Coordinates: 18°15′S 35°00′E / 18.250°S 35.000°E /
Republic of Mozambique
República de Moçambique (Portuguese)
Anthem: Pátria Amada (Portuguese)
Location of Mozambique (dark blue)
in the African Union (light blue)
and largest city
25°57′S 32°35′E / 25.950°S 32.583°E / -25.950; 32.583
Unitary dominant-party semi-presidential constitutional
• Prime Minister
Carlos Agostinho do Rosário
Assembly of the Republic
• Portuguese East Africa
1 March 1498
• Independence from Portugal, under Communist rule
25 June 1975
• Admitted to the United Nations
16 September 1975
• Current constitution
30 November 1990
801,590 km2 (309,500 sq mi) (35th)
• Water (%)
• 2016 estimate
• 2007 census
28.7/km2 (74.3/sq mi) (178th)
• Per capita
• Per capita
low · 181st
Mozambican metical (MZN)
Drives on the
ISO 3166 code
Makhuwa, Tsonga, Lomwe, Sena and others.
Estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of
excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life
expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population
and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age
and sex than would otherwise be expected.
Mozambique (/moʊzæmˈbiːk/), officially the
Republic of Mozambique
(Portuguese: Moçambique or República de Moçambique,
pronounced [ʁɛˈpuβlikɐ ðɨ musɐ̃ˈbikɨ]) is a country in
Southeast Africa bordered by the
Indian Ocean to the east,
Zambia to the northwest,
Zimbabwe to the west,
South Africa to the southwest. It is separated from
Madagascar by the
Mozambique Channel to the east. The capital and
largest city is
Maputo (known as "Lourenço Marques" before
Between the first and fifth centuries AD, Bantu-speaking peoples
migrated to present-day
Mozambique from farther north and west.
Beginning in the 11th century, Arab, Persian, and Somali merchants
began establishing commercial ports along the coast, contributing to
the development of a distinct
Swahili culture and language.
The voyage of
Vasco da Gama
Vasco da Gama in 1498 marked the arrival of the
Portuguese, who began a gradual process of colonisation and settlement
in 1505. After over four centuries of Portuguese rule, Mozambique
gained independence in 1975, becoming the People's
Mozambique shortly thereafter. After only two years of independence,
the country descended into an intense and protracted civil war lasting
from 1977 to 1992. In 1994,
Mozambique held its first multiparty
elections, and has since remained a relatively stable presidential
republic, although it still faces a low-intensity insurgency.
Mozambique is endowed with rich and extensive natural resources. The
country's economy is based largely on agriculture, but industry is
growing, mainly food and beverages, chemical manufacturing and
aluminium and petroleum production. The tourism sector is also
South Africa is Mozambique's main trading partner and
source of foreign direct investment, while Belgium, Brazil, Portugal
Spain are also among the country's most important economic
partners. Since 2001, Mozambique's annual average GDP growth has been
among the world's highest. However, the country is still one of the
poorest and most underdeveloped countries in the world, ranking
low in GDP per capita, human development, measures of inequality and
average life expectancy.
The only official language of
Mozambique is Portuguese, which is
spoken mostly as a second language by about half the population.
Common native languages include Makhuwa, Sena, and Swahili. The
country's population of around 29 million is composed overwhelmingly
of Bantu people. The largest religion in
Mozambique is Christianity,
with significant minorities following
Islam and African traditional
Mozambique is a member of the United Nations, the African
Union, the Commonwealth of Nations, the Organisation of the Islamic
Cooperation, the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, the
Non-Aligned Movement and the Southern African Development Community,
and is an observer at La Francophonie.
2.1 Bantu migrations
2.2 Swahili Coast
Portuguese Mozambique (1498–1975)
Mozambican War of Independence
Mozambican War of Independence (1964–1974)
2.5 Independence (1975)
Mozambican Civil War
Mozambican Civil War (1977–1992)
2.7 Democratic era (1993–present)
3 Geography and climate
4.1 Foreign relations
4.2 Administrative divisions
5.1 Rebounding growth
5.2 Economic reforms
5.4 Natural resources
5.7 Water supply and sanitation
6.1 Largest cities
7.1 Cultural identity
7.6 National holidays
8 See also
11 External links
The country was named Moçambique by the Portuguese after the Island
of Mozambique, derived from
Mussa Bin Bique or Musa Al Big or Mossa Al
Bique or Mussa Ben Mbiki or Mussa Ibn Malik, an
Arab trader who first
visited the island and later lived there. The island-town was the
capital of the Portuguese colony until 1898, when it was moved south
to Lourenço Marques (now Maputo).
Main article: History of Mozambique
Further information: Bantu expansion
Between the 1st and 5th centuries AD, waves of Bantu-speaking people
migrated from the west and north through the
Zambezi River valley and
then gradually into the plateau and coastal areas. They established
agricultural communities or societies based on herding cattle. They
brought with them the technology for smelting and smithing iron.
From the late first millennium AD, vast
Indian Ocean trade networks
extended as far south into
Mozambique as the ancient port town of
Chibuene. Commercial settlements such as Sofala, Angoche, and
others along the Mozambican
Swahili Coast became important centres for
the Arab, Persian, and later Portuguese trade in slaves, gold, ivory,
and other commodities. Connections are evident at sites including
Manyikeni for 11–14th century ties with the inland Great Zimbabwe
Portuguese Mozambique (1498–1975)
Further information: Portuguese Mozambique
Island of Mozambique
Island of Mozambique is a small coral island at the mouth of
Mossuril Bay on the
Nacala coast of northern Mozambique, first
explored by Europeans in the late 15th century.
From about 1500, Portuguese trading posts and forts displaced the
Arabic commercial and military hegemony, becoming regular ports of
call on the new European sea route to the east.
The voyage of
Vasco da Gama
Vasco da Gama around the
Cape of Good Hope
Cape of Good Hope in 1498
marked the Portuguese entry into trade, politics, and society of the
region. The Portuguese gained control of the
Island of Mozambique
Island of Mozambique and
the port city of
Sofala in the early 16th century, and by the 1530s,
small groups of Portuguese traders and prospectors seeking gold
penetrated the interior regions, where they set up garrisons and
trading posts at Sena and
Tete on the River
Zambezi and tried to gain
exclusive control over the gold trade.
The Portuguese attempted to legitimise and consolidate their trade and
settlement positions through the creation of prazos (land grants) tied
to their settlement and administration. While prazos were originally
developed to be held by Portuguese, through intermarriage they became
African Portuguese or African Indian centres defended by large African
slave armies known as Chikunda. Historically within
was slavery. Human beings were bought and sold by African tribal
Arab Muslim traders and Portuguese and other European traders
as well. Many Mozambican slaves were supplied by tribal chiefs who
raided warring tribes and sold their captives to the prazeiros.
View of the Central Avenue in Lourenço Marques, now Maputo, ca. 1905;
Although Portuguese influence gradually expanded, its power was
limited and exercised through individual settlers and officials who
were granted extensive autonomy. The Portuguese were able to wrest
much of the coastal trade from
Arab Muslims between 1500 and 1700,
but, with the
Arab Muslim seizure of Portugal's key foothold at Fort
Mombasa Island (now in Kenya) in 1698, the pendulum began to
swing in the other direction. As a result, investment lagged while
Lisbon devoted itself to the more lucrative trade with
India and the
Far East and to the colonisation of Brazil.
During these wars, the
Mazrui and Omani Arabs reclaimed much of the
Indian Ocean trade, forcing the Portuguese to retreat south. Many
prazos had declined by the mid-19th century, but several of them
survived. During the 19th century other European powers, particularly
the British (British
South Africa Company) and the French
(Madagascar), became increasingly involved in the trade and politics
of the region around the Portuguese East African territories.[citation
Portuguese language printing and typesetting class, 1930
By the early 20th century the Portuguese had shifted the
administration of much of
Mozambique to large private companies, like
Mozambique Company, the Zambezia Company and the
controlled and financed mostly by the British, which established
railroad lines to their neighbouring colonies (
South Africa and
Rhodesia). Although slavery had been legally abolished in Mozambique,
at the end of the 19th century the Chartered companies enacted a
forced labour policy and supplied cheap—often forced—African
labour to the mines and plantations of the nearby British colonies and
South Africa. The Zambezia Company, the most profitable chartered
company, took over a number of smaller prazeiro holdings, and
established military outposts to protect its property. The chartered
companies built roads and ports to bring their goods to market
including a railroad linking present day
Zimbabwe with the Mozambican
port of Beira.
