1.1 Road racing
1.1.1 Traditional road racing
1.1.2 Motorcycle Grand Prix
1.1.3 Superbike racing
1.1.4 Supersport racing
1.1.5 Endurance racing
1.2.1 Supercross 1.2.2 Supermoto
1.3.1 Enduro 1.3.2 Hare Scramble 1.3.3 Cross-country rally
1.4 Track racing
1.4.1 Indoor short track and TT Racing 1.4.2 Speedway 1.4.3 Grasstrack 1.4.4 Ice speedway 1.4.5 Board track 1.4.6 Auto Race
1.5 Other categories
1.5.1 Drag racing/sprints 1.5.2 UK Sprinting 1.5.3 Hill climb 1.5.4 Landspeed racing 1.5.5 Vintage
2 See also 3 References 4 External links
The FIM classifies motorcycle racing in the following four main
categories. Each category has several sub categories.
Main article: Road racing
Competitors line up at the start of the 2010
Historically, "road racing" meant a course on closed public road. This
was once commonplace but currently only a few such circuits have
survived, mostly in Europe. Races take place on publics roads which
have been temporarily closed to the public by legal orders from the
local legislature. Two championships exist, the first is the
Main article: Grand Prix motorcycle racing
Grand Prix motorcycle racing
Moto3: Introduced in 2012, motorcycles in this class are 250cc with single-cylinder four-stroke engines Previously it featured 125 cc two-stroke motorcycles. This class is also restricted by rider age, with an upper limit of 25 for newly signed riders and wild card entries and an absolute upper limit of 28 for all riders. Moto2: Introduced by Dorna Sports, the commercial rights holder of the competition, in 2010 as a 600 cc four-stroke class. Prior to that season, the intermediate class was 250 cc with two-stroke engines. Moto2 races in the 2010 season allowed both engine types; from 2011 on, only the four-stroke Moto2 machines were allowed. MotoGP: is the current term for the highest class of GP racing. The class was contested with prototype machines with varying displacement and engine type over the years. Originally contested by large displacement four stroke machines in the early years it eventually switched to 500 cc two strokes. In 2002 990 cc four-stroke bikes were allowed to compete alongside the 500 cc two strokes and then completely replaced them in 2003. 2007 saw a reduction to 800 cc four stroke engines to unsuccessfully slow things down a bit before finally settling on 1000 cc four strokes in 2012.
Grand prix motorcycles are prototype machines not based on any production motorcycle.
Main article: Superbike racing
See also: AMA Supersport Championship, British Supersport Championship, and Supersport World Championship Supersport racing is another category of motorcycle road racing that employs modified production motorcycles. To be eligible for Supersport racing, a motorcycle must have a four-stroke engine of between 400 and 600 cc for four-cylinder machines, and between 600 and 750 cc for twins, and must satisfy the FIM homologation requirements. Supersport regulations are much tighter than Superbikes. Supersport machines must remain largely as standard, while engine tuning is possible but tightly regulated.
Main article: Endurance racing (motorsport) Endurance racing is a category of motorcycle road racing which is meant to test the durability of equipment and endurance of the riders. Teams of multiple riders attempt to cover a large distance in a single event. Teams are given the ability to change riders during the race. Endurance races can be run either to cover a set distance in laps as quickly as possible, or to cover as much distance as possible over a preset amount of time. Reliability of the motorcycles used for endurance racing is paramount.
Sidecarcross (sidecar motocross)
Start of a
Main article: Motocross
Main article: Supercross
Supercross (or SX) is simply indoor motocross.
