Mughal-e-Azam (English: The Great Mughal) is a 1960 Indian epic
historical drama film directed by
K. Asif and produced by Shapoorji
Pallonji. Starring Prithviraj Kapoor, Dilip Kumar, Madhubala, and
Durga Khote, it follows the love affair between Mughal Prince
Salim (who went on to become Emperor Jahangir) and Anarkali, a
court dancer. Salim's father, Emperor Akbar, disapproves of the
relationship, which leads to a war between father and son.
The development of
Mughal-e-Azam began in 1944, when Asif read a play
set in the reign of Emperor
Akbar (1556–1605). Production was
plagued by delays and financial uncertainty. Before its principal
photography began in the early 1950s, the project had lost a financier
and undergone a complete change of cast.
Mughal-e-Azam cost more to
produce than any previous Indian motion picture; the budget for a
single song sequence exceeded that typical for an entire film of the
period. The soundtrack, inspired by Indian classical and folk music,
comprises 12 songs voiced by playback singers including Lata
Mangeshkar and classical singer Bade Ghulam Ali Khan, and is often
cited among the finest in
Bollywood cinematic history.
Mughal-e-Azam had the widest release of any Indian film up to that
time, and patrons often queued all day for tickets. Released on 5
August 1960, it broke box office records in India and became the
Bollywood film of all time, a distinction it held for
15 years. By some accounts,
Mughal-e-Azam was the highest-grossing
Bollywood film of all time, adjusted for inflation. The accolades
awarded to the film include one National Film Award and three Filmfare
Awards at the 8th
Mughal-e-Azam was the first
Hindi film to be digitally coloured, and the first in
any language to be given a theatrical re-release. The colour version,
released in November 2004, was a commercial success.
The film is widely considered to be a milestone of its genre, earning
praise from critics for its grandeur and attention to detail. Film
scholars have welcomed its portrayal of enduring themes, but question
its historical accuracy.
3.4 Principal photography
5 Historical inaccuracies
6.2 Critical response
6.3 Track listing
8.1 Box office
8.2 Critical reception
15 External links
Mughal-e-Azam and plot details
Akbar (Prithviraj Kapoor), who does not have a male heir,
undertakes a pilgrimage to a shrine to pray that his wife Jodhabai
(Durga Khote) give birth to a son. Later, a maid brings the emperor
news of his son's birth. Overjoyed at his prayers being answered,
Akbar gives the maid his ring, and promises to grant her anything she
The son, Prince Salim, grows up to be spoiled, flippant, and
self-indulgent. His father sends him off to war, to teach him courage
and discipline. Fourteen years later, Salim returns as a distinguished
soldier (Dilip Kumar) and falls in love with court dancer Nadira, whom
the emperor has renamed
Anarkali (Madhubala), meaning pomegranate
blossom. The relationship is discovered by the jealous Bahar (Nigar
Sultana), a dancer of a higher rank, who wants the prince to love her
so that she may one day become queen. Unsuccessful in winning Salim's
love, she exposes his forbidden relationship with Anarkali. Salim
pleads to marry Anarkali, but his father refuses, and imprisons her.
Despite her treatment,
Anarkali refuses to reject Salim, as Akbar
Salim rebels and amasses an army to confront
Akbar and rescue
Anarkali. Defeated in battle, Salim is sentenced to death by his
father, but is told that the sentence will be revoked if Anarkali, now
in hiding, is handed over to die in his place.
Anarkali gives herself
up to save the prince's life, and is condemned to death by being
entombed alive. Before her sentence is carried out, she begs to have a
few hours with Salim as his make-believe wife. Her request is granted,
as she has agreed to drug Salim so that he cannot interfere with her
Anarkali is being walled up,
Akbar is reminded that he
still owes her mother a favour, as it was she who brought him news of
Salim's birth. Anarkali's mother pleads for her daughter's life. The
emperor has a change of heart, but although he wants to release
Anarkali he cannot, because of his duty to his country. He therefore
arranges for her secret escape into exile with her mother, but demands
that the pair are to live in obscurity, and that Salim is never to
Anarkali is still alive.
Prithviraj Kapoor as Akbar
Dilip Kumar as Salim
Madhubala as Nadira (Anarkali)
Durga Khote as Jodhabai
Nigar Sultana as Bahar, a court dancer
Ajit as Durjan Singh
Murad as Raja Man Singh
M. Kumar as Sangtarash, the royal sculptor
Sheila Dalaya as Suraiyya, Anarkali's sister
Jillo Bai as Anarkali's mother
Anarkali, the 1928 silent film based on the tale of
Anarkali and Salim
Imtiaz Ali Taj
Imtiaz Ali Taj wrote a play about the love story of
Anarkali in 1922, based more on a 16th-century legend
than on fact. A stage version was soon produced, and screen
Ardeshir Irani made a silent film, Anarkali, in
1928, and remade it with sound in 1935. In the early 1940s, the
Anarkali inspired producer Shiraz Ali Hakeem and young
K. Asif (Karimuddin Asif) to make another film adaptation
which they would title Mughal-e-Azam. They recruited four Urdu
writers to develop the screenplay and dialogue: Aman (Zeenat Aman's
father, also known as Amanullah Khan), Wajahat Mirza, Kamaal Amrohi,
and Ehsan Rizvi. It is not known how the writers collaborated or
shared out their work, but in 2010
The Times of India
The Times of India said that their
"mastery over Urdu's poetic idiom and expression is present in every
line, giving the film, with its rich plots and intricate characters,
the overtones of a Shakespearean drama." As the script neared
completion, Asif cast Chandra Mohan, D.K. Sapru, and
Nargis for the
roles of Akbar, Salim, and Anarkali, respectively. Shooting
started in 1946 in
Bombay Talkies studio.
The project faced multiple hurdles, which forced its temporary
abandonment. The political tensions and communal rioting surrounding
India's 1947 partition and independence stalled production. Shortly
after partition, Shiraz Ali migrated to Pakistan, leaving Asif without
a financier. The actor Chandra Mohan suffered a heart attack
and died in 1949. Shiraz Ali had previously suggested that
business tycoon Shapoorji Pallonji could finance the film. Although
Pallonji knew nothing about film production, in 1950 he agreed to
produce the film because of his interest in the history of
Akbar. Production was then restarted with a new cast.
Believing that the film had been cancelled, Kamal Amrohi, one of the
scriptwriters who was also a director, planned to make a film on the
same subject himself. When confronted by Asif, he agreed to shelve the
project. Another unrelated film production based on the same stage
play was Nandlal Jaswantlal's Anarkali, starring
Bina Rai and Pradeep
Kumar, which became the highest grossing
Bollywood film of 1953.
Asif had initially rejected
Dilip Kumar for the part of Prince
Salim. Kumar was reluctant to act in a period film, but accepted
the role upon the insistence of the film's producer. According to
Kumar, "Asif trusted me enough to leave the delineation of Salim
completely to me." Kumar faced difficulty while filming in
Rajasthan owing to the heat and the body armour he wore. The part
Anarkali had first been offered to Suraiya but later went to
Madhubala, who had been longing for a significant role. Madhubala
suffered from congenital heart disease, which was one of the
reasons why at times she fainted on set; she also endured skin
abrasions while filming the prison sequences, but was determined to
finish the film.
To become the character of Emperor Akbar,
Prithviraj Kapoor was
reported to have "relied completely on the script and director".
Prior to make-up, Kapoor would declare, "
Prithviraj Kapoor ab jaa
rahaa hai" ("
Prithviraj Kapoor is now going"); after make-up, he would
Akbar ab aa rahaa hai" ("
Akbar is now coming"). Kapoor
faced difficulty with his heavy costumes, and suffered blisters on his
feet after walking barefoot in the desert for a sequence. Lance
Dane, a photographer who was on set during the filming, recalled that
Kapoor struggled to remember his lines in some scenes; he mentioned
one scene in particular that Kapoor required 19 takes to get
right. At the time of filming, Kapoor who was on a diet, was told
by Asif to regain the lost weight for his portrayal of Akbar.
