Mosul (Arabic: الموصل al-Mawṣil, Kurdish: مووسڵ,
Syriac: ܡܘܨܠ, translit. Māwṣil) is a major city in
Located some 400 km (250 mi) north of Baghdad,
on the west bank of the Tigris, opposite the ancient Assyrian city of
Nineveh on the east bank. The metropolitan area has grown to encompass
substantial areas on both the "Left Bank" (east side) and the "Right
Bank" (west side), as the two banks are described by the locals
compared to the flow direction of Tigris.
At the start of the 21st century,
Mosul and its surrounds had an
ethnically and religiously diverse population; the majority of Mosul's
population were Arabs, with Assyrians, Armenians, Turkmens,
Kurds, Yazidis, Shabakis, Mandaeans, Kawliya,
Circassians in addition
to other, smaller ethnic minorities. In religious terms, mainstream
Sunni Islam was the largest religion, but with a significant number of
followers of the
Salafi movement and
Christianity (the latter followed
by the Assyrians and Armenians), as well as Shia Islam, Sufism,
Yarsanism and Mandaeism.
Mosul's population grew rapidly around the turn of the millennium and
by 2004 was estimated to be 1,846,500. In 2014, the Islamic State
Iraq and the Levant seized control of the city. The Iraqi
government recaptured it in the 2016–2017 Battle of Mosul.
Historically, important products of the area include
Mosul marble and
oil. The city of
Mosul is home to the
University of Mosul and its
renowned Medical College, which together was one of the largest
educational and research centers in
Iraq and the Middle East.
Mosul, together with the nearby
Nineveh plains, is one of the historic
centers for the Assyrians and their churches; the Assyrian
Church of the East; its offshoot, the Chaldean Catholic Church; and
the Syriac Orthodox Church, containing the tombs of several Old
Testament prophets such as Jonah, some of which were destroyed by ISIL
in July 2014.
2.1 Ancient era and early Middle Ages
2.2 9th century to 1535
2.3 Ottoman period
2.4 1918 to 1990s
2.5 2003 American Invasion
2.6 Christian Exodus
2.7 Government by Islamic State of
Iraq and the Levant (ISIL)
2.7.2 Persecution of religious and ethnic minorities and destruction
of cultural sites
2.7.3 Human rights
2.7.4 Armed opposition
2.7.5 Battle of
6 Historical and religious buildings
Mosques and shrines
6.2 Churches and monasteries
6.3 Other sites
10 Notable people
11 See also
14 External links
The name of the city is first mentioned by
Xenophon in his
expeditionary logs in
Achaemenid Assyria of 401 BC, during the reign
of the Persian Achaemenid Empire. There, he notes a small Assyrian
town of "Mépsila" (Ancient Greek: Μέψιλα) on the Tigris
somewhere about where modern
Mosul is today (Anabasis, III.iv.10). It
may be safer to identify Xenophon's Mépsila with the site of Iski
Mosul, or "Old Mosul", about 30 km (19 mi) north of modern
Mosul, where six centuries after Xenophon's report, the Sasanian
Empire's center of Budh-Ardhashir was built. Be that as it may, the
name Mepsila is doubtless the root for the modern name.
In its current
Arabic form and spelling, the term Mosul, or rather
"Mawsil", stands for the "linking point" – or loosely, the "Junction
City," in Arabic.
Mosul should not be confused with the ancient
Assyrian capital of Nineveh, which is located across the
Mosul on the eastern bank, at the famed archaeological mound of
Kuyunjik (Turkoman for "sheep's hill"). This area is known today as
the town of Nebi Yunus ("prophet Jonah") and is now populated largely
by Kurds. It is the only fully Kurdish neighborhood in Mosul. The site
contains the tomb of the Biblical Jonah, as he lived and died in the
then capital of ancient Assyria. Today, this entire area has been
absorbed into the
Mosul metropolitan area. The indigenous Assyrians
still refer to the entire city of
Nineveh (or rather,
Nineveh was succeeded by Mepsila after the fall of Assyria
between 612–599 BC at the hands of a coalition of Babylonians,
Medes, Persians, Scythians,
Cimmerians and Sagartians. The Assyrians
largely abandoned the city, building new smaller settlements such as
Mosul is also named al-Faiha ("the Paradise"), al-Khaḍrah ("the
Green"), and al-Hadbah ("the Humped"). It is sometimes described as
"The Pearl of the North" and "the city of a million soldiers".