Supercross is more
technical and rhythm like to riders. Typically situated in a variety
of stadiums and open or closed arenas, it is notable for its numerous
jumps. In North America, this has been turned into an extremely
popular spectator sport, filling large baseball, soccer, and football
stadiums, leading to
Main article: Supermoto
Main article: Enduro
Hare Scramble Main article: Hare scramble
Hare Scramble racer at Hyden, Ky
Main article: Rally raid
Cross-country rally events (also called Rallye Raid or simply Rallye,
alternate spelling Rally) are much bigger than enduros. Typically
using larger bikes than other off-road sports, these events take place
over many days, travelling hundreds of miles across primarily open
off-road terrain. The most famous example is the Dakar Rally,
previously travelling from Western Europe (often Paris) to Dakar in
Senegal, via the Sahara desert, taking almost two weeks. Since 2009
Main article: Track racing
Indoor short track and TT Racing
Indoor races consist of either: a polished concrete floor with coke syrup, or other media sprayed or mopped onto the concrete for traction for the tyres of the motorcycles, or on dirt that has been moistened and hard packed, or left loose (often called a cushion). Similar to size of the Arenacross Arenas or sometimes smaller the riders must have accurate throttle control to negotiate these tight Indoor Race Tracks. In the U.S., flat-track events are held on outdoor dirt ovals, ranging in length from one mile to half-mile, short-tracks and TTs. All are usually held outdoors, though a few short-track events have been held in indoor stadiums. A Short Track event is one involving a track of less than 1⁄2 mile in length, while a TT event can be of any length, but it must have at least one right turn and at least one jump to qualify. In the A.M.A. Grand National Championship, mile, half-mile, short-track and TT races are part of a specific discipline labelled "Dirt track" or sometimes "Flat track" (also called Flat Track). However the AMA Sanction rule books refer to this discipline as Dirt track racing. Whether mile, half-mile, short-track or TT, traction is what defines a dirt track race. The bikes cannot use "knobbies", they must use "Class C" tires which are similar to street tires. On mile, half-mile, short-track course, the track is an oval, all turns to the left only, and only a rear brake is allowed. On the TT courses, there must be at least one right hand turn with a jump being optional, front and rear brakes are allowed, but the same "Class C" tires are required. Although not mandated, most flat track racers wear a steel "shoe" on the left boot which is actually a fitted steel sole that straps onto the left boot. This steel shoe lets the rider slide more easily and safely on their left foot when needed as they lean the bike to the left while sliding through the corners, though riders can often perform what is known as a "feet-up slide", using throttle control, body lean and steering alone to power-slide through the turns, without sliding on their steel shoe. Hard-packed tracks are generally referred to as "groove" tracks, loosely packed tracks are called "cushions". The composition of the track surface is usually decided by the race promoter and track preparation team, the latter using various methods and materials including combinations of clay, decomposed granite, sand, calcium (to allow the surface to retain water moisture) and other materials. An optimum "groove" track will have enough moisture to be "tacky", without being slick, and will develop what is called a "blue groove" as the motorcycle tires lay down a thin layer of tire rubber on the racing line. A "cushion" track consists of similar materials to the groove track, but mixed in a way that allows the surface to maintain a more sandy, loose composition. While power-sliding is common on both groove and cushion tracks, a cushion track allows more power-sliding, into, through and out of the turns. Though the "Class C" tires allowed by the rules are the same for both cushion and groove tracks, riders are allowed to modify the tires by cutting some rubber off the tire grooves for improved traction, but are not allowed to add materials to the tires. Speedway
Main article: Motorcycle speedway Speedway racing takes place on a flat oval track usually consisting of dirt or loosely packed shale, using bikes with a single gear and no brakes. Competitors use this surface to slide their machines sideways (powersliding or broadsliding) into the bends using the rear wheel to scrub-off speed while still providing the drive to power the bike forward and around the bend.
Grass track racing
Main article: Grasstrack
Main article: Ice Racing Ice racing includes a motorcycle class which is the equivalent of Speedway on ice. Bikes race anti-clockwise around oval tracks between 260 and 425 metres in length. Metal tire spikes or screws are often allowed to improve traction. The race structure and scoring are similar to Speedway.
Board track racing
Main article: Board track racing
Board track racing
A race starts in Kawaguchi Auto Race Circuit
Main article: Auto Race (Japanese sport) Auto Race is a Japanese version of track racing held on an asphalt oval course and seen as a gambling sport.
Other categories Drag racing/sprints
Main article: Motorcycle drag racing
Though basically similar, sprinting and drag racing have essential
differences. Sprinting is a race against the clock, even if other
competitiors are taking part at the same time.
Where a time was one-way only, any record could be regarded as
strip-only, as for official recognition of world and national records
two qualifying runs had to be completed in opposite-directions within
one-hour, to negate the effect of wind, with an average time
Writing in 1974,
Main article: Motorcycle land speed record
In Landspeed motorcycle racing, the racer is trying to beat the
fastest speed ever achieved by that style of motorcycle and type of
engine for a timed mile. The pre-eminent event for motorcycle LSR is
the International Motorcycle Speed Trials by BUB, held on the
Bonneville Salt Flats annually (near Labor Day).
Main article: historic motorsport
In vintage racing riders race classic motorcycles that are no longer
competitive with the latest production motorcycles. Classes are
organized by production period and engine displacement. There are
vintage events for almost every type of racing listed above, vintage
motocross and road racing are especially popular. Equipment is limited
to that available for the production period, although modern safety
equipment and tires are permitted. Most vintage production periods are
from the 1970s and before, but now 1980s motorcycles are being allowed
into some events, although this has met with some opposition from
traditionalists. Generally a motorcycle must be at
least 25 years old to be considered vintage.
The sanctioning body for most US vintage racing is the American
Motorcyclist Association. The main organizations that sponsor vintage
racing are the American Historic
List of auto racing tracks
^ "History of the FIM". FIM. Archived from the original on 24 February
2009. Retrieved 18 January 2016.
^ "Sport - Road Racing". FIM. Archived from the original on 3 June
2010. Retrieved 18 January 2016.
^ "MotoGP™ Basics - Engines". motogp.com. Archived from the original
on 2 March 2014. Retrieved 18 January 2016.
Fédération Internationale de Motocyclismo (FIM) – World governing
Motorcycling Australia (MA)- Australian Governing Body
Auto Cycle Union – UK governing body
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