Zakir Hussain, who later became a tabla maestro, had initially been
considered for the part of the young Prince Salim, but it became the
debut role of Jalal Agha, who later performed on the song "Mehbooba
The production design of the film, led by art director M. K. Syed, was
extravagant, and some sets took six weeks to erect. The film, mostly
shot in studio sets designed to represent the interior of a Mughal
palace, featured opulent furnishings and water features such as
fountains and pools, generating the feel of a Hollywood historical
epic of the period. The song "Pyar Kiya To Darna Kya" was filmed in
Mohan Studios on a set built as a replica of the Sheesh Mahal in the
Lahore Fort. The set was noted for its size, measuring 150 feet
(46 m) in length, 80 feet (24 m) in breadth and 35 feet
(11 m) in height. A much-discussed aspect was the presence of
numerous small mirrors made of Belgian glass, which were crafted and
designed by workers from Firozabad. The set took two years to
build and cost more than ₹1.5 million (valued at about US$314,000 in
1960),[a] more than the budget of an entire
Bollywood film at the
time. The film's financiers feared bankruptcy as a result of the high
cost of production.
Artisans from across India were recruited to craft the props. The
costumes were designed by Makhanlal and Company, and Delhi-based
tailors skilled in zardozi embroidery stitched the Mughal costume.
The footwear was ordered from Agra, the jewellery was made by
goldsmiths in Hyderabad, the crowns were designed in Kolhapur, and
Rajasthan manufactured the armoury (which included
shields, swords, spears, daggers, and armour). The zardozi on costumes
were also stitched by designers from Surat. A statue of
Lord Krishna, to which Jodhabai prayed, was made of gold. In the
scenes involving an imprisoned Anarkali, real chains were placed on
Madhubala. The battle sequence between
Akbar and Salim reportedly
featured 2,000 camels, 400 horses, and 8,000 troops, mainly from the
Indian Army's Jaipur cavalry, 56th Regiment.
Dilip Kumar has
spoken of the intense heat during filming of the sequence in the
desert of Rajasthan, wearing full armour.
Principal photography for
Mughal-e-Azam began in the early 1950s.
Each sequence was reportedly filmed three times, as the film was
being produced in Hindi/Urdu, Tamil, and English. The film was
eventually dubbed in Tamil and released in 1961 as Akbar, but
that version's commercial failure resulted in the abandonment of the
planned English dubbing, for which British actors were considered.
Asif was accompanied by an extensive crew, which included his
assistant directors S. T. Zaidi, Khalid Akhtar, Surinder Kapoor
(assisting primarily for the English version), and five others.
Additional crew members included cinematographer R. D. Mathur,
choreographer Lachhu Maharaj, production manager Aslam Noori,
cameraman M. D. Ayub, editor Dharamavir, makeup artists P. G. Joshi
and Abdul Hamid, and sound director Akram Shaikh.
Some film sequences were shot with up to 14 cameras, significantly
more than the norm at that time. There were many difficulties with
the film's lighting; cinematographer Mathur reportedly took eight
hours to light a single shot. In total, 500 days of shooting were
needed, compared to a normal schedule of 60 to 125 shooting days at
the time. Owing to the very large size of the Sheesh Mahal set, the
lighting was provided by the headlights of 500 trucks and about 100
reflectors. The presence of the mirrors on the set caused
problems, as they sparkled under the lights. Foreign consultants,
including British director David Lean, told Asif to forget the idea
since they felt that it was impossible to film the scene under the
intense glare. Asif confined himself to the set with the lighting
crew, and subsequently overcame the problem by covering all the
mirrors with a thin layer of wax, thereby subduing their
reflectivity. Mathur also used strategically placed strips of cloth
to implement "bounce lighting", which reduced the glare.
Such was the all-round commitment that nobody saw the delay as
tiresome. We were experienced enough to know that a film involving
such overwhelming craftsmanship, minute detailing, massive gathering
of artistes and unit hands, strenuous schedules with large units of
artistes and trained animals, day and night shoots cannot be a simple
- Dilip Kumar, on the duration of filming
A number of problems and production delays were encountered during
filming, to the extent that at one point Asif considered abandoning
the project. Kumar defended the long duration of filming, invoking
the massive logistics of the film and explaining that the entire cast
and crew were "acutely conscious of the hard work [they] would have to
put in, as well as the responsibility [they] would have to
The production also suffered from financial problems, and Asif
exceeded the budget on a number of occasions. The final budget of
the film is a subject of debate. Some sources state that Mughal-e-Azam
cost ₹10.5 million to produce (about US$2.25 million at the
time) while others state that it cost ₹15 million (about $3
million). This made
Mughal-e-Azam the most expensive
Indian film of the period. A number of estimates put the film's
inflation-adjusted budget at ₹500 million to ₹2 billion. The
budget situation strained the relationship between Asif and Pallonji,
while the production also faced troubled relationships among other
crew members; differences crept up between Asif and Kumar when the
former married the latter's sister. Another source of trouble was
the romantic relationship and ultimate break-up of Kumar and
Madhubala, who had been dating for nine years.
Sohrab Modi's Jhansi Ki Rani (1953) was the first Indian film to be
shot in colour, and by 1957, colour production had become
increasingly common. Asif filmed one reel of Mughal-e-Azam, including
the song "Pyar Kiya To Darna Kya", in Technicolor. Impressed by the
result, he filmed three more reels in Technicolor, near the story's
climax. After seeing them, he sought a complete re-shoot in
Technicolor, angering impatient distributors who were unwilling to
accept further delays. Asif subsequently released Mughal-e-Azam
partially coloured, although he still hoped to see the full film in
By the end of filming, more than a million feet of negative had been
used, necessitating significant editing. A number of songs were
edited out owing to the running time, which in the end was 197
minutes. Almost half of the songs recorded for the film were left
out of the final version.
Mughal-e-Azam is a family history highlighting the differences between
father and son, duty to the public over family, and the trials and
tribulations of women, particularly of courtesans. According to Rachel
Dwyer, author of the book Filming the Gods: Religion and Indian
Cinema, the film highlights religious tolerance between Hindus and
Muslims. Examples include the scenes of Hindu Queen Jodahabai's
presence in the court of the Muslim Akbar, the singing of a Hindu
devotional song by Anarkali, and Akbar's participation in the
Janmashtami celebrations, during which
Akbar is shown pulling a string
to rock a swing with an idol of
Krishna on it. Film critic Mukul
Kesavan has remarked that he was unable to recall a single other film
about Hindu-Muslim love in which the woman (Jodhabai) is Hindu.
Scholars Bhaskar and Allen described the film as a tableau vivant of
"Islamicate culture", evidenced in its ornate sets, musical
sequences such as the qawwali scene, and chaste
Throughout the film there is a distinct depiction of Muslims as the
ruling class who not only dressed differently but also spoke in
complex Persianised dialogue. They are made to appear "distinct and
separate from the mainstream."
Film scholar Stephen Teo posits that
Mughal-e-Azam is a "national
allegory", a stylistic way of appropriating history and heritage
to emphasise the national identity. He believes the arrogance of
Bahar represents the power of the state and that Anarkali's emotion,
which is highly personal, represents the private individual. Teo
states that the theme of romantic love defeating social class
difference and power hierarchy, as well as the grandeur of the
filming, contribute to the film's attractiveness. Author Ashis
Nandy has commented on the poetic quality of the dialogue, saying that
"the characters of
Mughal-e-Azam do not just speak – they
refine communication, they distil it, they crystallize it into many
faceted glittering gems, they make poetry of ordinary language."
Gowri Ramnarayan of
The Hindu has also emphasised the power of the
dialogues in the film in that they "create not only the ambiance of
this period drama, but also etch character and situation. Every
syllable breathes power and emotion."
Philip Lutgendorf, a scholar at the University of Iowa, has stated
that while the theme of the conflict between passionate individual
love and family duty may be very common in
Hindi film making, with
endless cinematic permutations, K. Asif's "excessive elaboration of
the theme remains in a class by itself." Further, Emperor Akbar
struggles between his personal desires and his duties to the
Ashis Nandy noted that apart from the conflict between
Akbar and his son, there is also an "unwritten alliance" between Akbar
and Bahar that compounds the problems of Anarkali. He also thought it
highlighted the "idea of justice and the notion of unconditional love"
to uphold tradition. The song "Pyar Kiya To Darna Kya" sung by
Anarkali was an indication of her defiance of societal norms. A
major difference from the original story is that while the earlier
Anarakali films based on Imtiaz Ali Taj's story ended as tragedies, K.