Ancient era and early Middle Ages
Syria § Etymology
Dair Mar Elia
Dair Mar Elia south of Mosul, Iraq's oldest monastery of the Assyrian
Church of the East, dating from the 6th century. It was destroyed by
ISIS in 2014.
The area in which
Mosul lies was an integral part of
Assyria from as
early as the 25th century BC. After the
Akkadian Empire (2335–2154
BC) which united all of the peoples of
Mesopotamia under one rule,
Mosul again became a continuous part of
Assyria proper from circa 2050
BC through to the fall of the
Neo-Assyrian Empire between 612–599
Mosul remained within the geopolitical province of
Assyria for a
further thirteen centuries (as a part of Achaemenid Assyria, Seleucid
Assyria and Sasanian Asōristān) until the early Muslim
conquests of the mid-7th century. After the Muslim conquests, the
region saw a gradual influx of Muslim Arab, Kurdish and Turkic
peoples, although the Assyrians continue to use the name Athura for
the ecclesiastical province.
Nineveh is mentioned in the
Old Assyrian Empire
Old Assyrian Empire (2025–1750), and
during the reign of
Shamshi-Adad I (1809–1776 BC) it is listed as a
centre of worship of the goddess Ishtar, and it remained as such
Middle Assyrian Empire
Middle Assyrian Empire (1365–1056 BC). During the
Neo-Assyrian Empire (911–605 BC)
Nineveh grew in size and
importance, particularly from the reigns of
Tukulti-Ninurta II and
Ashurnasirpal II (883–859 BC) onward, however he chose the city of
Kalhu (the Biblical Calah, modern Nimrud) as his capital in place of
the ancient traditional capital of Aššur (Ashur), 30 km
(19 mi) from present day Mosul.
Thereafter successive Assyrian emperor-monarchs such as Shalmaneser
III, Adad-nirari III, Tiglath-Pileser III,
Shalmaneser V and Sargon II
continued to expand the city. In approximately 700 BC, King
Nineveh the new capital of Assyria. Immense building
work was undertaken, and
Nineveh eclipsed Babylon,
Kalhu and Aššur
in both size and importance, making it the largest city in the world.
A number of scholars believe the true location of the Hanging Gardens
Babylon were in fact at Nineveh.
The mound of Kuyunjik in
Mosul is the site of the palaces of King
Sennacherib, and his successors Esarhaddon, Ashurbanipal, (who
established the Library of Ashurbanipal) and Ashur-etil-ilani. The
Assyrian Empire began to unravel from 626 BC onwards, being consumed
by a decade of brutal internal civil wars, greatly weakening it. A
Assyria was subsequently attacked in 616 BC by a vast
coalition of its former subjects, most notably the Babylonians, Medes,
Persians, Chaldeans, Scythians, Cimmerians, and Sagartians. Nineveh
fell after a siege and bitter house to house fighting in 612 BC during
the reign of
Sinsharishkun who was killed defending his capital. His
successor, Ashur-uballit II, fought his way out of
Nineveh and formed
a new Assyrian capital at
Harran (now southeastern Turkey).
Mosul (then Mepsila) later succeeded
Nineveh as the
of the road that linked
Anatolia with the short lived
Median Empire and succeeding
Achaemenid Empire (546–332 BC) where it
was a part of the geopolitical province of Athura, where the region
saw a significant economic revival.
Mosul became part of the
Seleucid Empire after Alexander’s conquests
in 332 BC. While little is known of the city from the Hellenistic
Mosul likely belonged to the Seleucid satrapy of Syria, the
Greek term for Assyria,
Syria originally meaning
Assyria rather than
the modern nation of Syria, which was conquered by the Parthian Empire
circa 150 BC.
Mosul changed hands once again with the rise of the
Sasanian Empire in
225 and became a part of the Sasanian province of Asōristān.
Christianity was present among the indigenous
Assyrian people in Mosul
as early as the 1st century, although the ancient Mesopotamian
religion remained strong until the 4th century. It became an episcopal
seat of the
Assyrian Church of the East
Assyrian Church of the East in the 6th century.