Due to their unsatisfactory performance and the shift, under the
corporatist Estado Novo regime of Oliveira Salazar, towards a stronger
Portuguese control of Portuguese Empire's economy, the companies'
concessions were not renewed when they ran out. This was what happened
in 1942 with the
Mozambique Company, which however continued to
operate in the agricultural and commercial sectors as a corporation,
and had already happened in 1929 with the termination of the Niassa
Company's concession. In 1951, the Portuguese overseas colonies in
Africa were rebranded as Overseas Provinces of Portugal.
Mozambican War of Independence
Mozambican War of Independence (1964–1974)
Portuguese troops during the Portuguese Colonial War, some loading FN
FAL and G3.
Main article: Mozambican War of Independence
As communist and anti-colonial ideologies spread out across Africa,
many clandestine political movements were established in support of
Mozambican independence. These movements claimed that since policies
and development plans were primarily designed by the ruling
authorities for the benefit of Mozambique's Portuguese population,
little attention was paid to Mozambique's tribal integration and the
development of its native communities.
According to the official guerrilla statements, this affected a
majority of the indigenous population who suffered both
state-sponsored discrimination and enormous social pressure. Many felt
they had received too little opportunity or resources to upgrade their
skills and improve their economic and social situation to a degree
comparable to that of the Europeans. Statistically, Mozambique's
Portuguese whites were indeed wealthier and more skilled than the
black indigenous majority. As a response to the guerrilla movement,
the Portuguese government from the 1960s and principally the early
1970s, initiated gradual changes with new socioeconomic developments
and egalitarian policies for all.
The Front for the Liberation of
Mozambique (FRELIMO) initiated a
guerrilla campaign against Portuguese rule in September 1964. This
conflict—along with the two others already initiated in the other
Portuguese colonies of
Angola and Portuguese Guinea—became part of
Portuguese Colonial War
Portuguese Colonial War (1961–1974). From a military
standpoint, the Portuguese regular army maintained control of the
population centres while the guerrilla forces sought to undermine
their influence in rural and tribal areas in the north and west. As
part of their response to FRELIMO, the Portuguese government began to
pay more attention to creating favourable conditions for social
development and economic growth.
FRELIMO took control of the territory after 10 years of sporadic
warfare, as well as Portugal's own return to democracy after the fall
of the authoritarian Estado Novo regime the
Carnation Revolution of
April 1974, and the failed coup of 25 November 1975. Within a year,
most of the 250,000 Portuguese in
Mozambique had left—some expelled
by the government of the nearly independent territory, some fleeing in
Mozambique became independent from
Portugal on 25 June
1975. A law had been passed on the initiative of the relatively
Armando Guebuza of the
FRELIMO party, ordering the Portuguese
to leave the country in 24 hours with only 20 kilograms (44 pounds) of
luggage. Unable to salvage any of their assets, most of them returned
Mozambican Civil War
Mozambican Civil War (1977–1992)
Main article: Mozambican Civil War
A land mine victim in Mozambique
The new government under president
Samora Machel established a
one-party state based on Marxist principles. It received diplomatic
and some military support from
Cuba and the
Soviet Union and proceeded
to crack down on opposition. Starting shortly after the
independence, the country was plagued from 1977 to 1992 by a long and
violent civil war between the opposition forces of anti-Communist
Mozambican National Resistance (RENAMO) rebel militias and the FRELIMO
regime. This conflict characterised the first decades of Mozambican
independence, combined with sabotage from the neighbouring states of
Rhodesia and South Africa, ineffective policies, failed central
planning, and the resulting economic collapse. This period was also
marked by the exodus of Portuguese nationals and Mozambicans of
Portuguese heritage, a collapsed infrastructure, lack of
investment in productive assets, and government nationalisation of
privately owned industries, as well as widespread famine.
During most of the civil war, the FRELIMO-formed central government
was unable to exercise effective control outside of urban areas, many
of which were cut off from the capital. RENAMO-controlled areas
included up to 50% of the rural areas in several provinces, and it is
reported that health services of any kind were isolated from
assistance for years in those areas. The problem worsened when the
government cut back spending on health care. The war was marked by
mass human rights violations from both sides of the conflict, with
RENAMO contributing to the chaos through the use of terror and
indiscriminate targeting of civilians. The central government
executed tens of thousands of people while trying to extend its
control throughout the country and sent many people to "re-education
camps" where thousands died.
During the war,
RENAMO proposed a peace agreement based on the
secession of RENAMO-controlled northern and western territories as the
Republic of Rombesia, but
FRELIMO refused, insisting on
the undivided sovereignty of the entire country. An estimated one
million Mozambicans perished during the civil war, 1.7 million took
refuge in neighbouring states, and several million more were
internally displaced. The
FRELIMO regime also gave shelter and
support to South African (African National Congress) and Zimbabwean
Zimbabwe African National Union) rebel movements, while the
Rhodesia and later
South Africa (at that time still
RENAMO in the civil war.
On 19 October 1986,
Samora Machel was on his way back from an
international meeting in
Zambia in the presidential Tupolev Tu-134
aircraft when the plane crashed in the
Lebombo Mountains near Mbuzini.
There were ten survivors, but President Machel and thirty-three others
died, including ministers and officials of the
The United Nations' Soviet delegation issued a minority report
contending that their expertise and experience had been undermined by
the South Africans. Representatives of the
Soviet Union advanced the
theory that the plane had been intentionally diverted by a false
navigational beacon signal, using a technology provided by military
intelligence operatives of the South African government.
Joaquim Chissano implemented sweeping changes in
the country, starting reforms such as changing from
capitalism, and began peace talks with RENAMO. The new constitution
enacted in 1990 provided for a multi-party political system,
market-based economy, and free elections. The civil war ended in
October 1992 with the Rome General Peace Accords, first brokered by
the Christian Council of
Mozambique (Council of
and then taken over by Community of Sant'Egidio. Peace returned to
Mozambique, under supervision of the
ONUMOZ peacekeeping force of the
By 1993, more than 1.5 million Mozambican refugees had returned who
had sought asylum in neighbouring Malawi, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, Zambia,
South Africa as a result of war and drought, as part of
the largest repatriation witnessed in sub-Saharan Africa.
Democratic era (1993–present)
A US helicopter flying over flooded Limpopo River during the 2000
Mozambique held elections in 1994, which were accepted by most
political parties as free and fair although still contested by many
nationals and observers alike.
FRELIMO won, under Joaquim Chissano,
while RENAMO, led by Afonso Dhlakama, ran as the official opposition.
Mozambique joined the Commonwealth of Nations, becoming, at
the time, the only member nation that had never been part of the
By mid-1995, over 1.7 million refugees who had sought asylum in
neighbouring countries had returned to Mozambique, part of the largest
repatriation witnessed in sub-Saharan Africa. An additional four
million internally displaced persons had returned to their homes.
In December 1999,
Mozambique held elections for a second time since
the civil war, which were again won by FRELIMO.
RENAMO accused FRELIMO
of fraud, and threatened to return to civil war, but backed down after
taking the matter to the Supreme Court and losing.
In early 2000, a cyclone caused widespread flooding in the country,
killing hundreds and devastating the already precarious
infrastructure. There were widespread suspicions that foreign aid
resources have been diverted by powerful leaders of FRELIMO. Carlos
Cardoso, a journalist investigating these allegations, was murdered,
and his death was never satisfactorily explained.
Indicating in 2001 that he would not run for a third term, Chissano
criticised leaders who stayed on longer than he had, which was
generally seen as a reference to Zambian president Frederick Chiluba,
who at the time was considering a third term, and Zimbabwean president
Robert Mugabe, then in his fourth term. Presidential and National
Assembly elections took place on 1–2 December 2004. FRELIMO
Armando Guebuza won with 64% of the popular vote, while his
Afonso Dhlakama of RENAMO, received 32% of the popular vote.
FRELIMO won 160 seats in Parliament, with a coalition of
several small parties winning the 90 remaining seats. Guebuza was
inaugurated as the President of
Mozambique on 2 February 2005, and
served two five-year terms. His successor, Filipe Nyusi, became the
4th President of
Mozambique on 15 January 2015.
Since 2013, an insurgency by
RENAMO has been occurring, mainly in the
country's central and northern regions. On 5 September 2014, former
president Guebuza and the leader of
RENAMO Dhlakama signed the Accord
on Cessation of Hostilities, which brought the military hostilities to
a halt and allowed both parties to concentrate on the general
elections to be held in October 2014. However, after the general
elections, a new political crisis emerged and the country appears to
be once again on the brink of violent conflict.