Asif created a relatively happy ending in that
Akbar gives amnesty to
Anarkali by allowing her to escape through a secret route of tunnels
below a false bottom of her prison wall, although his son is made to
suffer in believing her to have perished.
Jahangir with a Portrait of Akbar, c. 1614.
Jahangir (Salim) and
Akbar play central characters in the film.
The film is based on a legend, but it is given credence by at least
two texts that assert Anarkali's existence during the historical
period of the greatest monarch of the Mughal Empire, Emperor Akbar
(1556–1605). One of the books states that in 1615 a marble tomb was
built on Anarkali's grave in
Lahore by Salim, when he had become
Emperor Jehangir. On the tomb is a Persian inscription that reads:
Ta Kiyamat shukr geom kardgate khwesh ra, Aah garman bez benaam roo-e
yare khwesh ra ("Ah! could I behold the face of my love once more, I
would give thanks to my God until the day of resurrection"). The
author of the stage play on which the film is based, Imtiaz Ali Taj,
believed that the legend had no historical base, but historians
have suggested that
Anarkali may have been a painter, a dancer, or a
courtesan, or one of Akbar's wives and the mother of Salim's
half-brother Prince Daniyal. While an earlier film version of
Anarkali (1952), contained a disclaimer stating that the
story had no foundation in history,
Mughal-e-Azam made no such
Mughal-e-Azam takes numerous liberties with historical fact. Historian
Alex von Tunzelmann says that although the real Salim was a heavy
consumer of alcohol and opium from the age of 18, he was not
necessarily a mischievous boy, as depicted in the film. When the
film's Salim returns from his time in the military, he is depicted as
a gentle and romantic hero, in contrast to the real Salim, who was
documented as a brutal drunk who would often beat people to death. The
real Salim did lead a rebellion against his father, tried to replace
him as emperor, and had Akbar's friend Abu al-Fazl murdered in 1602,
but the film ascribes these actions to his desire to marry Anarkali,
which is historically inaccurate. Further, there were also
discrepancies in sets, costumes, and music of the film. The Sheesh
Mahal, actually the royal bath of the queen, was depicted in the film
as a dancing hall, and much larger. Music and dancing styles from the
19th century were depicted, although the story takes place in the 16th
century. For example, thumri, a semi-classical music form developed in
the 19th century, is adopted in a dance sequence in
which is a 16th-century dance form.
Soundtrack album by Naushad
The soundtrack was composed by music director Naushad, and the lyrics
were written by Shakeel Badayuni. After conceiving the idea of the
film, Asif visited
Naushad and handed him a briefcase containing
money, telling him to make "memorable music" for Mughal-e-Azam.
Offended by the explicit notion of money as a means of gaining
Naushad threw the notes out of the window, to the surprise of
his wife. She subsequently made peace between the two men, and Asif
apologised. With this,
Naushad accepted the offer to direct the film's
As with most of Naushad's soundtracks, the songs of
heavily inspired by
Indian classical music
Indian classical music and folk music,
particularly ragas such as Darbari, Durga, used in the composition of
"Pyar Kiya To Darna Kya", and Kedar, used in "Bekas Pe Karam
Keejeye". He also made extensive use of symphony orchestras and
choruses to add grandeur to the music. The soundtrack contained a
total of 12 songs, which were rendered by playback singers and
classical music artists. These songs account for nearly one third of
the film's running time.
A total of 20 songs were composed for the film, at an average cost of
₹3,000 (valued at about US$629 in 1960)[a] per song, though many
were left out of the final cut owing to the film's length. Both
Naushad approached Hindustani classical vocalist Bade Ghulam
Ali Khan inviting him to participate in the film's soundtrack, but he
refused, explaining that he disliked working in films. Asif, adamant
about the presence of Khan, asked him to name his fee. Khan quoted a
fee of ₹25,000 per song, at a time when
Lata Mangeshkar and Mohammed
Rafi (the best paid playback singers of the time) charged ₹300–400
per song, thinking that Asif would send him away. Instead, Asif
agreed, and even gave Khan a 50 per cent advance. Surprised and
left with no excuse to turn down the offer, he finally accepted.
Khan sang two songs, "Prem Jogan Ban Ke" and "Shubh Din Aayo"; both
were included in the final version of the film and demonstrated the
artist's vocal virtuosity.
The composition of "Pyar Kiya To Darna Kya" was especially
time-consuming – on the day of the song's scheduled recording,
Naushad rejected two sets of lyrics by Badayuni. Subsequently, a
"brainstorming session" was held on Naushad's terrace, beginning in
early evening and lasting until next day. Late in the night,
Naushad remembered a folk song from eastern
Uttar Pradesh with the
lyrics "Prem kiya, kya chori kari hai..." ("I have loved, does it mean
that I have stolen?"). The song was converted into a ghazal and
subsequently recorded. At that time, since there was no technology
to provide for the reverberation of sound heard in the song, Naushad
had Mangeshkar sing the song in a studio bathroom. Some sources
state that a chorus of a hundred singers supported singer Mohammed
Rafi for the song "Ae Mohabbat Zindabad", though other sources
place the number at a thousand.
The song "Mohe Panghat Pe" was objected to by veteran director Vijay
Bhatt. Although he was not directly involved with the project, he
thought that it would "ruin the film", since it showed the Mughal
emperor celebrating the Hindu festival Janmashtami. Though Naushad
argued that the presence of Jodhabai made the situation logical, he
met with the film's screenwriters and subsequently added dialogue that
explained the sequence.
When the film was colourised for re-release, the soundtrack was also
reworked, with original composer
Naushad receiving help from Uttam
Singh. The score remained the same, but the sound was touched up and
converted to Dolby Digital. The orchestral part was re-recorded
with live musicians, but the original solo vocals were retained.
The cost was reported to be between ₹2.6 million (US$40,000) and
₹6.5 million (US$100,000).
The soundtrack of
Mughal-e-Azam received universal acclaim from
critics in India. It is often cited as one of the best soundtracks in
Bollywood history, and was one of the best-selling Bollywood
albums of the 1960s. Shahid Khan, writing for Planet Bollywood,
gave the soundtrack ten out of ten stars and called the music the
"soul of the film". In 2004,
Subhash K. Jha reviewed the
re-mastered release of the soundtrack, praising the technical quality
of the re-release and the original vocals of Lata Mangeshkar. In
2013, Baldev S Chauhan of
Sun Post called the songs "some of the
greatest songs of
All lyrics written by Shakeel Badayuni; all music composed by Naushad.
"Mohe Panghat Pe"
Lata Mangeshkar and chorus
"Pyar Kiya To Darna Kya"
Lata Mangeshkar and chorus
"Mohabbat Ki Jhooti"
"Humen Kash Tumse Mohabbat"
"Bekas Pe Karam Keejeye"
"Teri Mehfil Mein"
Shamshad Begum and chorus
"Ye Dil Ki Lagi"
"Ae Ishq Yeh Sab Duniyawale"
"Ae Mohabbat Zindabad"
Mohammed Rafi and chorus
"Prem Jogan Ban Ke"
Bade Ghulam Ali Khan
"Shubh Din Aayo Raj Dulara"
Bade Ghulam Ali Khan
"Asif's logic was very clear – he had made a film which
everyone associated with it would be proud of for generations. And he
was proved right."
K.K. Rai of Stardust, on Asif's quoted distributor prices.
At the time of the release of Mughal-e-Azam, a typical
would garner a distribution fee of ₹300,000–400,000 (about
US$63,000–84,000 in 1960)[a] per territory. Asif insisted that he
would sell his film to the distributors at no less than ₹700,000 per
territory. Subsequently, the film was actually sold at a price of
₹1.7 million (US$356,000)[a] per territory, surprising Asif and
the producers. Thus, it set the record for the highest distribution
fee received by any
Bollywood film at that time.