In 637 (other sources say 641), during the period of the Caliph Umar,
Mosul was annexed to the
Rashidun Caliphate by Utba bin Farqad
Al-Salami, during the early Muslim conquests, after which it was
dissolved as a geopolitical entity.
9th century to 1535
Persian miniature depicting the siege of
Mosul in 1261–63 from:
Rashid-al-Din Hamadani, Jami' al-tawarikh, Bibliothèque Nationale de
In the late 9th century control over
Mosul was seized by the Turkish
Ishaq ibn Kundaj
Ishaq ibn Kundaj and his son Muhammad, but in 893
once again under the direct control of the Abbasid Caliphate. In the
early 10th century
Mosul came under the control of the native Arab
Hamdanid dynasty. From Mosul, the Hamdanids under Abdallah ibn Hamdan
and his son
Nasir al-Dawla expanded their control over Upper
Mesopotamia for several decades, first as governors of the Abbassids
and later as de facto independent rulers. A century later they were
supplanted by the Uqaylid dynasty. Ibn Hawqal, who visited
968, described it as a beautiful town inhabited mainly by Kurds.
Mosul was conquered by the
Seljuq Empire in the 11th century. After a
period under semi-independent atabeg such as Mawdud, in 1127 it became
the centre of power of the Zengid dynasty.
Saladin besieged the city
unsuccessfully in 1182 but finally gained control of it in 1186. In
the 13th century it was captured by the
Mongols led by Hulagu Khan,
but was spared the usual destruction since its governor, Badr al-Din
Luʾluʾ, helped the Khan in his following campaigns in Syria.
After the Mongol defeat in the
Battle of Ain Jalut
Battle of Ain Jalut against the
Mamluks, Badr al-Din's son sided with the latter; this led to the
destruction of the city, which later regained some importance but
never recovered its original splendor.
Mosul was thenceforth ruled by
Jalairid Sultanate and escaped Timur's
Benjamin of Tudela
Benjamin of Tudela passed through Mosul; in his papers he
wrote that he found a small
Jewish community estimated as 7000 people
in Mosul, the community was led by Rabbi Zakkai, presumably connected
to the Davidic line. In 1288–1289, the
Exilarch was in
signed a supporting paper for Maimonides. In the early 16th
Mosul was under the Turkmen federation of the Ağ Qoyunlu,
but in 1508 it was conquered by the
Safavid dynasty of Iran.
What started as irregular attacks in 1517 was finalized in 1538, when
Suleyman the Magnificent
Suleyman the Magnificent added
Mosul to his empire by
capturing it from his archrivals — Safavid Persia. Thenceforth
Mosul was governed by a pasha.
Mosul was celebrated for its line of
walls, comprising seven gates with large towers, a renowned hospital
(maristan) and a covered market (qaysariyya), and was also famous for
its fabrics and flourishing trades.
Mesopotamia had been acquired by the
Ottoman Empire in 1555
by the Peace of Amasya, until the
Treaty of Zuhab in 1639 Ottoman
Mesopotamia was not decisive. After the Peace of
Amasya, the Safavids recaptured most of
Mesopotamia one more time
during the reign of king Abbas I (r. 1588–1629). Amongst the newly
appointed Safavid governors of
Mesopotamia during those years was
Sultan Afshar, who was appointed governor of
1622. Prior to 1638, the city of
Mosul was considered to the
Ottomans "still a mere fortress, important for its strategic position
as an offensive platform for Ottoman campaigns into Iraq, as well as a
defensive stronghold and (staging post) guarding the approaches to
Anatolia and to the Syrian coast. Then, with the Ottoman reconquest of
Baghdad (1638), the liwa’ of
Mosul became an independent
Despite being a part of the Ottoman Empire, during the four centuries
of Ottoman rule
Mosul was considered "the most independent district"
within the Middle East, following the Roman model of indirect rule
through local notables.:203–4 "Mosuli culture developed less
along Ottoman–Turkish lines than along Iraqi–
Arab lines; and
Turkish, the official language of the State, was certainly not the
dominant language in the province.":203
In line with its status as a politically stable trade route between
the Mediterranean and the
Mosul developed considerably
during the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. Similar to the
development of the
Mamluk dynasty in Baghdad, during this time "the
Jalili family was establishing itself as the undisputed master of
Mosul", and "helping to connect
Mosul with a pre-Ottoman,
Arab cultural heritage which was to put the
town on its way to recapturing some of the prestige and prominence it
had enjoyed under the golden reign of Badr ad-Din Lu’lu’.":203
Along with the al-Umari and Tasin al-Mufti families, the Jalilis
formed an "urban-based small and medium gentry and a new landed
elite", which proceeded to displace the control of previous rural
tribes. Such families proceed to establish themselves through
private enterprise, solidifying their influence and assets through
rents on land and taxes on urban and rural manufacturing.