RENAMO does not
recognise the validity of the election results, and demands the
control of six provinces – Nampula, Niassa, Tete, Zambezia, Sofala,
and Manica – where they claim to have won a majority. About
12,000 refugees are now in neighbouring Malawi. The UNHCR, Doctors
Without Borders, and
Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch have reported that government
forces have torched villages and carried out summary executions and
Geography and climate
Main article: Geography of Mozambique
At 309,475 sq mi (801,537 km2),
Mozambique is the
world's 36th-largest country. It is comparable in size to Turkey.
Mozambique is located on the southeast coast of Africa. It is bound by
Swaziland to the south,
South Africa to the southwest,
Zimbabwe to the
Malawi to the northwest,
Tanzania to the north and
Indian Ocean to the east.
Mozambique lies between latitudes 10°
and 27°S, and longitudes 30° and 41°E.
The country is divided into two topographical regions by the Zambezi
River. To the north of the
Zambezi River, the narrow coastal strip
gives way to inland hills and low plateaus. Rugged highlands are
further west; they include the
Namuli or Shire
highlands, Angonia highlands,
Tete highlands and the Makonde plateau,
covered with miombo woodlands. To the south of the
Zambezi River, the
lowlands are broader with the Mashonaland plateau and Lebombo
Mountains located in the deep south.
The country is drained by five principal rivers and several smaller
ones with the largest and most important the Zambezi. The country has
four notable lakes: Lake
Niassa (or Malawi), Lake Chiuta, Lake Cahora
Bassa and Lake Shirwa, all in the north. The major cities are Maputo,
Beira, Nampula, Tete, Quelimane, Chimoio, Pemba, Inhambane, Xai-Xai
Geography of Mozambique
Gorongosa National Park.
Island of Mozambique.
Ponta do Ouro.
Mozambique map of Köppen climate classification.
Main article: Climate of Mozambique
Mozambique has a tropical climate with two seasons, a wet season from
October to March and a dry season from April to September. Climatic
conditions, however, vary depending on altitude. Rainfall is heavy
along the coast and decreases in the north and south. Annual
precipitation varies from 500 to 900 mm (19.7 to 35.4 in)
depending on the region, with an average of 590 mm
(23.2 in). Cyclones are common during the wet season. Average
temperature ranges in
Maputo are from 13 to 24 °C (55.4 to
75.2 °F) in July to 22 to 31 °C (71.6 to 87.8 °F) in
Main article: Wildlife of Mozambique
See also: Category:Flora of Mozambique, List of marine molluscs of
Mozambique, and List of non-marine molluscs of Mozambique
There are known to be 740 bird species in Mozambique, including 20
globally threatened species and two introduced species, and over 200
mammal species endemic to Mozambique, including the critically
endangered Selous' zebra,
Vincent's bush squirrel
Vincent's bush squirrel and 13 other
endangered or vulnerable species.
Protected areas of Mozambique include thirteen forest reserves, seven
national parks, six nature reserves, three frontier conservation areas
and three wildlife or game reserves.
Main article: Politics of Mozambique
Incumbent President Filipe Nyusi.
Maputo City Hall
Mozambique is a multi-party democracy under the 1990 constitution. The
executive branch comprises a President, Prime Minister, and Council of
Ministers. There is a National Assembly and municipal assemblies. The
judiciary comprises a Supreme Court and provincial, district, and
Suffrage is universal at eighteen. In the 1994
Joaquim Chissano was elected President with 53% of the
vote, and a 250-member National Assembly was voted in with 129
Liberation Front of
Mozambique (FRELIMO) deputies, 112 Mozambican
National Resistance (RENAMO) deputies, and nine representatives of
three smaller parties that formed the Democratic Union (UD). Since its
formation in 1994, the National Assembly has made progress in becoming
a body increasingly more independent of the executive. By 1999, more
than one-half (53%) of the legislation passed originated in the
After some delays, in 1998 the country held its first local elections
to provide for local representation and some budgetary authority at
the municipal level. The principal opposition party, RENAMO, boycotted
the local elections, citing flaws in the registration process.
Independent slates contested the elections and won seats in municipal
assemblies. Turnout was very low.
In the aftermath of the 1998 local elections, the government resolved
to make more accommodations to the opposition's procedural concerns
for the second round of multiparty national elections in 1999. Working
through the National Assembly, the electoral law was rewritten and
passed by consensus in December 1998. Financed largely by
international donors, a very successful voter registration was
conducted from July to September 1999, providing voter registration
cards to 85% of the potential electorate (more than seven million
The second general elections were held 3–5 December 1999, with high
voter turnout. International and domestic observers agreed that the
voting process was well organised and went smoothly. Both the
opposition and observers subsequently cited flaws in the tabulation
process that, had they not occurred, might have changed the outcome.
In the end, however, international and domestic observers concluded
that the close result of the vote reflected the will of the people.
President Chissano won the presidency with a margin of 4% over the
RENAMO-Electoral Union coalition candidate, Afonso Dhlakama, and began
his five-year term in January 2000.
FRELIMO increased its majority in
the National Assembly with 133 out of 250 seats. RENAMO-UE coalition
won 116 seats, one went independent, and no third parties are
The opposition coalition did not accept the National Election
Commission's results of the presidential vote and filed a formal
complaint to the Supreme Court. One month after the voting, the court
dismissed the opposition's challenge and validated the election
results. The opposition did not file a complaint about the results of
the legislative vote.
The second local elections, involving thirty-three municipalities with
some 2.4 million registered voters, took place in November 2003.
This was the first time that FRELIMO, RENAMO-UE, and independent
parties competed without significant boycotts. The 24% turnout was
well above the 15% turnout in the first municipal elections. FRELIMO
won twenty-eight mayoral positions and the majority in twenty-nine
municipal assemblies, while
RENAMO won five mayoral positions and the
majority in four municipal assemblies. The voting was conducted in an
orderly fashion without violent incidents. However, the period
immediately after the elections was marked by objections about voter
and candidate registration and vote tabulation, as well as calls for
In May 2009, the government approved a new general elections law that
contained innovations based on the experience of the 2003 municipal
elections. Presidential and National Assembly elections took place on
1–2 December 2004.
Armando Guebuza won with 64% of
the popular vote. His opponent,
Afonso Dhlakama of RENAMO, received
32% of the popular vote.
FRELIMO won 160 seats in Parliament. A
RENAMO and several small parties won the 90 remaining
Armando Guebuza was inaugurated as the President of Mozambique
on 2 February 2005.
RENAMO and some other opposition parties made claims of election fraud
and denounced the result. These claims were supported by international
observers (among others by the European Union Election Observation
Mozambique and the Carter Centre) to the elections who
criticised the fact that the National Electoral Commission (CNE) did
not conduct fair and transparent elections. They listed a whole range
of shortcomings by the electoral authorities that benefited the ruling
According to EU observers, the elections shortcomings have probably
not affected the final result in the presidential election. On the
other hand, the observers have declared that the outcome of the
parliamentary election and thus the distribution of seats in the
National Assembly does not reflect the will of the Mozambican people
and is clearly to the disadvantage of RENAMO.
After clashes between
RENAMO guards and the police in Muxungue and
Gondola in April 2013,
RENAMO said it would boycott and disrupt local
elections in November 2013. Since the end of the civil war in 1992,
RENAMO guards had remained armed and refused to join the
national army or the police force.
Main article: Foreign relations of Mozambique
Mozambique's embassy in Washington, D.C.
While allegiances dating back to the liberation struggle remain
relevant, Mozambique's foreign policy has become increasingly
pragmatic. The twin pillars of Mozambique's foreign policy are
maintenance of good relations with its neighbours and maintenance
and expansion of ties to development partners.
During the 1970s and the early 1980s, Mozambique's foreign policy was
inextricably linked to the struggles for majority rule in
South Africa as well as superpower competition and the Cold War.
Mozambique's decision to enforce UN sanctions against
deny that country access to the sea led Ian Smith's government to
undertake overt and covert actions to oppose the country. Although the
change of government in
Zimbabwe in 1980 removed this threat, the
South Africa continued to back
RENAMO in its war with
Mozambique also belonged to the Front Line
The 1984 Nkomati Accord, while failing in its goal of ending South
African support to RENAMO, opened initial diplomatic contacts between
the Mozambican and South African governments. This process gained
momentum with South Africa's elimination of apartheid, which
culminated in the establishment of full diplomatic relations in
October 1993. While relations with neighbouring Zimbabwe, Malawi,
Tanzania show occasional strains, Mozambique's ties to
these countries remain strong.