The premiere of
Mughal-e-Azam was held at the then-new
Maratha Mandir cinema in Mumbai. Mirroring the
nature of the film, the cinema's foyer had been decorated to resemble
a Mughal palace, and a 40-foot (12 m) cut-out of Prithviraj
Kapoor was erected outside it. The Sheesh Mahal set was
transported from the studio to the cinema, where ticket holders could
go inside and experience its grandeur. Invitations to the premiere
were sent as "royal invites" shaped like scrolls, which were written
Urdu and made to look like the Akbarnama, the official chronicle of
the reign of Akbar. The premiere was held amidst great fanfare,
with large crowds and an extensive media presence, in addition to
hosting much of the film industry, although
Dilip Kumar did not
attend the event owing to his dispute with Asif. The film's reels
arrived at the premiere cinema atop a decorated elephant, accompanied
by the music of bugles and shehnai.
The day before bookings for the film opened, a reported crowd of
100,000 gathered outside the
Maratha Mandir to buy tickets. The
tickets, the most expensive for a
Bollywood film at that time, were
dockets containing text, photographs and trivia about the film, and
are now considered collector's items. They sold for ₹100 (valued
at about US$21 in 1960),[a] compared to the usual price of ₹1.5
(US$0.31).[a] Bookings experienced major chaos, to the extent that
police intervention was required. It was reported that people would
wait in queues for four to five days, and would be supplied food from
home through their family members. Subsequently, the Maratha
Mandir closed bookings for three weeks.
Mughal-e-Azam was released on 5 August 1960 in 150 cinemas across
the country, establishing a record for the widest release for a
Bollywood film. It became a major commercial success, earning
₹4 million (US$839,000)[a] in the first week,
eventually earning a net revenue of ₹55 million
(US$11,530,000),[a] and generating a profit of ₹30 million for
Mughal-e-Azam also experienced a long theatrical run,
screening to full capacity at the
Maratha Mandir for three years.
The film thus became the highest-grossing
Bollywood film of all
time by surpassing
Mother India (1957), and retained this record
Sholay (1975) surpassed its net revenue. In terms of gross
Mughal-e-Azam earned ₹110 million.
According to Zia Us Salam of The Hindu,
Mughal-e-Azam was the
Bollywood film of all time if adjusted for
inflation. According to the online box office website Box Office
India in 2011, the film's adjusted net revenue would have amounted to
₹1327 million, ranking it as an "All-Time Blockbuster".
Box Office India in June 2017,
Mughal-e-Azam had more
than 100 million footfalls at the domestic box office, higher than Hum
Aapke Hain Koun (1994) and
Baahubali 2 (2017).
Mughal-e-Azam received almost universal acclaim from Indian critics;
every aspect of the film was praised. A review from the 1960s in
Filmfare called it a "history-making film ... the work of a team
of creative artists drawn from different spheres of the art world". It
was also described as "a tribute to imagination, hard work and
lavishness of its maker, Mr. Asif. For its grandeur, its beauty, and
then performances of the artists it should be a landmark in Indian
films." Another contemporary review from The Indian Express
focused on the acting and dancing "gifts" of Madhubala.
Since 2000, reviewers have described the film as a "classic",
"benchmark", or "milestone" in the history of Indian cinema. In
Anupama Chopra called it "the best
Hindi film ever made" and
"the apotheosis of the
Hindi film form", noting specifically the
performances, father-son drama and song sequences. Dinesh Raheja
of Rediff called the film a must-see classic, saying "a work of art is
the only phrase to describe this historical whose grand
palaces-and-fountains look has an epic sweep and whose heart-wrenching
core of romance has the tenderness of a feather's touch." Sujata
Gupta of Planet
Bollywood gave the film nine out of ten stars, calling
it a "must see" that "has captured interest of people over
K. K. Rai, in his review for Stardust stated, "it can be said that the
grandeur and vintage character of
Mughal-e-Azam cannot be repeated,
and it will remembered as one of the most significant films made in
this country." Ziya Us Salam of
The Hindu described Mughal-e-Azam
as a film people will want to watch over and over again. Raja Sen
of Rediff compared the film to Spartacus (1960) and said,
Mughal-e-Azam is awesomely, stunningly overwhelming, a magnificent
spectacle entirely free of CGI and nonlinear gimmickry, a gargantuan
feat of ... of ... well, of Mughal proportions!" Laura
Bushell of the
BBC rated the film four out of five stars, considering
it to be a "benchmark film for both Indian cinema and cinema grandeur
in general", and remarking that Mughal-E-Azam was an epic film in
every way. Naman Ramachandran, reviewing the film for the British
Film Institute, noted the depiction of religious tolerance and said
the film had a tender heart.
Nasreen Munni Kabir, author of The Immortal Dialogue of K. Asif's
Mughal-e-Azam, compared the film to the
Koh-i-Noor diamond for its
enduring worth to Indian cinema. Outlook, in 2008, and Hindustan
Times, in 2011, both declared that the scene in which Salim brushes
Anarkali with an ostrich feather was the most erotic and sensuous
scene in the history of Indian cinema.
At the 1961 National Film Awards,
Mughal-e-Azam won the National Film
Award for Best Feature Film in Hindi. In the 1961
Mughal-e-Azam was nominated in seven categories: Best Film, Best
Director (Asif), Best Actress (Madhubala), Best Playback Singer
(Mangeshkar), Best Music (Naushad), Best
and Best Dialogue (Aman, Wajahat Mirza, Kamaal Amrohi, and Ehsan
Rizvi), winning the awards for Best Film, Best Cinematography, and
A comparison between the original (above) and colourised version
Mughal-e-Azam was the first black-and-white
Hindi film to be digitally
coloured and the first to be given a theatrical re-release. The
Sterling Investment Corporation, the negative rights owner  and
an arm of the Shapoorji Pallonji Group, undertook restoration and
Mughal-e-Azam and assigned Deepesh Salgia as Project
Designer and Director. They initially approached Hollywood
executives for help, but found the sales quotations, ranging from
$12–15 million, too high. In 2002, Umar Siddiqui, managing
director of the Indian Academy of Arts and Animation (IAAA), proposed
to enhance it digitally at a fraction of the cost. To convince
the Shapoorji Pallonji Group, one of India's wealthiest companies,
of the commercial viability of the project, the IAAA colourised a
four-minute clip and showed it to them. They approved and gave the
project the go-ahead. Shapoorji Mistry, grandson of producer Shapoorji
Pallonji Mistry, thought it a fitting tribute to complete his
grandfather's unfinished dream of colourising the entire film.
The first step towards colourisation was the restoration of the
original negatives, which were in poor condition owing to extensive
printing of the negative during the original theatrical release.
Costly and labour-intensive restoration was essential before
colourisation could be carried out. The negative was cleaned of fungal
growth, damaged portions were restored, and missing parts of frames
were re-instated. After cleaning, each of the 300,000 frames of
the negative was scanned into a 10 megabytes-sized file and then was
digitally restored. The entire restoration work was undertaken by
Acris Lab, Chennai. The dialogues in the original soundtrack were
also in a bad state of preservation, which necessitated having the
sound cleaned at Chace Studio in the United States. The background
score and the entire musical track was recreated by
Naushad and Uttam
Singh. For the songs, the original voices of the singers like Bade
Ghulam Ali Khan,
Mohammed Rafi and
Lata Mangeshkar were extracted from
the original mixed track and the same were recreated with re-recorded
score in 6.1 surround sound.
The process of colourisation was preceded by extensive research. The
art departments visited museums and studied the literature for
background on the typical colours of clothing worn at that time.
Siddiqui studied the technology used for the colourisation of
black-and-white Hollywood classics. The team also approached a number
of experts for guidance and suggestions, including Dilip Kumar,
production designer Nitin Chandrakant Desai, and a historian from the
Jawaharlal Nehru University in Delhi. To undertake the
colourisation, Siddiqui brought together a team of around 100
individuals, including computer engineers and software professionals,
and organised a number of art departments. The entire project was
co-ordinated by Deepesh Salgia, who partnered with companies including
Iris Interactive and Rajtaru Studios to execute the colourisation.
The task was controlled and supervised by the producers, who received
daily updates and progress reports.