As well as elected officials, the social architecture of
highly influenced by the Dominican fathers who arrived in
1750, sent by
Pope Benedict XIV
Pope Benedict XIV (
Mosul had a large Christian
population, predominantly indigenous Assyrians). They were
followed by the Dominican nuns in 1873. They established a number of
schools, health clinics, a printing press and an orphanage. The nuns
also established workshops to teach girls sewing and embroidery. A
congregation of Dominican sisters, founded in the 19th century, still
had its motherhouse in
Mosul by the early 21st century. Over 120
Assyrian Iraqi Sisters belonged to this congregation.
In the nineteenth century the Ottoman government started to reclaim
central control over its outlying provinces. Their aim was to "restore
Ottoman law, and rejuvenate the military" as well as reviving "a
secure tax base for the government".:24–26 In order to
reestablish rule in 1834 the
Sultan abolished public elections for the
position of governor, and began "neutraliz[ing] local families such as
the Jalilis and their class.":28–29 and appointing new,
non-Maslawi governors directly. In line with its reintegration within
central government rule,
Mosul was required to conform to new Ottoman
reform legislation, including the standardization of tariff rates, the
consolidation of internal taxes and the integration of the
administrative apparatus with the central government.:26
This process started in 1834 with the appointment of Bayraktar Mehmet
Pasha, who was to rule
Mosul for the next four years. After the reign
of Bayraktar Mehmet Pasha, the Ottoman government (wishing still to
restrain the influence of powerful local families) appointed a series
of governors in rapid succession, ruling “for only a brief period
before being sent somewhere else to govern, making it impossible for
any of them to achieve a substantial local power base.”:29
Mosul's importance as a trading center declined after the opening of
the Suez canal, which enabled goods to travel to and from India by sea
rather than by land across
Iraq and through Mosul.
A coffee house in Mosul, 1914.
Mosul was the capital of
Mosul Vilayet one of the three vilayets
(provinces) of Ottoman Iraq, with a brief break in 1623 when Persia
seized the city.
World War I
World War I the
Ottoman Empire sided with Germany, the
Austro-Hungarian Empire and
Bulgaria against the British Empire,
France and the Russian Empire. In northern Mesopotamia, northern Syria
and south east
Ottomans held the armed support of the
Circassians and some
Arab groups, while the British
and Russians were militarily supported by the Assyrians and Armenians
(particularly in the wake of the
Armenian genocide and Assyrian
genocide), and some
Arab groups. The
Ottomans were defeated, and in
1918 the British occupied Mosul, and indeed the whole of Iraq.
1918 to 1990s
At the end of
World War I
World War I in October 1918, after the signature of the
Armistice of Mudros, British forces occupied Mosul. After the war, the
city and the surrounding area became part of the Occupied Enemy
Territory Administration (1918–20) and shortly Mandatory Iraq
(1920–32). This mandate was contested by
Turkey which continued to
claim the area based on the fact that it was under Ottoman control
during the signature of the Armistice.
In the Treaty of Lausanne, the dispute over
Mosul was left for future
resolution by the League of Nations. Iraq's possession of
confirmed by the
League of Nations
League of Nations brokered agreement between Turkey
and Great Britain in 1926. Former Ottoman
Mosul Vilayet eventually
Province of Iraq, but
Mosul remained the provincial
Mosul in 1932.
Mosul's fortunes revived with the discovery of oil in the area, from
the late 1920s onward. It became a nexus for the movement of oil via
truck and pipeline to both
Turkey and Syria. Qyuarrah Refinery was
built within about an hour's drive from the city and was used to
process tar for road-building projects. It was damaged but not
destroyed during the Iran–
The opening of the
University of Mosul in 1967 enabled the education
of many in the city and surrounding areas.