In the years immediately following its independence, Mozambique
benefited from considerable assistance from some Western countries,
notably the Scandinavians. The
Soviet Union and its allies became
Mozambique's primary economic, military and political supporters, and
its foreign policy reflected this linkage. This began to change in
1983; in 1984
Mozambique joined the
World Bank and International
Monetary Fund. Western aid by the Scandinavian countries of Sweden,
Iceland quickly replaced Soviet support.
Finland and the
Netherlands are becoming increasingly important
sources of development assistance.
Italy also maintains a profile in
Mozambique as a result of its key role during the peace process.
Relations with Portugal, the former colonial power, continue to be
important because Portuguese investors play a visible role in
Mozambique is a member of the
Non-Aligned Movement and ranks among the
moderate members of the African bloc in the
United Nations and other
Mozambique also belongs to the African
Union (formerly the Organisation of African Unity) and the Southern
African Development Community. In 1994, the government became a full
member of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference, in part to
broaden its base of international support but also to please the
country's sizeable Muslim population. Similarly, in early 1996
Mozambique joined its
Anglophone neighbours in the Commonwealth of
Nations. At the time it was the only nation to have joined the
Commonwealth that was never part of the British Empire. In the same
Mozambique became a founding member and the first President of
Community of Portuguese Language Countries
Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP), and maintains
close ties with other
Main articles: Provinces of Mozambique, Districts of Mozambique, and
Postos of Mozambique
A panoramic view of Maputo, the capital of
Mozambique and the largest
city in the country.
Maputo city is separate from the
Mozambique is divided into ten provinces (provincias) and one capital
city (cidade capital) with provincial status. The provinces are
subdivided into 129 districts (distritos). The districts are further
divided in 405 "Postos Administrativos" (Administrative Posts) and
then into Localidades (Localities), the lowest geographical level of
the central state administration. Since 1998, 53 "Municípios"
(Municipalities) have been created in Mozambique.
The districts of
Mozambique are divided into 405 postos.
Postos administrativos (administrative posts) are the main
subdivisions of districts. This name, in use during colonial times,
was abolished after independence and was replaced by localidades
(localities). However, it was re-established in 1986.
Administrative posts are headed by a Secretários (secretaries), which
before independence were called Chefes de Posto (post chiefs).
Administrative posts can be further subdivided into localities, also
headed by secretaries.
Mozambique operates a small, functioning military that handles all
aspects of domestic national defence, the
Mozambique Defence Armed
Main article: Economy of Mozambique
A proportional representation of Mozambique's exports
The official currency is the New Metical (as of March 2018, 1 USD
is roughly equivalent to 62 New Meticals), which replaced old Meticals
at the rate of a thousand to one. The old currency was redeemable at
Bank of Mozambique until the end of 2012. The US$, South African
rand, and recently the euro are also widely accepted and used in
business transactions. The minimum legal salary is around US$60 per
Mozambique is a member of the Southern African Development
Community (SADC). The SADC free trade protocol is aimed at making the
Southern African region more competitive by eliminating tariffs and
other trade barriers. The
World Bank in 2007 talked of Mozambique's
'blistering pace of economic growth'. A joint donor-government study
in early 2007 said '
Mozambique is generally considered an aid success
IMF in early 2007 said '
Mozambique is a success story in
Sub-Saharan Africa.' Yet, despite this apparent success, both the
World Bank and
UNICEF used the word 'paradox' to describe rising
chronic child malnutrition in the face of GDP growth. Between 1994 and
2006, average annual GDP growth was approximately 8%, however, the
country remains one of the poorest and most underdeveloped in the
world. In a 2006 survey, three-quarters of Mozambicans said that in
the past five years their economic position had remained the same or
Traditional sailboat in Ilha de Moçambique
Maputo, the capital, is the richest city of Mozambique.
The resettlement of civil war refugees and successful economic reform
have led to a high growth rate: the country enjoyed a remarkable
recovery, achieving an average annual rate of economic growth of 8%
between 1996 and 2006 and between 6–7% from 2006 to 2011.
The devastating floods of early 2000 slowed GDP growth to 2.1% but a
full recovery was achieved in 2001 with growth of 14.8%.[citation
needed]. Rapid expansion in the future hinged on several major foreign
investment projects, continued economic reform, and the revival of the
agriculture, transportation, and tourism sectors. In 2013 about 80% of
the population was employed in agriculture, the majority of whom were
engaged in small-scale subsistence farming which still suffered
from inadequate infrastructure, commercial networks, and investment.
However, in 2012, more than 90% of Mozambique's arable land was still
In 2013, a BBC article reported that, starting in 2009, Portuguese had
been returning to
Mozambique because of the growing economy in
Mozambique and the poor economic situation in Portugal.
More than 1,200 state-owned enterprises (mostly small) have been
privatised. Preparations for privatisation and/or sector
liberalisation are underway for the remaining parastatal enterprises,
including telecommunications, energy, ports, and railways. The
government frequently selects a strategic foreign investor when
privatising a parastatal. Additionally, customs duties have been
reduced, and customs management has been streamlined and reformed. The
government introduced a value-added tax in 1999 as part of its efforts
to increase domestic revenues. Plans for 2003–04 include Commercial
Code reform; comprehensive judicial reform; financial sector
strengthening; continued civil service reform; and improved government
budget, audit, and inspection capability. Further political
instability resulting from the floods left thousands homeless,
displaced within their own country.
Mozambique's economy has been shaken by a number of corruption
scandals. In July 2011, the government proposed new anti-corruption
laws to criminalise embezzlement, influence peddling and graft,
following numerous instances of the theft of public money. This has
been endorsed by the country's Council of Ministers.
convicted two former ministers for graft in the past two years.
Mozambique was ranked 116 of 178 countries in anti-graft watchdog
Transparency International's latest index of global corruption.
According to a USAID report written in 2005, "the scale and scope of
Mozambique are cause for alarm."
In March 2012, the government of the southern Mozambican province of
Inhambane uncovered the misappropriation of public funds by the
director of the Provincial Anti-Drugs Office, Calisto Alberto Tomo. He
was found to have colluded with the accountant in the Anti-Drugs
Office, Recalda Guambe, to steal over 260,000 meticais between 2008
The government of
Mozambique has taken steps to address the problem of
corruption, and some positive developments can be observed, such as
the passages of several new anti-corruption bills in 2012.
Main article: Mineral industry of Mozambique
In 2012, large natural gas reserves were discovered in Mozambique,
revenues which have the potential to dramatically change the
European tourists on the beach, in Inhambane, Mozambique
Main article: Tourism in Mozambique
Mozambique attracts tourists. The country's natural beauty, wildlife,
and historic heritage provide opportunities for beach, cultural, and
Mozambique has a great potential for growth in its gross
domestic product (GDP), although its current contribution is only
The beaches with clean water are suitable for tourism, especially
those that are very far from urban centers, such as those in the
province of Cabo Delgado, especially the Quirimbas Islands, and the
province of Inhambane, especially the Archipelago of Bazaruto.
The country also has several national parks, most notably Gorongosa
National Park, with its infrastructures rehabilitated and repopulated
in certain species of animals that were already disappearing.[citation
Transport in Mozambique
Steam locomotive at Inhambane, 2009.
National Mozambican airline, LAM Mozambique
Modes of transport in
Mozambique include rail, road, water, and air.
There are rail links serving principal cities and connecting the
country with Malawi,
Zimbabwe and South Africa. There are over
30,000 km of roads, but much of the network is unpaved.
Indian Ocean coast are several large seaports, including
Nacala, Beira and Maputo, with further ports being developed. There
are 3,750 km of navigable inland waterways. There is an
international airport at Maputo, 21 other paved airports, and over 100
with unpaved runways.
The Mozambican railway system developed over more than a century from
three different ports on the
Indian Ocean that serve as terminals for
separate lines to the hinterland. The railroads were major targets
during the Mozambican Civil War, were sabotaged by RENAMO, and are
being rehabilitated. A parastatal authority, Portos e Caminhos de
Ferro de Moçambique (abbreviated CFM; in English
Mozambique Ports and
Railways), oversees the railway system of
Mozambique and its connected
ports, but management has been largely outsourced. Each line has its
own development corridor.
As of 2005[update] there are 3,123 km of railway track,
consisting of 2,983 km of 1,067 mm
(3 ft 6 in) gauge, compatible with neighboring rail
systems, and a 140 km line of 762 mm
(2 ft 6 in) gauge, the Gaza Railway. The central
Beira Railroad Corporation
Beira Railroad Corporation route links the port of Beira to the
landlocked countries of Malawi,
Zambia and Zimbabwe. To the north of
this the port of
Nacala is also linked by rail to Malawi, and to the
Maputo is linked to
Zimbabwe and South Africa. These networks
interconnect only via neighbouring countries. A new route for coal
Tete and Beira was planned to come into service by
2010, and in August 2010,
Botswana signed a
memorandum of understanding to develop a 1,100 km railway through
Zimbabwe, to carry coal from
Botswana to a deepwater port at
Techobanine Point in Mozambique.