The colourisation team spent 18 months developing software for
colouring the frames, called "Effects Plus", which was designed to
accept only those colours whose hue would match the shade of grey
present in the original film. This ensured that the colours added were
as close to the real colour as possible; the authenticity of the
colouring was later verified when a costume used in the film was
retrieved from a warehouse, and its colours were found to closely
match those in the film. Every shot was finally hand-corrected to
perfect the look. The actual colourisation process took a further
10 months to complete. Siddiqui said that it had "been a
painstaking process with men working round the clock to complete the
project." The exact cost of the colourisation is disputed, with a
wide variety of estimates ranging from ₹20 million (US$310,000)
to ₹50 million, or ₹100 million.
The film's colour version was released theatrically on 12 November
2004, in 150 prints across India, 65 of which were in Maharashtra.
The new release premiered at the
Eros Cinema in Mumbai. Dilip Kumar,
who had not attended the original premiere, was in attendance.
The colour version was edited to a running time of 177
minutes, as compared to the original version's 197
minutes. The new release also included a digital reworked
soundtrack, produced with the assistance of Naushad, the original
composer. The release on the festive
Diwali weekend came with
three other major releases: Veer-Zaara, Aitraaz, and Naach. It became
the 19th highest grossing
Bollywood film of the year, behind Aitraaz
Veer-Zaara (the top grosser), but ahead of Naach.
Mughal-e-Azam became the first full-length feature film colourised for
a theatrical re-release; although some Hollywood films had been
colourised earlier, they were only available for home media. It was
subsequently selected for seven international film festivals. Upon
release, the film drew crowds to the cinemas, with an overall
occupancy of 90 per cent. Subsequently, it completed a 25-week
run. While some critics complained that the colours were
"psychedelic" or "unnatural", others hailed the effort as a
technological achievement. Film critic Kevin Thomas of the Los
Angeles Times remarked that while colourising was not a good idea for
most black-and-white classics, it was perfect in this particular
instance. He compared it to films by
Cecil B. DeMille
Cecil B. DeMille and to Gone With
the Wind (1939) for its larger-than-life storytelling. The
Guardian said that although the new version was an improvement, "the
fake colours tend to look flat and brash, detracting from
cinematographer RD Mathur's elegantly composed shots." The BBC's
Jaspreet Pandohar, observing that the film was "restored in appealing
candy-colours and high quality sound", considered it a "cross between
Gone With the Wind and Ben-Hur". Other critics have said that
they prefer the black and white version.
Mughal-e-Azam became only the fourth Indian film certified
for showing in
Pakistan since the 1965 ban on Indian cinema, and was
released with a premiere in Lahore. It was distributed by Nadeem
Mandviwala Entertainment, at the request of Asif's son, Akbar
Mughal-e-Azam is one of only two films directed by Asif; one of his
unfinished projects was released posthumously as a tribute. Over
time the title has become part of
Bollywood vernacular, used to
describe a project that is taking too long to complete. Art
director Omung Kumar, who has designed sets for major Indian films
such as Black (2005) and
Saawariya (2007), said that he and others in
his field look to
Mughal-e-Azam as a source of inspiration for art
direction. It has also been used as a model for the perfect love
story, requiring directors to ensure lovers overcome obstacles.
Following her success in the film,
Madhubala could have gone on to
land further major roles, but she was advised not to overwork owing to
her heart condition, and had to withdraw from some productions that
were already underway.
The Guardian in 2013 cited
Mughal-e-Azam as a "landmark of cinema"
despite its historical inaccuracies, and the
BBC stated in 2005
that it is "widely considered one of Bollywood's most iconic
films". Imtiaz Ali of
The Times of India
The Times of India in 2010 called it the
"most proto-typical, high involvement, expensive, passionate piece of
Hindi cinema has ever produced", one that "set the standard
for everything that will ever come after it". It continues to be
regarded by critics as the Indian equivalent of Gone with the
Subhash Ghai was quoted in 2010 as saying that a
film like this could never be repeated: "
Mughal-e-Azam is an all-time
classic and has been the ultimate love story in
Hindi cinema at all
levels. So it will always remain alive for generations to come."
To commemorate the film's anniversary, Asif's friend the actor and
Shah Rukh Khan
Shah Rukh Khan had his company Red Chillies Entertainment
produce a documentary video titled Mughal-E-Azam – A Tribute by
a son to his father. Hosted by Khan, it includes interviews with
Asif's family and
Bollywood stars. Artist
M. F. Husain
M. F. Husain created a
series of paintings for the video, in which he re-imagined some
memorable scenes. Interested in preserving the film for future
generations, Khan noted that his father was originally cast in the
film but did not complete it. When asked if
Mughal-e-Azam should be
remade, he retorted: "It is the mother of all films; mothers cannot be
remade". No sequels have been made, but Maan Gaye
Mughal-e-Azam (2008) paid tribute with its title and by including in
its plot part of the original stage play; it received very poor
ratings from critics. In October 2016, producer Feroz Abbas Khan
premiered a stage play based on the film with a cast of over 70 actors
and dancers at Mumbai's NCPA theatre.
Mughal-e-Azam ranks on the lists of top Indian films, including the
British Film Institute
British Film Institute poll of Top 10 Indian Films, and
Anupama Chopra's 2009 list The Best
Bollywood Films. It is also
included in CNN-IBN's 2013 list of the "100 greatest Indian films of
Rotten Tomatoes has sampled 10 reviewers and judged
90% of them to be positive, with an average rating of 7.9 out of
10. It is second on Box Office India's list of Biggest
Blockbusters Ever in
Hindi Cinema, and was named the greatest
Bollywood film of all time by a poll celebrating 100 years of Indian
British Asian weekly newspaper
Eastern Eye in July
2013. It belongs to a small collection of films including Kismet
Mother India (1957),
Sholay (1975), and Hum Aapke Hain Koun..!
(1994), that are watched repeatedly throughout India and are viewed as
Hindi films of cultural significance. Books and
documentaries made about the film include Shakil Warsi's
Mughal-E-Azam – An Epic of Eternal Love, published by Rupa in
2009. The name
Mughal-e-Azam has been adopted by businesses,
including a restaurant in Goregaon.
^ a b c d e f g h The exchange rate in 1960 was 4.77 Indian rupees
(₹) per 1 US dollar (US$).(Statistical Abstract of the United States
1961, p. 937)
^ a b "Box Office 1960". Box Office India. Archived from the original
on 22 September 2012.
^ a b c d e f Raheja, Dinesh (15 February 2003). "Mughal-e-Azam: A
work of art". Rediff.com. Archived from the original on 24 June 2012.
Retrieved 10 June 2012.
^ Pauwels 2007, pp. 123, 125, 130.
^ Ganti 2004, p. 152.
^ a b Warsi 2009, p. 38.
^ a b Warsi 2009, p. 39.
^ Kabir, Nasreen Munni (31 July 2010). "Where every line was a piece
of poetry..." The Times of India. Archived from the original on 31 May
2015. Retrieved 3 July 2012.
^ a b Warsi 2009, p. 50.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Vijayakar, Rajiv (6
August 2010). "Celluloid Monument". The Indian Express. Archived from
the original on 30 March 2013. Retrieved 12 June 2012.
^ a b Warsi 2009, p. 52.
^ "How well do you know Mughal-e-Azam?". Rediff. 5 August 2010.
Archived from the original on 24 June 2012. Retrieved 12 June
^ a b Warsi 2009, p. 53.
^ Us Salam, Zia (31 July 2009). "Saga of all sagas". The Hindu.
Archived from the original on 21 October 2013. Retrieved 12 June
^ Warsi 2009, pp. 39–40.
^ "Box Office 1953". Box Office India. Archived from the original on
30 October 2013. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
^ a b c d e f g h i Burman, Jivraj (7 August 2008). "Mughal-e-Azam:
reliving the making of an epic". Hindustan Times. Archived from the
original on 24 June 2012. Retrieved 10 June 2012.
^ a b c d e f g h i Sinha, Meenakshi (5 August 2010). "50 yrs [sic]
Dilip Kumar remembers magnum opus Mughal-e-Azam". The Times of
India. Archived from the original on 24 June 2012. Retrieved 24 June
^ a b c d e f Us Salam, Zia (31 July 2009). "
The Hindu. Archived from the original on 24 June 2012. Retrieved 12
^ a b c Sharma, Rohit (13 February 2011). "Still our Valentine".