After the 1991 uprisings by the
Mosul did not fall within the
Kurdish-ruled area, but it was included in the northern no-fly zone
imposed and patrolled by the United States and Britain between 1991
Although this prevented Saddam's forces from mounting large-scale
military operations again in the region, it did not stop the regime
from implementing a steady policy of "Arabisation" by which the
demography of some areas of
Nineveh Governorate were gradually
changed. Despite the program
Mosul and its surrounding towns and
villages remained home to a mixture of Arabs, Kurds, Assyrians,
Armenians, Turkmens, Shabaks, a few Jews, and isolated populations of
Kawliya and Circassians.
Saddam was able to garrison portions of the 5th Army within the city
of Mosul, had
Mosul International Airport
Mosul International Airport under military control, and
recruited heavily from the city for his military's officer corps. This
may have been due to the fact that most of the officers and generals
of the Iraqi Army were from
Mosul long before the
Saddam regime era.
2003 American Invasion
Saddam Hussein's sons Qusay and Uday were killed in a gun battle in
Mosul on July 22, 2003.
When the 2003 invasion of
Iraq was being planned, the United States
had originally intended to base troops in
Turkey and mount a thrust
Iraq to capture Mosul. However, the Turkish parliament
refused to grant permission for the operation. When the
Iraq War did
break out in March 2003, US military activity in the area was confined
to strategic bombing with airdropped special forces operating in the
Mosul fell on April 11, 2003, when the Iraqi Army 5th Corps,
loyal to Saddam, abandoned the city and eventually surrendered, two
days after the fall of Baghdad. US Army
Special Forces with Kurdish
fighters quickly took civil control of the city. Thereafter began
widespread looting before an agreement was reached to cede overall
control to US forces.
On July 22, 2003,
Saddam Hussein's sons,
Uday Hussein and Qusay
Hussein, were killed in a gun battle with Coalition forces in Mosul
after a failed attempt at their apprehension.
Mosul also served as
the operational base for the US Army's
101st Airborne Division
101st Airborne Division during
the occupational phase of the Operation Iraqi Freedom. During its
101st Airborne Division
101st Airborne Division was able to extensively survey the
city and, advised by the 431st Civil Affairs Battalion,
non-governmental organizations, and the people of Mosul, began
reconstruction work by employing the people of
Mosul in the areas of
security, electricity, local governance, drinking water, wastewater,
trash disposal, roads, bridges, and environmental concerns.
Other US Army units to have occupied the city include the 4th Brigade
Combat Team of the 1st Cavalry Division, the 172nd
the 3rd Brigade-2nd Infantry Division, 18th Engineer Brigade (Combat),
Alpha Company 14th Engineer Battalion-555th Combat Engineer Brigade,
1st Brigade-25th Infantry Division, the 511th Military Police Company,
the 812th Military Police Company and company-size units from Reserve
components, an element of the 364th Civil Affairs Brigade, and the
404th Civil Affairs Battalion which covered the areas north of the
Green Line.[clarification needed]
On June 24, 2004, a coordinated series of car-bombs killed 62 people,
many of them policemen.
The memorial that stands outside the entrance to the Dining Hall on
FOB Marez where the December 21, 2004 suicide attack occurred.
On December 21, 2004, fourteen US soldiers, four American employees of
Halliburton, and four Iraqi soldiers were killed in a suicide attack
on a dining hall at the
Forward Operating Base
Forward Operating Base (FOB) Marez next to the
main US military airfield at Mosul.
The Pentagon reported that 72
other personnel were injured in the attack carried out by a suicide
bomber wearing an explosive vest and the uniform of the Iraqi security
services. The Islamist group
Army of Ansar al-Sunna
Army of Ansar al-Sunna (partly evolved
from Ansar al-Islam) declared responsibility for the attack in an
In December 2007,
Mosul International Airport. An Iraqi
Airways flight carried 152
Hajj pilgrims to Baghdad, the first
commercial flight since US forces declared a no-fly zone in 1993,
although further commercial flight remained prohibited. On January
23, 2008, an explosion in an apartment building killed 36 people. The
following day, a suicide bomber dressed as a police officer
assassinated the local police chief, Brig. Gen. Salah Mohammed
al-Jubouri, the director of police for Ninevah province, as he toured
the site of the blast.