Newer rolling stock has been supplied by the Indian Golden Rock
workshop using Centre Buffer Couplers (AAR) and air brakes.
Water supply and sanitation
Main article: Water supply and sanitation in Mozambique
Woman fetching water during the dry season from a polluted source in
Machaze District of the Central Manica Province.
Water supply and sanitation in Mozambique
Water supply and sanitation in Mozambique is characterised by low
levels of access to an improved water source (estimated to be 51% in
2011), low levels of access to adequate sanitation (estimated to be
25% in 2011) and mostly poor service quality. In 2007 the government
has defined a strategy for water supply and sanitation in rural areas,
where 62% of the population lives. In urban areas, water is supplied
by informal small-scale providers and by formal providers.
Beginning in 1998,
Mozambique has reformed the formal part of the
urban water supply sector through the creation of an independent
regulatory agency called CRA, an asset-holding company called FIPAG
Public-private partnership (PPP) with a company called Aguas de
Moçambique. The PPP covered those areas of the capital and of four
other cities that had access to formal water supply systems. However,
the PPP ended when the management contracts for four cities expired in
2008 and when the foreign partner of the company that serves the
capital under a lease contract withdrew in 2010, claiming heavy
While urban water supply has received considerable policy attention,
the government has no strategy for urban sanitation yet. External
donors finance about 87.4% of all public investments in the sector.
The main donors in the water sector are the World Bank, the African
Development Bank, Canada, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland and the
United States.
Main article: Demographics of Mozambique
The north-central provinces of Zambezia and
Nampula are the most
populous, with about 45% of the population. The estimated four million
Macua are the dominant group in the northern part of the country; the
Sena and Shona (mostly Ndau) are prominent in the
Zambezi valley, and
the Shangaan or Tsonga dominate in southern Mozambique. Other groups
include Makonde, Yao, Swahili, Tonga, Chopi, and Nguni (including
Zulu). Bantu people comprise 97.8% of the population, with the rest
made up of
White Africans (largely of Portuguese ancestry),
Euro-Africans (mestiço people of mixed Bantu and Portuguese
heritage), and Indians. Roughly 45,000 people of Indian descent
reside in Mozambique.
During Portuguese colonial rule, a large minority of people of
Portuguese descent lived permanently in almost all areas of the
country, and Mozambicans with Portuguese blood at the time of
independence numbered about 360,000. Many of these left the country
after independence from
Portugal in 1975. There are various estimates
for the size of Mozambique's Chinese community, ranging from 7,000 to
12,000 as of 2007[update].
According to a 2011 survey, the total fertility rate was 5.9 children
per woman, with 6.6 in rural areas and 4.5 in urban areas.
Largest cities or towns in Mozambique
(According to 2007 census)
Main article: Languages of Mozambique
Language most spoken at home, 2007
Other Mozambican language
Other foreign language
Ethnic map of Mozambique.
Portuguese is the official and most widely spoken language of the
nation, spoken by 50.3% of the population. Most Mozambicans living
in the cities speak Portuguese as their first language.
The Bantu-group languages of
Mozambique that are indigenous to the
country vary greatly in their groupings and in some cases are rather
poorly appreciated and documented. Apart from its lingua franca
uses in the north of the country, Swahili is spoken in a small area of
the coast next to the Tanzanian border; south of this, towards
Moçambique Island, Kimwani, regarded as a dialect of Swahili, is
used. Immediately inland of the Swahili area, Makonde is used,
separated farther inland by a small strip of Makhuwa-speaking
territory from an area where Yao or ChiYao is used. Makonde and Yao
belong to a different group, Yao being very close to the Mwera
language of the Rondo Plateau area in Tanzania.
Prepositions appear in these languages as locative prefixes prefixed
to the noun and declined according to their own noun-class. Some
Nyanja is used at the coast of Lake Malawi, as well as on the other
side of the Lake.
Somewhat different from all of these are the languages of the eMakhuwa
group, with a loss of initial k-, which means that many nouns begin
with a vowel: for example, epula = "rain".
There is e
Makhuwa proper, with the related eLomwe and eChuwabo, with a
small eKoti-speaking area at the coast. In an area straddling the
lower Zambezi, Sena, which belongs to the same group as Nyanja, is
spoken, with areas speaking the related CiNyungwe and
A large Shona-speaking area extends between the
Zimbabwe border and
the sea: this was formerly known the Ndau variety but now uses the
orthography of the Standard Shona of Zimbabwe. Apparently similar to
Shona, but lacking the tone patterns of the Shona language, and
regarded by its speakers as quite separate, is CiBalke, also called
Rue or Barwe, used in a small country near the
South of this area are languages of the Shangaan group, which are
quite different again. Xi
Tswa occurs at the coast and inland,
XiTsonga or Tsonga straddles the area around the Limpopo River,
including such local dialects as XiChangana. This language area
extends into neighbouring South Africa. Still related to these, but
distinct, are Gi
Tonga and CiCopi or Chopi, spoken north of the mouth
of the Limpopo, and Xi
Ronga or Ronga, spoken in the immediate region
around Maputo. The languages in this group are, judging by the short
vocabularies, very vaguely similar to Zulu, but obviously not in
the same immediate group. There are small Swazi- and Zulu-speaking
Mozambique immediately next to the
Arabs, Chinese, and Indians primarily speak Portuguese and some Hindi.
Indians from Portuguese
India speak any of the Portuguese Creoles of
their origin aside from Portuguese as their second language.
Main article: Religion in Mozambique
A mosque in downtown Maputo
The 2007 census found that Christians made up 56.1% of Mozambique's
population and Muslims comprised 17.9% of the population. 7.3% of the
people held other beliefs, mainly animism, and 18.7% had no religious
The Roman Catholic Church has established twelve dioceses (Beira,
Chimoio, Gurué, Inhambane, Lichinga, Maputo, Nacala, Nampula, Pemba,
Quelimane, Tete, and Xai-Xai; archdioceses are Beira,
Nampula). Statistics for the dioceses range from a low 5.8% Catholics
in the population in the diocese of Chimoio, to 32.50% in Quelimane
diocese (Anuario catolico de Mocambique 2007).
The work of Methodism in
Mozambique started in 1890. The Rev. Dr.
Erwin Richards began a Methodist mission at Chicuque in Inhambane
Igreja Metodista Unida em Moçambique (the UMC in
Mozambique) observed the 100th anniversary of Methodist presence in
Mozambique in 1990. Then-
Mozambique President Chissano praised the
work and role of the UMC to more than 10,000 people who attended the
The United Methodist Church has tripled in size in
1998. There are now more than 150,000 members in more than 180
congregations of the 24 districts. New pastors are ordained each year.
New churches are chartered each year in each Annual Conference (North
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) has
established a growing presence in Mozambique. It first began sending
Mozambique in 1999, and, as of April 2015, has more
than 7,943 members.
Bahá'í Faith has been present in
Mozambique since the early
1950s but did not openly identify itself in those years because of the
strong influence of the Catholic Church which did not recognise it
officially as a world religion. The independence in 1975 saw the
entrance of new pioneers. In total there are about 3,000 declared
Mozambique as of 2010[update]. The Administrative Committee
is located in Maputo.
Muslims are particularly present in the north of the country. They are
organised in several "tariqa" or brotherhoods. Two national
organisations also exist—the Conselho Islâmico de Moçambique and
the Congresso Islâmico de Moçambique. There are also important
Pakistani, Indian associations as well as some Shia communities.
Among the main
Protestant churches are Igreja União Baptista de
Moçambique, the Assembleias de Deus, the Seventh-day Adventists, the
Anglican Church of Southern Africa, the Igreja do Evangelho Completo
de Deus, the Igreja Metodista Unida, the Igreja Presbiteriana de
Igrejas de Cristo and the Assembleia Evangélica de
Further information: Health in Mozambique
Hospital in Luabo
The increase in number of HIV positive Mozambicans on Antiretroviral
The fertility rate is at about 5.5 births per woman. Public
expenditure on health was at 2.7% of the GDP in 2004, whereas private
expenditure on health was at 1.3% in the same year. Health expenditure
per capita was 42 US$ (PPP) in 2004. In the early 21st century there
were 3 physicians per 100,000 people in the country. Infant mortality
was at 100 per 1,000 births in 2005.