Hindustan Times. Archived from the original on 25 June 2012. Retrieved
25 June 2012.
^ a b c d e V Gangadhar (29 October 2004). "A classic resurrected in
true colours". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 29 June 2012.
Retrieved 26 June 2012.
^ Kohli, Suresh (25 June 2012). "Timeless appeal". Deccan Herald.
Archived from the original on 25 June 2012. Retrieved 25 June
^ a b Jain 2009, p. 39.
^ Rishi 2012, p. 187.
^ "Is it sunset for Bollywood's magnificent 'sets'?". The Indian
Express. 17 July 2011. Archived from the original on 25 June 2012.
Retrieved 25 June 2012.
^ Warsi 2009, p. 57.
^ a b c Warsi 2009, p. 62.
^ a b Saqaf, Syed Muthahar (1 August 2013). "Bollywood's best". The
Hindu. Archived from the original on 4 August 2013. Retrieved 12
^ Warsi 2009, p. 64.
Mughal-e-Azam was a trilingual". The Times of India. 30 June 2012.
Archived from the original on 31 May 2015. Retrieved 14 August
^ a b Roy, Gitanjali (24 April 2013). "Indian cinema@100: 10 facts
about Mughal-e-Azam". NDTV. Archived from the original on 27 April
2013. Retrieved 4 June 2013.
^ "Sterling Investment Corpn. (Private) Ltd. Presents AKBAR". The
Indian Express. 3 March 1961. p. 3. Retrieved 3 May 2017.
^ a b "Credits: Mughal-E-Azam". British Film Institute. Archived from
the original on 3 November 2016. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
^ Khubchandani 2003, p. 203.
^ "Archive for the 'Review' Category". Mughal E Azam. Devasuram Word
Press. Archived from the original on 6 April 2015. Retrieved 14 August
^ a b c d e "
Mughal-e-Azam turns 50". Hindustan Times. 5 August 2010.
Archived from the original on 24 October 2013. Retrieved 12 June
^ Raheja, Dinesh (5 August 2010). "
Mughal-e-Azam revisited". Rediff.
Archived from the original on 24 June 2012. Retrieved 24 June
^ a b "Movie Review — Mughal-E-Azam (1960) — Indian Film
Opens:' Mughal-Azam,' a Spectacle, in More Than 200 Theatres". The New
York Times. 6 August 1960. Archived from the original on 4 April 2015.
Retrieved 1 July 2012.
^ a b Thomas, Kevin (1 April 2005). "Adding some polish to the
grandeur". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 8 December
2012. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
^ a b c "Shapoorji Pallonji Group: The
Mughal-e-Azam Of realty
business". The Economic Times. 24 November 2011. Retrieved 2 May
^ Farook, Farhana (31 May 2013). ""
Madhubala was sad when Dilip Kumar
got married" – Madhur Bhushan". Filmfare. Archived from the
original on 7 June 2013. Retrieved 4 June 2013.
^ a b Unnithan, Sandeep (19 July 2004). "In its true colours". India
Today. Archived from the original on 2014-01-30. Retrieved 15 August
^ Chakravarty, Riya (3 May 2013). "Indian cinema@100: 40 Firsts in
Indian cinema". NDTV. Archived from the original on 4 May 2013.
Retrieved 4 June 2013.
^ a b c d e
Alex von Tunzelmann (14 February 2013). "Mughal-e-Azam:
royally glossing over history's true colours". The Guardian. Archived
from the original on 14 November 2013. Retrieved 4 June 2013.
^ a b "Mughal-E-Azam DVD preview". zulm.net. Archived from the
original on 10 August 2012. Retrieved 17 August 2013.
^ Dwyer 2006, p. 116.
^ Ahmed, Omair (18 February 2008). "Once Upon A Fable". Outlook. 48
^ a b c Teo 2012, p. 57.
^ Kavoori & Punathambekar 2008, p. 135.
^ a b Teo 2012, p. 59.
^ Teo 2012, p. 56.
^ Nandy 1998, p. 26.
^ Ramnarayan, Gowri (20 March 2007). "A myth that became a classic".
The Hindu. Retrieved 21 October 2013.
^ a b Lutgendorf, Philip. "
Mughal-e-Azam ("The Great Mughal")". South
Asian Studies Program, University of Iowa. Archived from the original
on 16 November 2014. Retrieved 4 June 2013.
^ Nandy 1998, p. 45.
^ Pauwels 2008, p. 472.
^ Pauwels 2007, p. 127.
^ a b Chakravarty 1993, pp. 168–169.
^ Pauwels 2007, pp. 127–128.
^ a b c Arif 2003, p. 233.
^ a b "Music mogul". Hindustan Times. 2 June 2007. Archived from the
original on 5 November 2013. Retrieved 12 June
2012. – via Highbeam (subscription required)
^ "The last Mughal of film music". Hindustan Times. 6 May 2006.
Archived from the original on 5 November 2013. Retrieved 25 April
2013. At the time of premiere of the coloured version of
Mughal-e-Azam, he had stated that today's generation should be
acquainted with the classical Indian music. In that epic film, he had
used Raga Darbari and Raag Durga to compose various songs like the
immortal Pyar Kiya To Darna Kya – via Highbeam
^ "The breath of God blows through music". Hindustan Times. 30 March
2007. Archived from the original on 5 November 2013. Retrieved 25
April 2013. I managed a song in my beloved Raag Kedar, which is Hamir
Kalyani in Carnatic music. It was Bekas pe karam kijiye,
Mughal-e-Azam. – via Highbeam (subscription
^ Morcom 2007, p. 144.
^ Gokulsing & Dissanayake 2013, p. 273.
Mughal-e-Azam documentary by Sterling Investment Corporation. From
10:52 to 12:45.
^ a b Patsy N (10 November 2004). "The making of Mughal-e-Azam".
Rediff. Archived from the original on 24 June 2012. Retrieved 23 June
^ a b Khan, Shahid. "Mughal-e-Azam". Planet Bollywood. Archived from
the original on 21 October 2013. Retrieved 24 June 2012.
^ Roshmila Mukherjee (1994). "Making of Mughal-e-Azam – Part
I". Filmfare. RMIM Article Archive. Archived from the original on 29
October 2013. Retrieved 16 August 2013.
^ a b c d e f g Firdaus Ashraf, Syed (29 October 2004). "Coloring a
classic". India Abroad. Archived from the original on 5 November 2013.
Retrieved 26 June 2012. – via Highbeam
^ Lall, Randy. "100 greatest soundtracks ever". Planet Bollywood.
Archived from the original on 6 March 2012.
^ "Top 40 Soundtracks of All Time".
BBC News. September 2005. Archived
from the original on 3 November 2016. Retrieved 19 August 2013.
^ "Music Hits 1960–1969". Box Office India. Archived from the
original on 15 February 2008. Retrieved 2 September 2013.
^ K Jha, Subhash (11 November 2004). "
Mughal-e-Azam music review".
Indo-Asian News Service. Nowrunning.com. Archived from the original on
24 June 2012. Retrieved 24 June 2012.
^ Baldev S Chauhan (6 February 2013). "Mughal-e-Azam : the
Kohinoor of world cinema : Review". Sun Post. Archived from the
original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 25 August 2013.
^ a b c Rai, K. K. (4 January 2008). "
Mughal-e-Azam (1960)". Stardust.
Archived from the original on 18 July 2012. Retrieved 24 June
^ Parthasarathy, Anand (6–19 November 2004). "The colour of profit".
Frontline. 21 (23). Archived from the original on 26 June 2012.
Retrieved 26 June 2012.
^ Karmalkar, Deepa (11 September 2010). "Mughal-e-Azam, 50 years
later". The Tribune. Archived from the original on 25 June 2012.
Retrieved 25 June 2012.
^ a b "
Mughal-e-Azam mural at 24 Karat". Sify. 2 November 2004.
Archived from the original on 27 June 2012. Retrieved 27 June
^ Roy 2003, p. 221.