In May 2008, a military offensive of the
Ninawa campaign was launched
by US-backed Iraqi Army Forces led by Maj. Gen. Riyadh Jalal Tawfiq,
the commander of military operations in Mosul, in the hope of bringing
back stability and security to the city. Though the
Mosul in the Iraqi Parliament, the intellectuals of
the city, and other concerned humanitarian groups agreed on the
pressing need for a solution to the unbearable conditions of the city,
they still believed that the solution was merely political and
administrative. They also questioned whether such a large-scale
military offensive would spare the lives of innocent people.
All these factors deprived the city of its historical, scientific, and
intellectual foundations in the last 4 years[clarification needed],
when many scientists, professors, academics, doctors, health
professionals, engineers, lawyers, journalists, religious clergy (both
Muslims and Christians), historians, as well as professionals and
artists in all walks of life, were either killed or forced to leave
the city under the threat of being shot, exactly as happened elsewhere
Iraq in the years following 2003.
In 2008, many
Assyrian Christians (about 12,000) fled the city
following a wave of murders and threats against their community. The
murder of a dozen Assyrians, threats that others would be murdered
unless they converted to Islam and the destruction of their houses
sparked a rapid exodus of the Christian population. Some families
crossed the borders to
Turkey while others were given
shelter in churches and monasteries. Accusations were exchanged
Sunni fundamentalists and some Kurdish groups for being behind
this new exodus. For the time being the motivation of these acts is
unclear, but some claims linked it to the imminent provincial
elections which took place in January 2009, and the related Assyrian
Christians' demands for broader representation in the provincial
As was predicted by the DIA and others,
Mosul was attacked on June
4, 2014 and after 6 days of fighting, on June 10, 2014, Islamic State
took over the city during the 2014 Northern Iraq
offensive. As of August 2014[update], the city's new
IS administration was initially dysfunctional with frequent power
cuts, tainted water supply, collapse of infrastructure support and
failing health care.
Government by Islamic State of
Iraq and the Levant (ISIL)
Further information: Fall of Mosul
Humvee down after isis attack
On June 10, 2014, Islamic State of
Iraq and the Levant took control of
Mosul. Troop shortages and infighting among top officers and
Iraqi political leaders played into Islamic State's hands and fuelled
panic that led to the city's abandonment. Kurdish intelligence had
been warned by a reliable source in early 2014 that
Mosul would be
attacked by IS and ex-Baathists (and had informed the US and UK);
however, Iraqi Prime Minister
Nouri al-Maliki and the Defence Minister
turned down repeated offers of help from the peshmerga. Half a million
people escaped on foot or by car in the next 2 days.
ISIL acquired three divisions' worth of up-to-date American arms and
Stryker 120-mm mortars and at least 700
Humvee vehicles from the then fleeing, or since massacred,
Iraqi army. Many residents initially welcomed IS and according
to a member of the UK
Defence Select Committee
Mosul "fell because the
people living there were fed up with the sectarianism of the Shia
dominated Iraqi government."
Iraqi soldiers drive past an
ISIL sign in eastern Mosul, January 2017.
On 21 January 2015, the US began coordinating airstrikes with a
Kurdish-launched offensive, to help them begin the planned operation
to retake the city of Mosul.
Once home to at least 70,000
Assyrian Christians there are possibly
none left today in Mosul, any that do remain are forced to pay a tax
for remaining Christian, and live under the constant threat of
violence. The indigenous Assyrians of ancient Mesopotamian
ancestry, who have a history in the region dating back over 5,000
years suffered their Christian churches and monasteries being
vandalised and burned down, their ancient Assyrian heritage sites
dating back to the
Iron Age destroyed, their homes and possessions
stolen by IS, and ultimatums to convert to Islam, leave their
ancient homelands, or be murdered.
During the IS government of Mosul, several phone lines have been cut
by IS and many cell phone towers and internet access points were
destroyed. According to western and pro-Iraqi government press,
the residents of the city have been de facto prisoners, forbidden
to leave the city unless they post with IS a significant collateral of
family members, personal wealth and property. They may then leave the
city upon paying a significant "departure tax" on a three-day pass
(for a higher fee they can surrender their home, pay the fee and leave
for good) and if those with a three-day pass fail to return in that
time their assets will be seized and family will be killed.