After its independence from
Portugal in 1975, the Mozambique
government established a primary health care system that was cited by
the WHO as a model for other developing countries. Over 90% of the
population had been provided with vaccination. During the period of
the early 1980s, around 11% of the government budget was targeted on
health care. The
Mozambique civil war led to a great setback in
the primary health system in Mozambique. The RENAMO's attack on
government infrastructures included health and education systems from
1980 to 1992.
The 2010 maternal mortality rate per 100,000 births for
550. This is compared with 598.8 in 2008 and 385 in 1990. The under 5
mortality rate, per 1,000 births is 147 and the neonatal mortality as
a percentage of under 5s mortality is 29. In
Mozambique the number of
midwives per 1,000 live births is 3 and the lifetime risk of death for
pregnant women 1 in 37.
The official HIV prevalence in
Mozambique in 2011 was 11.5% of the
population aged between 15 and 49 years. In the southern parts of
Maputo and Gaza provinces as well as the city of
Maputo—the official figures are more than twice as high as the
national average. In 2011 the health authorities estimated about 1.7
million Mozambicans were HIV-positive, of whom 600,000 were in need of
anti-retroviral treatment. As of December 2011, 240,000 were receiving
such treatment, increasing to 416,000 in March 2014 according to the
health authorities. According to the 2011 UNAIDS Report, the HIV/AIDS
Mozambique seems to be levelling off.
Main article: Education in Mozambique
Pupils in front of their school in Nampula, Mozambique
School children in the classroom
Since independence from
Portugal in 1975, school construction and
teacher-training enrollments have not kept up with population
increases. Especially after the
Mozambican Civil War
Mozambican Civil War (1977–1992),
with post-war enrollments reaching all-time highs due to stability and
youth population growth, the quality of education has suffered. All
Mozambicans are required by law to attend school through the primary
level; however, a lot of children in
Mozambique do not go to primary
school because they have to work for their families' subsistence farms
for a living. In 2007, one million children still did not go to
school, most of them from poor rural families, and almost half of all
Mozambique were still unqualified. Girls’ enrollment
increased from 3 million in 2002 to 4.1 million in 2006 while the
completion rate increased from 31,000 to 90,000, which testified a
very poor completion rate.
After grade 7, pupils must take standardised national exams to enter
secondary school, which runs from eighth to 10th grade.[citation
needed] Space in Mozambican universities is extremely limited; thus
most pupils who complete pre-university school do not immediately
proceed on to university studies. Many go to work as teachers or are
unemployed. There are also institutes which give more vocational
training, specialising in agricultural, technical or pedagogical
studies, which students may attend after grade 10 in lieu of a
After independence from
Portugal in 1975, a number of Mozambican
pupils continued to be admitted every year at Portuguese high schools,
polytechnical institutes and universities, through bilateral
agreements between the Portuguese government and the Mozambican
According to 2010 estimates, the literacy rate of
Mozambique was 56.1%
(70.8% male and 42.8% female). By 2015, this had increased to
58.8% (73.3% male and 45.4% female).
Woman with traditional mask in Mozambique
Main article: Culture of Mozambique
Mozambique was ruled by Portugal, and they share a main language
(Portuguese) and main religion (Roman Catholicism). But since most of
the people of
Mozambique are Bantus, most of the culture is native;
Bantus living in urban areas, there is some Portuguese influence.
Mozambican culture also influences the Portuguese culture. Mozambican
food, music, movies (by RTP África), and traditions are now part of
everyday lifestyles of Portugal.
The Makonde are renowned for their wood carving and elaborate masks
(see picture), that are commonly used in traditional dances. There are
two different kinds of wood carvings: shetani, (evil spirits), which
are mostly carved in heavy ebony, tall, and elegantly curved with
symbols and nonrepresentational faces; and ujamaa, which are
totem-type carvings which illustrate lifelike faces of people and
various figures. These sculptures are usually referred to as "family
trees", because they tell stories of many generations.
During the last years of the colonial period, Mozambican art reflected
the oppression by the colonial power, and became symbol of the
resistance. After independence in 1975, the modern art came into a new
phase. The two best known and most influential contemporary Mozambican
artists are the painter
Malangatana Ngwenya and the sculptor Alberto
Chissano. A lot of the post-independence art during the 1980s and
1990s reflect the political struggle, civil war, suffering,
starvation, and struggle.
Dances are usually intricate, highly developed traditions throughout
Mozambique. There are many different kinds of dances from tribe to
tribe which are usually ritualistic in nature. The Chopi, for
instance, act out battles dressed in animal skins. The men of Makua
dress in colourful outfits and masks while dancing on stilts around
the village for hours. Groups of women in the northern part of the
country perform a traditional dance called tufo, to celebrate Islamic
See also: Portuguese cuisine, Cuisine of Mozambique, and African
With a nearly 500-year presence in the country, the Portuguese have
greatly influenced Mozambique's cuisine. Staples and crops such as
cassava (a starchy root of Brazilian origin) and cashew nuts (also of
Brazilian origin, though
Mozambique was once the largest producer of
these nuts), and pãozinho (pronounced
[pɐ̃wˈzĩɲu], Portuguese-style French buns), were
brought in by the Portuguese. The use of spices and seasonings such as
bay leaves, chili peppers, fresh coriander, garlic, onions, paprika,
red sweet peppers, and wine were introduced by the Portuguese, as were
maize, millet, potatoes, rice, sorghum, and sugarcane. espetada
(kebab), the popular inteiro com piripiri (whole chicken in piri-piri
sauce), prego (steak roll), pudim (pudding), and rissóis (battered
shrimp) are all Portuguese dishes commonly eaten in present-day
Main article: Media of Mozambique
Headquarters of Rádio Moçambique in KaMpfumo (ceb) district of
Maputo (photo 2009)
Mozambican media is heavily influenced by the government.
Newspapers have relatively low circulation rates, due to high
newspaper prices and low literacy rates. Among the most highly
circulated newspapers are state-controlled dailies, such as Noticias
and Diário de Moçambique, and the weekly Domingo. Their
circulation is mostly confined to Maputo. Most funding and
advertising revenue is given to pro-government newspapers.
However, the number of private newspapers with critical views of the
government have increased significantly in recent years.[when?]
Radio programmes are the most influential form of media in the country
due to their ease of access. State-owned radio stations are more
popular than privately owned media. This is exemplified by the
government radio station, Rádio Moçambique, the most popular station
in the country. It was established shortly after Mozambique's
The T.V. stations watched by Mozambicans are STV, TIM, and TVM
Televisão Moçambique. Through cable and satellite, viewers can
access tens of other African, Asian, Brazilian, and European
Further information: Music of Mozambique
This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this
section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material
may be challenged and removed. (May 2016) (Learn how and when to
remove this template message)
The music of
Mozambique serves many purposes, ranging from religious
expression to traditional ceremonies. Musical instruments are usually
handmade. Some of the instruments used in Mozambican musical
expression include drums made of wood and animal skin; the lupembe, a
woodwind instrument made from animal horns or wood; and the marimba,
which is a kind of xylophone native to
Mozambique and other parts of
Africa. The marimba is a popular instrument with the Chopi of the
south central coast, who are famous for their musical skill and dance.
Some[who?] would say that Mozambique's music is similar to reggae and
West Indian calypso. Other music types are popular in
marrabenta, and other
Lusophone music forms like fado, bossa nova, and
maxixe (with origins from kizomba, Maxixe, and samba).
Further information: Public holidays in Mozambique
National holiday designation
Universal fraternity day
Mozambican heroes day
In tribute to Eduardo Mondlane
Mozambican women day
In tribute to Josina Machel
International workers day
National Independence day
Independence proclamation in 1975 (from Portugal)
In tribute to the
Lusaka Accord signed in 1974
National Liberation Armed Forces Day
In tribute to the start of the armed fight for national liberation
Peace and Reconciliation
In tribute to the General Peace Agreement signed in Rome in 1992
Christians also celebrate Christmas
Football (Portuguese: futebol) is the most popular sport in
Mozambique. The national team is the
Mozambique national football
team. Roller hockey is also popular and the best results for the
national team was fourth at the 2011 FIRS Roller Hockey World Cup.
Index of Mozambique-related articles
Outline of Mozambique
^ Neto, Octávio Amorim; Lobo, Marina Costa (2010). "Between
Constitutional Diffusion and Local Politics: Semi-Presidentialism in
Portuguese-Speaking Countries". Social Science Research Network.
SSRN 1644026 .