^ Sethia, Shruti (5 November 2004). "
Mughal-e-Azam dazzles... again".
The Hindu. Archived from the original on 25 June 2012. Retrieved 25
^ a b c d Ali, Imtiaz (31 July 2010). "The lasting Mughal". The Times
of India. Archived from the original on 24 June 2012. Retrieved 24
^ Mazumdar, Arunima (3 July 2013). "Anupama Chopra's 100 favourite
films!". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 17 July
2013. Retrieved 4 July 2013.
Mughal-e-Azam documentary by Sterling Investment Corporation. From
17:11 to 17:41.
^ "Shapoorji Pallonji to rewrite Mughal-e-Azam". Rediff. 6 August
2004. Archived from the original on 21 October 2013. Retrieved 21
^ "Top earners 1960–1969 (Figures in Ind Rs)". Box Office India.
Archived from the original on 24 June 2012. Retrieved 28 August
^ Bahubali 2 Is The Biggest
Hindi Blockbuster This Century Archived 24
August 2017 at the Wayback Machine., Box Office India, 8 June 2017
^ Adarsh, Taran (11 November 2004). "Mughal-e-Azam". Bollywood
Hungama. Archived from the original on 24 June 2012. Retrieved 1
^ "Yesterday once more: From the
Filmfare files...reviews from the
Filmfare Print Edition. Archived from the original on 7
September 2007. Retrieved 16 August 2013.
^ "Mughal-E-Azam". The Indian Express. 12 August 1960. p. 3.
Retrieved 28 October 2017.
^ Chopra, Anupama (5 March 2011). "The Eternal Five". OPEN Magazine.
Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 15 August
^ Gupta, Sujata (20 August 1996). "Film Review —
Mughal-E-Azam". Planet Bollywood. Archived from the original on 29
October 2013. Retrieved 13 July 2012.
^ Sen, Raja (12 November 2004). "Immortal-e-Azam". Rediff. Archived
from the original on 24 June 2012. Retrieved 24 June 2012.
^ Bushell, Laura (11 October 2002). "
Mughal-e-Azam (The Mogul)
(1960)". BBC. Archived from the original on 25 June 2012. Retrieved 25
^ Ramachandran, Naman. "Mughal-E-Azam". British Film Institute.
Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 1 December
^ a b Patel, Bhaichand (19 May 2008). "The Fallen Veil". Outlook. 48
^ "8th National Film Awards" (PDF). International Film Festival of
India. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 September 2011.
Retrieved 28 August 2011.
^ "Naushad: Composer of the century". Rediff. 8 May 2006. Archived
from the original on 21 October 2013. Retrieved 30 July 2012.
Filmfare Award Winners 1961 – 8th (Eighth)
Awards". Awardsandshows.com. Archived from the original on 30 July
2012. Retrieved 30 July 2012.
Cinematography Award —
Filmfare Award Winners
For Best Cinematography". Awardsandshows.com. Archived from the
original on 21 October 2013. Retrieved 30 July 2012.
^ a b c "The colour of profit". The Hindu. Archived from the original
on 26 June 2012. Retrieved 21 October 2013.
Mughal-e-Azam beats Taj Mahal to be 1st Indian film in Pak in 41
yrs". OneIndia. 22 April 2006. Archived from the original on 4 March
2016. Retrieved 12 May 2015.
^ Raghavendra, Nandini (14 October 2004). "
Mughal-e-Azam to rule
hearts in multi-colour". The Economic Times. Retrieved 12 May
^ a b c d "The colourful re-entry of Mughal-e-Azam". India Syndicate.
Sify. 6 October 2004. Archived from the original on 27 June 2012.
Retrieved 27 June 2012.
^ "Mughal-e-Azam, 50 years later". The Tribune, Saturday Extra. 11
September 2010. Archived from the original on 25 June 2012.
^ "Mughal-E-Azam Website". Shapoorji Pallonji & Co. Ltd. Archived
from the original on 21 June 2015. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
^ K Jha, Subhash (2 November 2004). "
Mughal-e-Azam goes colour". Sify.
Archived from the original on 27 June 2012. Retrieved 27 June
^ a b c d Doval, Nikita (23 November 2004). "Mughal-e-Azam, reel link
to past". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 27 June
2012. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
^ "Resurrection of Mughal-e-Azam". Rediff. August 2004. Archived from
the original on 21 October 2013. Retrieved 2 May 2013.
^ Malani, Gaurav (7 August 2008). "Saira Banu was Dilip Kumar's fan in
Mughal-e-Azam's first premiere and wife in second". The Times of
India. Retrieved 2 September 2016.
^ "Mughal-E-Azam". British Board of Film Classification. Archived from
the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 17 August 2013.
^ Asthana, Arun (5 August 2004). "Technology
Bollywood classics go
BBC News. Archived from the original on 21 October 2013.
Retrieved 1 July 2012.
^ "Box Office 2004". Box Office India. Archived from the original on
14 October 2013. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
^ Chanchal, Anu (8 November 2012). "Top 12:
Releases". India Times. Archived from the original on 10 June 2013.
Retrieved 4 June 2013.
^ a b Pandohar, Jaspreet (29 March 2005). "Mughal-E-Azam (The Great
BBC Home. Archived from the original on 6 November
2012. Retrieved 12 August 2013.
^ Bhaskaran, Gautaman (19 November 2004). "Mughal-e-Azam". The Hindu.
Retrieved 3 December 2013.
^ Adarsh, Taran (13 February 2006). "'Mughal-E-Azam' censored in
Pakistan". Sify. Archived from the original on 3 November 2016.
Retrieved 1 July 2012.
^ UNI (23 April 2006). "
Mughal-e-Azam releases in Pakistan: will
others follow suit?". OneIndia. Archived from the original on 3 March
2016. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
^ a b Indo-Asian News Service (5 August 2010). "Fifty years on,
'Mughal-e-Azam' still inspires awe". Deccan Herald. Archived from the
original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 2 July 2012.
^ Raheja, Dinesh (18 October 2002). "Madhubala: a sweet seduction".
Rediff. Archived from the original on 7 July 2012. Retrieved 29 July
^ Mahbubani 2009, p. 171.
^ Shah, Kunal M (18 February 2011). "King Khan makes documentary on
Mughal-E-Azam, Entertainment — Bollywood". Mumbai Mirror.
Archived from the original on 3 November 2016. Retrieved 4 June
^ Indo-Asian News Service (25 February 2011). "M.F. Husain revives
'Mughal E Azam' through paintings". Deccan Herald. Archived from the
original on 30 August 2011. Retrieved 3 July 2012.
^ Ahmed, Afsana (25 February 2011). "SRK dons new role with
Mughal-E-Azam". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 31
May 2015. Retrieved 3 July 2012.
^ "Classics like 'Mughal-e-Azam' cannot be remade: SRK". The Indian
Express. 25 February 2011. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016.
Retrieved 3 July 2012.
^ Mohamed, Khalid (22 August 2008). "Review: Maan Gaye
Mughall-e-Azam". Hindustan Times. Archived from the original on 5
October 2015. Retrieved 13 July 2012.
^ Chhabra, Aseem (27 October 2017). "Mughal-e-Azam: A world class
Indian production at last". Rediff.com. Archived from the original on
8 September 2017. Retrieved 24 October 2017.
^ "Top 10 Indian Films". British Film Institute. 2002. Archived from
the original on 15 May 2011. Retrieved 12 July 2012.
Anupama Chopra (24 February 2009). "The Best
Bollywood Films". The
Daily Beast. Archived from the original on 24 July 2012. Retrieved 13
^ "100 Years of Indian Cinema: The 100 greatest Indian films of all
time". CNN-News18. 17 April 2013. p. 36. Archived from the
original on 25 April 2013. Retrieved 12 February 2014.
^ "Mughal E Azam". Rotten Tomatoes. Archived from the original on 3
November 2016. Retrieved 22 August 2013.
^ "The Biggest Blockbusters Ever in
Hindi Cinema". Box Office India.
