of Haldighati Battle of Bhuchar Mori Siege of Kandahar Mughal–Safavid War (1622–23) Siege of Orchha Mughal–Safavid War (1649–53) Battle of Samugarh Battle of Khajwa Suppression of Tilpat rebellion Ahom–Mughal conflicts Siege of Purandhar Tibet–Ladakh–Mughal War Mughal–Maratha Wars

Siege of Bijapur Siege of Jinji

Child's War Siege of Golconda Battle of Karnal Third Battle of Panipat Battle of Buxar Siege of Delhi

Architecture

Taj Mahal Gardens of Babur Fatehpur Sikri

Tomb of Salim Chishti

Humayun's Tomb Red Fort Lahore Fort Jahangir
Jahangir
Mahal Lalbagh Fort Akbar's Tomb Agra Fort Chawk Mosque Shalimar Gardens Achabal Gardens Jahangir's Tomb Bibi Ka Maqbara Badshahi Mosque Shahi Bridge Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
Mosque, Thatta Sheesh Mahal Sunehri Masjid Tipu Sultan
Sultan
Mosque Wazir Khan Mosque more

Adversaries

Ibrahim Lodi Rana Sanga Sher Shah Suri Hemu Maharana Pratap Malik Ambar Gokula Pratapaditya Shivaji Lachit Borphukan Khushal Khattak Sir Josiah Child Guru Gobind Singh Henry Every Bajirao I Nader Shah Hector Munro

Provinces

Bengal
Bengal
Subah Gujarat Subah

See also

Art Cuisine Culture Flag Gardens Language Military Painting Persians Tribe Weapons Timurid dynasty

family tree

Successor states

Maratha Empire Rajput
Rajput
states Jats Sikh Empire Nawabs of Bengal Awadh Nizam of Hyderabad Carnatic Kingdom of

.