^ Shugart, Matthew Søberg (September 2005). "Semi-Presidential
Systems: Dual Executive and Mixed Authority Patterns" (PDF). Graduate
School of International Relations and Pacific Studies. United States:
University of California, San Diego. Archived from the original (PDF)
on 19 August 2008. Retrieved 20 August 2016.
^ Shugart, Matthew Søberg (December 2005). "Semi-Presidential
Systems: Dual Executive And Mixed Authority Patterns" (PDF). Palgrave
Macmillan. 3 (3): 323–351. doi:10.1057/palgrave.fp.8200087. Archived
from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-04. Of the contemporary cases, only
four provide the assembly majority an unrestricted right to vote no
confidence, and of these, only two allow the president unrestricted
authority to appoint the prime minister. These two,
Namibia, as well as the Weimar Republic, thus resemble most closely
the structure of authority depicted in the right panel of Figure 3,
whereby the dual accountability of the cabinet to both the president
and the assembly is maximized.
^ "Moçambique tem novo governo". VOA. 17 January 2015.
^ "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom
data acquired via website).
United Nations Department of Economic and
Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September
^ a b c d "Mozambique". International Monetary Fund.
^ "Gini Index". World Bank. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
^ "2016 Human Development Report" (PDF). HDRO (Human Development
United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 21
^ a b Schenoni, Natália Bueno. "Provincial Autonomy: The Territorial
Dimension of Peace in Mozambique". academia.edu.
^ Investing in rural people in Mozambique. ifad.org
^ a b c "Mozambique". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 22 May 2007.
^ History. ilhademo.net
^ Sinclair, Paul; Ekblom, Anneli; Wood, Marilee (2012). "Trade and
Society on the Southeast African Coast in the Later First Millennium
AD: the Case of Chibuene". Antiquity. 86.
^ a b Arming Slaves, Arming slaves: from classical times to the modern
age, Christopher Leslie Brown, Philip D. Morgan, Gilder Lehrman:
Center for the Study of Slavery, Resistance, and Abolition. Yale
University Press, 2006 ISBN 0-300-10900-8,
^ a b The Cambridge history of Africa, The Cambridge history of
Africa, John Donnelly Fage, A. D. Roberts, Roland Anthony Oliver,
Edition: Cambridge University Press, 1986, ISBN 0-521-22505-1,
^ a b The Third Portuguese Empire, 1825–1975, The Third Portuguese
Empire, 1825–1975: A Study in Economic Imperialism, W. G.
Clarence-Smith, Edition: Manchester University Press ND, 1985,
ISBN 0-7190-1719-X, 9780719017193
^ Agência Geral do Ultramar. dgarq.gov.pt
^ Dinerman, Alice (26 September 2007). Independence redux in
postsocialist Mozambique. ipri.pt
^ "CD do Diário de Notícias – Parte 08". Youtube.com. Retrieved 2
^ Couto, Mia (April 2004). Carnation revolution. Le Monde diplomatique
^ Mozambique: a tortuous road to democracy by J .Cabrita, Macmillan
2001 ISBN 978-0-333-92001-5
^ Dismantling the Portuguese Empire, Time (Monday, 7 July 1975).
^ a b Pfeiffer, J (2003). "International NGOs and primary health care
in Mozambique: The need for a new model of collaboration". Social
Science & Medicine. 56 (4): 725–38.
doi:10.1016/s0277-9536(02)00068-0. PMID 12560007.
^ a b Table 14.1C Centi-Kilo Murdering States: Estimates, Sources and
^ Gersony 1988, p.30f.
^ Perlez, Jane (13 October 1992). A
Mozambique Formally at Peace Is
Bled by Hunger and Brutality, The New York Times
Special Investigation into the death of President Samora Machel".
Truth and Reconciliation Commission (South Africa) Report, vol.2,
chapter 6a. Archived from the original on 13 April 2006. Retrieved 18
^ UNITED NATIONS OPERATION IN MOZAMBIQUE. popp.gmu.edu
^ SPECIAL ISSUE ON MOZAMBICAN REFUGEES. Refuge, Vol. 13, No. 6 (1993)
Pi.library.yorku.ca. Retrieved on 29 January 2013.
^ "Mozambican refugees stuck between somewhere and nowhere".
aljazeera. 22 July 2016. Retrieved 23 July 2016.
^ "Mozambique's Invisible Civil War". foreign policy. 22 July 2016.
Retrieved 6 May 2016.
^ (4 April 2013) Mozambican ex-rebels Renamo in police clash BBC News
Africa, Retrieved 5 April 2013.
^ Schenoni, Luis (2017) "Subsystemic Unipolarities?"in Strategic
Analysis, 41(1): 74-86 
^ Mozambique. State.gov (13 June 2012). Retrieved on 29 January 2013.
^ President Halonen: Development aid should be transparent and
efficient. Office of the President of the
Republic of Finland. tpk.fi
^ Decreto-lei nº 6/75 de 18 de Janeiro.
^ Lei nº 4/86 de 25 de Julho.
^ Hanlon, Joseph (19 September 2007). Is Poverty Decreasing in
Mozambique?. Open University, England.
Mozambique Partner Countries and Activities English
Þróunarsamvinnustofnun Íslands" (in Icelandic). Iceida.is. 1 June
1999. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
^ World DataBank World Development Indicators
Mozambique The World
Bank (2013), Retrieved 5 April 2013
Mozambique Canadian International Development Agency (29 January
2013), Retrieved 6 April 20`13
^ Akwagyiram, Alexis (5 April 2013) Portugal's unemployed heading to
BBC News Africa, Retrieved 6 April 2013
^ AFP (27 July 2011). "
Mozambique proposes new anti-corruption laws".
Google News. Archived from the original on 23 February 2014.
^ "CORRUPTION ASSESSMENT: MOZAMBIQU" (PDF). USAID. 16 December 2005.
Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 March 2016.
^ "Mozambique: Corruption Alleged in Anti-Drugs Office". All Africa.
27 March 2012.
Mozambique Corruption Profile". Business Anti-Corruption Profile.
Retrieved 14 July 2015.
^ Flynn, Alexis (9 May 2012). "UPDATE:
Mozambique Talks To Shell On
Developing LNG". WSJ.com. Archived from the original on 12 May 2012.
Retrieved 10 May 2012.
^ CIA factbook
^ "Mozambique: Australian Company Plans New Coal Mine in
2010". Allafrica.com. Retrieved 24 December 2014.
^ "Railway Gazette: Pointers September 2010". Retrieved
^ Railway Gazette International, August 2008, p.483
^ "Golden Rock workshop exports locos to Mozambique". The Hindu
Business Line. Retrieved 24 December 2014.
^ Singhvi, L. M. (2000). "Other Countries of Africa". Report of the
High Level Committee on the Indian Diaspora (PDF). New Delhi: Ministry
of External Affairs. p. 94. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8
Mozambique (01/09), U.S. Department of State
^ Jian, Hong (2007). "莫桑比克华侨的历史与现状 (The
History and Status Quo of Overseas Chinese in Mozambique)". West Asia
Chinese Academy of Social Sciences
Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (5).
ISSN 1002-7122. Archived from the original on 2012-05-22.
^ Horta, Loro (13 August 2007). "China, Mozambique: old friends, new
business". International Relations and Security Network Update.
Retrieved 3 November 2007.
^ Moçambique Inquérito Demográfico e de Saúde 2011. Instituto
Nacional de Estatística, Ministério da Saúde Maputo, Moçambique
^ QUADRO 23. POPULAÇÃO DE 5 ANOS E MAIS POR IDADE, SEGUNDO ÁREA DE
RESIDÊNCIA, SEXO E LÍNGUA QUE FALA COM MAIS FREQUÊNCIA EM CASA.
^ Quadro 24. População de 5 anos e mais por condição de
conhecimento da língua portuguesa e sexo segundo área de residência
e idade.[dead link]
^ a b c Relatório do I Seminário sobre a Padronização da
Ortografia de Línguas Moçambicanas. NELIMO, Universidade Eduardo
^ Malangano ga Sambano (Yao New Testament), British and Foreign Bible
Society, London, 1952
^ Harries, Rev. Lyndon (1950), A Grammar of Mwera. Witwatersrand
University Press, Johannesburg.
^ Barnes, Herbert (1902),
Nyanja – English Vocabulary (mostly of
Likoma Island). Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, London.
^ ChiChewa Intensive Course, (Chewa is similar to Nyanja) Lilongwe,
^ Doke, Clement, A Comparative Study in Shona Phonetics. University of
Witwatersrand Press. 1931.