Archived from the original on 21 October 2013. Retrieved 4 October
Press Trust of India
Press Trust of India (18 July 2013). "'Mughal-e-Azam' named greatest
Bollywood film in UK poll". CNN-News18. Archived from the original on
8 May 2016. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
^ Mishra 2002, p. 66; Morcom 2007, pp. 139–144.
^ Tuteja, Joginder (14 September 2009). "Book Review:
Mughal-E-Azam – An Epic of Eternal Love".
Archived from the original on 4 November 2016. Retrieved 19 August
^ Chandra 2011, p. 736.
Arif, Salim (2003). "Costumes: The Essence and Fabric". In Gulzar;
Nihalani, Govind; Chatterjee, Saibal. Encyclopaedia of
Encyclopædia Britannica, Popular Prakashan.
K. Asif; Nasreen Munni Kabir; Suhail Akhtar (2007). The immortal
dialogue of K. Asif's Mughal-e-azam. Oxford University Press.
Chandra, Vikram (3 March 2011). Sacred Games. Faber & Faber.
Chakravarty, Sumita S. (1993). National Identity in Indian Popular
Cinema, 1947–1987. University of Texas Press.
Dwyer, Rachel (7 June 2006). Filming the Gods: Religion and Indian
Cinema. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-38070-1.
Ganti, Tejaswini (2004). Bollywood: a Guidebook to Popular Hindi
Cinema. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-415-28854-5.
Gokulsing, K. Moti; Dissanayake, Wimal (17 April 2013). Routledge
Handbook of Indian Cinemas. Routledge.
Jain, Madhu (17 April 2009). Kapoors: The First Family of Indian
Cinema. Penguin Books Limited. ISBN 978-81-8475-813-9.
Kavoori, Anandam P.; Punathambekar, Aswin (2008). Global Bollywood.
NYU Press. ISBN 978-0-8147-2944-1.
Khubchandani, Lata (2003). "Song and Dance: Song Picturization and
Choreography". In Gulzar; Nihalani, Govind; Chatterjee, Saibal.
Hindi Cinema. Encyclopædia Britannica, Popular
Prakashan. ISBN 978-81-7991-066-5.
Mahbubani, Kishore (2009). The New Asian Hemisphere: The Irresistible
Shift of Global Power to the East. PublicAffairs.
Mishra, Vijay (2002).
Bollywood Cinema: Temples of Desire. Routledge.
Morcom, Anna (2007).
Hindi Film Songs and the Cinema. Ashgate
Publishing, Ltd. ISBN 978-0-7546-5198-7.
Nandy, Ashis (1998). The Secret Politics of Our Desires: Innocence,
Culpability and Indian Popular Cinema. Palgrave Macmillan.
Pauwels, Heidi R.M. (2007). Indian Literature and Popular Cinema:
Recasting Classics. Routledge: Taylor & Francis Group.
Pauwels, Heidi R.M. (2008). The Goddess as Role Model: Sita and Radha
in Scripture and on Screen. Oxford University Press.
Rishi, Tilak (May 2012). Bless You Bollywood!: A Tribute to Hindi
Cinema on Completing 100 Years. Trafford Publishing.
Roy, Sharmishta (2003). "Art Direction: Sets, Reality, and Grandeur".
In Gulzar; Nihalani, Govind; Chatterjee, Saibal. Encyclopaedia of
Hindi Cinema. Encyclopædia Britannica, Popular Prakashan.
Teo, Stephen (2012). The Asian Cinema Experience: Styles, Spaces,
Theory. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-136-29608-6.
Warsi, Shakil (2009). Mughal-E-Azam. Rupa & Company.
Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1961 (PDF). US Bureau of
the Census. 1961. Retrieved 7 June 2013.
Mughal-e-Azam on IMDb
Mughal-e-Azam in the British Film Institute's "Explore film..."
Mughal-e-Azam at the TCM Movie Database
Mughal-e-Azam at AllMovie
Mughal-e-Azam documentary by CNN-News18
Mughal-e-Azam documentary by
Red Chillies Entertainment
Red Chillies Entertainment on YouTube
Mughal-e-Azam documentary by Sterling Investment Corporation on
Mughal-e-Azam 50th Anniversary Website at the Wayback Machine
(archived 14 June 2013)
Preface to the book The Immortal Dialogue of K. Asif's Mughal-E-Azam
National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Hindi
Mirza Ghalib (1954)
Jhanak Jhanak Payal Baaje
Jhanak Jhanak Payal Baaje (1955)
No Award (1956)
Do Aankhen Barah Haath
Do Aankhen Barah Haath (1957)
Certificate of Merit
Shree 420 and Devdas (1955)
Basant Bahar (1956)
Mother India and Musafir (1957)
Lajwanti and Karigar (1958)
No Award (1959)
Jis Desh Men Ganga Behti Hai
Jis Desh Men Ganga Behti Hai and
Sahib Bibi Aur Ghulam
Sahib Bibi Aur Ghulam (1962)
Maya Darpan (1972)
27 Down (1973)
No Award (1974)
Shatranj Ke Khilari
Shatranj Ke Khilari (The Chess Players) (1977)
Kasturi and Junoon (1978)
Certificate of Merit
Gunga Jumna and Pyaar Ki Pyaas (1961)
No Award (1962)
Mere Mehboob and Gumrah (1963)
Geet Gaya Patharon Ne
Geet Gaya Patharon Ne (1964)
Oonche Log and Guide (1965)
Discontinued after 1965
Ardh Satya (1983)
Mirch Masala (1986)
Salaam Bombay! (1988)
Salim Langde Pe Mat Ro
Salim Langde Pe Mat Ro (1989)
Diksha and Dharavi (1991)
Suraj Ka Satvan Ghoda (1992)
Bandit Queen (1995)
Hazaar Chaurasi Ki Maa
Hazaar Chaurasi Ki Maa (1997)
Dil Chahta Hai
Dil Chahta Hai (2001)
The Legend of Bhagat Singh
The Legend of Bhagat Singh (2002)
Raghu Romeo (2003)
Khosla Ka Ghosla
Khosla Ka Ghosla (2006)
Rock On!! (2008)
Do Dooni Chaar
Do Dooni Chaar (2010)
I Am (2011)
Jolly LLB (2013)
Dum Laga Ke Haisha
Dum Laga Ke Haisha (2015)
Filmfare Award for Best Film
Do Bigha Zamin
Do Bigha Zamin (1954)
Boot Polish (1955)
Jhanak Jhanak Payal Baaje
Jhanak Jhanak Payal Baaje (1957)
Mother India (1958)
Jis Desh Men Ganga Behti Hai
Jis Desh Men Ganga Behti Hai (1962)
Sahib Bibi Aur Ghulam
Sahib Bibi Aur Ghulam (1963)
Himalay Ki Godmein
Himalay Ki Godmein (1966)
Main Tulsi Tere Aangan Ki
Main Tulsi Tere Aangan Ki (1979)
Ardh Satya (1984)
Ram Teri Ganga Maili
Ram Teri Ganga Maili (1986)
Qayamat Se Qayamat Tak
Qayamat Se Qayamat Tak (1989)
Maine Pyar Kiya
Maine Pyar Kiya (1990)
Jo Jeeta Wohi Sikandar
Jo Jeeta Wohi Sikandar (1993)
Hum Hain Rahi Pyar Ke
Hum Hain Rahi Pyar Ke (1994)
Hum Aapke Hain Koun..!
Hum Aapke Hain Koun..! (1995)
Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge
Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge (1996)
Raja Hindustani (1997)
Dil To Pagal Hai
Dil To Pagal Hai (1998)
Kuch Kuch Hota Hai
Kuch Kuch Hota Hai (1999)
Hum Dil De Chuke Sanam
Hum Dil De Chuke Sanam (2000)
Kaho Naa... Pyaar Hai
Kaho Naa... Pyaar Hai (2001)
Koi... Mil Gaya
Koi... Mil Gaya (2004)
Rang De Basanti
Rang De Basanti (2007)
Taare Zameen Par
Taare Zameen Par (2008)
3 Idiots (2010)
Zindagi Na Milegi Dobara
Zindagi Na Milegi Dobara (2012)
Bhaag Milkha Bhaag
Bhaag Milkha Bhaag (2014)
Bajirao Mastani (2016)
Hindi Medium (2018)