^ 3º Recenseamento Geral da População e Habitação. 2007 Census of
^ CELEBRANDO O ANO DA FÉ NA DIOCESE DE TETE. diocesedetete.org
^ "UMC in Mozambique". moumethodist.org. July 2011. Archived from the
original on 2015-05-10.
^ LDS Statistics and Church Facts for Mozambique. Mormonnewsroom.org.
Retrieved on 21 June 2015.
Human Development Report
Human Development Report 2009 – Mozambique". Hdrstats.undp.org.
Archived from the original on 30 January 2010. Retrieved 2 May
^ Walt, G., & Melamed, A. (1983). Toward a people's health
service. London: Zed Books ISBN 0862321298.
^ Gloyd, S. (1996). "Confrontation, co-operation or co-optation: NGOS
and the Ghanaian state during structural adjustment". Review of
African Political Economy. 68: 149–168. JSTOR 4006246.
^ "The State of the World's Midwifery".
United Nations Population
^ UNAIDS World AIDS Day Report 2011. UNAIDS.org
^ Key facts Archived 9 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine.,
Department for International Development (DFID), UK Government (24 May
^ "The World Factbook". cia.gov.
^ Fitzpatrick, Mary (2007). Mozambique. Lonely Planet. p. 33.
^ a b c d e Salgado, Susana (2014). The Internet and Democracy
Building in Lusophone African Countries. Ashgate. p. 79.
^ a b Matsimbe, Zefanias (2009). "Ch. 9: Mozambique". In Denis Kadima
and Susan Booysen. Compendium of Elections in Southern Africa
1989–2009: 20 Years of Multiparty Democracy. EISA, Johannesburg.
pp. 319–321. Archived from the original on 2014-02-28.
^ Mário, Tomás Vieira; UNESCO (2011). Assessment of Media
Development in Mozambique: Based on UNESCO's Media Development
Indicators. UNESCO. p. 123.
^ Berg, Jerome S. Broadcasting on the Short Waves, 1945 to Today.
McFarland. p. 221. ISBN 978-0786469024.
This article incorporates public domain material from the
CIA World Factbook website
Abrahamsson, Hans Mozambique: The Troubled Transition, from Socialist
Construction to Free Market Capitalism London: Zed Books, 1995
Bowen, Merle L., "The State against the Peasantry: Rural struggles in
colonial and postcolonial Mozambique", Charlotesvile & London,
University Press of Virginia, 2000
Cahen, Michel "Les bandits: un historien au Mozambique", Paris:
Fialho Feliciano, José, "Antropologia económca dos Thonga do sul de
Moçambique", Maputo, Arquivo Histórico de Moçamique, 1998
Gengenbach, Heidi. "Binding Memories: Women as Makers and Tellers of
History in Magude, Mozambique". Columbia University Press, 2004.
Entire Text Online
Africa and America in The Sixties: A Decade That
Changed The Nation and The Destiny of A Continent, First Edition, New
Africa Press, 2006, ISBN 978-0-9802534-2-9
Mwakikagile, Godfrey, Nyerere and Africa: End of an Era, Third
Africa Press, 2006, "Chapter Seven: "The Struggle for
Mozambique: The Founding of
FRELIMO in Tanzania," pp. 206–225,
Newitt, Malyn A
History of Mozambique
History of Mozambique Indiana University Press.
Pitcher, Anne Transforming Mozambique: The politics of privatisation,
1975–2000 Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2002
Varia, "Religion in Mozambique", LFM: Social sciences & Missions
No. 17, December 2005
Find more aboutMozambiqueat's sister projects
Definitions from Wiktionary
Media from Wikimedia Commons
News from Wikinews
Quotations from Wikiquote
Texts from Wikisource
Textbooks from Wikibooks
Travel guide from Wikivoyage
Learning resources from Wikiversity
Data from Wikidata
Mozambique Official Government Portal
Social Atlas from World Bank
Country Profile from BBC News
"Mozambique". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
Mozambique from UCB Libraries GovPubs
Mozambique at Curlie (based on DMOZ)
Wikimedia Atlas of Mozambique
Key Development Forecasts for
Mozambique from International Futures
Niassa National Reserve official website
The State of the World's Midwifery –
Mozambique Country Profile
Arab slave trade
Vasco da Gama
War of independence
Rome General Peace Accords
United Nations Operation (ONUMOZ)
Coat of arms
Water supply and sanitation
Countries and territories of Africa
Central African Republic
Republic of the Congo
Republic of the Congo
Ivory Coast (Côte d'Ivoire)
São Tomé and Príncipe
Plazas de soberanía
Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha
Southern Provinces (Western Sahara)1
States with limited
Arab Democratic Republic
1 Unclear sovereignty.
Countries and territories bordering the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago - United Kingdom
Christmas Island (Australia)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Australia)
Australian Antarctic Territory
French Southern and Antarctic Lands
Heard Island and McDonald Islands
International membership and history
Southern African Development Community
Southern African Development Community (SADC)
Republic of the Congo
Southern African Development Coordination Conference (forerunner)
Southern African Customs Union
Southern African Customs Union (SACU)
Common Monetary Area
Common Monetary Area (CMA)
Common Market for Eastern and Southern
Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC)
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Central African Republic
Moro National Liberation Front
Economic Cooperation Organization
1 As the "Turkish Cypriot State".
African Union (AU)
Organisation of African Unity
Permanent Representatives' Committee
Specialized Technical Committees
African Court of Justice
African Court on Human and Peoples' Rights
Peace and Security
Infrastructure and Energy
Social Affairs and Health
HR, Sciences and Technology
Trade and Industry
Rural Economy and Agriculture
Women and Gender
African Central Bank
African Monetary Fund
African Investment Bank
Peace and Security Council
African Standby Force
Panel of the Wise
African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights
African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights
African Economic Community
African Free Trade Zone
Tripartite Free Trade Area
United States of Africa
United States of Latin Africa
Community of Portuguese Language Countries
Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP)
São Tomé and Príncipe
Portuguese overseas empire
Alcácer Ceguer (El Qsar es Seghir)
Mazagan (El Jadida)
Santa Cruz do Cabo de Gué (Agadir)
Aguz (Souira Guedima)
Mazagan (El Jadida)
São João da Mamora (Mehdya)
Fernando Poo (Bioko)
Elmina (São Jorge da Mina)
Portuguese Gold Coast
São João Baptista de Ajudá
Portuguese São Tomé and Príncipe
1 Part of
São Tomé and Príncipe
São Tomé and Príncipe from 1753.
2 Or 1600.
3 A factory (Anosy Region) and small temporary coastal bases.
4 Part of
Portuguese Guinea from 1879.
5 Part of
Portuguese Angola from the 1920s.
Middle East [Persian Gulf]
Gamru (Bandar Abbas)
Julfar (Ras al-Khaimah)
Bahrain (Muharraq • Manama)
(Coulão / Kollam)
Pallipuram (Cochin de Cima)
Portuguese Paliacate outpost (Pulicat)
(Porto Grande De Bengala)
Daman and Diu
Portuguese Ceylon (Sri Lanka)
Dadra and Nagar Haveli
Asia and Oceania
Portuguese Malacca [Malaysia]
Portuguese Timor (East Timor)1
Lapa and Montanha (Hengqin)
1 1975 is the year of East Timor's Declaration of Independence and
subsequent invasion by Indonesia. In 2002, East Timor's independence
was fully recognized.
North America & North Atlantic
15th century [Atlantic islands]
16th century [Canada]
Terra Nova (Newfoundland)
South America & Antilles
Captaincy Colonies of Brazil
Rio de Janeiro
Nova Colónia do Sacramento
Grão-Pará and Maranhão
Grão-Pará and Rio Negro
Maranhão and Piauí
Portuguese Guiana (Amapá)
Upper Peru (Bolivia)
Coats of arms of Portuguese colonies
Evolution of the Portuguese Empire
Portuguese colonial architecture
Portuguese colonialism in Indonesia
Portuguese colonization of the Americas
Theory of the Portuguese discovery of Australia
Members of the Commonwealth of Nations
Antigua and Barbuda
Papua New Guinea
St. Kitts and Nevis
St. Vincent and the Grenadines
Trinidad and Tobago
Ashmore and Cartier Islands
Australian Antarctic Territory
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Coral Sea Islands
Heard Island and McDonald Islands
Akrotiri and Dhekelia
British Antarctic Territory
Indian Ocean Territory
British Virgin Islands
Isle of Man
St. Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
Turks and Caicos Islands
Source: Commonwealth Secretariat - Member States
ISNI: 0000 0004 0460 029X
BNF: cb11864900c (data)