Mosul and the greater
Mosul region (Nineveh)
are imprisoned and occasionally killed for resistance to being
sold as sex slaves. Islamic State has killed or expelled most
minority groups and converted some
Yazidi males and Christians to
Islam. Women are required to cover their bodies from head to foot in a
strict variant of Sharia rule, and men are required to fully grow
their beards and hair in line with Islamic State edicts. Life in Mosul
is one of violent oppression where people suspected of activism
against the occupiers, resistance activities, homosexuality,
promiscuity or adultery are brutally and summarily tortured and
The IS governor of Mosul, Alian Natiq Mabroush was killed on 18 March
2016 along with ten other jihadist leaders in a U.S. airstrike.
During the occupation residents have fought back against IS. In one
notable incident they were able to kill five IS militants and destroy
two of their vehicles.
Women must be accompanied by a male guardian and wear clothing
that covers their body completely including gloves for the hands,
niqab for the head and khimar for the full coverage of the body from
shoulders to feet.
According to some NGOs, rape cases in the city prove a pattern of
genocide and will lead to a conviction of genocide against the Islamic
State, in the International Criminal Court, a permanent international
tribunal to prosecute individuals for war-time rape, genocide, crimes
against humanity, and aggression.
Islamic State was in August 2015 reported to be selling captured women
and girls to sex slave traders.
Persecution of religious and ethnic minorities and destruction of
IS issued an edict expelling (in effect ethnically cleansing) the
remaining predominantly ethnic Assyrian and Armenian Christian Mosul
citizens, after the Christians refused to attend a meeting to discuss
their future status. According to Duraid Hikmat, an expert on minority
relationships and resident of Mosul, the Christians were fearful to
attend. Emboldened IS authorities systematically destroyed and
vandalised Abrahamic cultural artifacts such as the cross from St.
Ephrem's Cathedral, the tomb of Jonah, and a statue of the Virgin
Mary. IS militants destroyed and pillaged the
Seth in Mosul.
Artifacts within the tomb were removed to an unknown location.
Students from Muslim Shia and Sufi minorities have also been
According to a UN report IS forces are persecuting ethnic groups in
and near Mosul. The Assyrians, Kurds, Armenians, Yazidis, Turcoman,
Shabaks are victims of unprovoked religiously
motivated murders, assaults, theft, kidnappings and the destruction of
their cultural sites.
Mosque of the Prophet Yunus
Mosque of the Prophet Yunus or Younis (Jonah): On one of the two most
prominent mounds of
Nineveh ruins, used to rise the Mosque (an
Assyrian Church year[clarification needed]) of
Jonah (Yonan) the son of Amittai, from the 8th
century BC, is believed to be buried here, where King
Assyria had once built a palace. It was one of the most important
Mosul and one of the few historic mosques that are found on
the east side of the city. On July 24, 2014, the building was
destroyed by explosives set by forces of Islamic State.
Mosque of the
Prophet Jerjis (Georges): The mosque is believed to be
the burial place of
Prophet Jerjis. Built of marble with shen reliefs
and renovated last in 1393 AD it was mentioned by the explorer Ibn
Jubair in the 12th century AD, and is believed also to embrace the
tomb of Al-Hur bin Yousif.
Mashad Yahya Abul Kassem: Built in the 13th century it was on the
right bank of the
Tigris and was known for its conical dome,
decorative brickwork and calligraphy engraved in
Mosul blue marble.
Mosul library: Including the
Sunni Muslim library, the library of the
265-year-old Latin Church and Monastery of the Dominican Fathers and
Mosul Museum Library. Among the 112,709 books and manuscripts
thought lost are a collection of Iraqi newspapers dating from the
early 20th century, as well as maps, books and collections from the
Ottoman period; some were registered on a UNESCO rarities list. The
library was ransacked and destroyed by explosives on 25 February
Mosul Museum and Nergal Gate: Statues and artefacts that date from the
Assyrian and Akkadian empires, including artefacts from sites
including the Assyrian cities of Nineveh, Ashur, Arrapha,
Kalhu (Nimrud) and the
Neo-Assyrian site of
Hatra. Their plans for uprising were accelerated when IS
scheduled the destruction of the al-Ḥadbā Many former
supporters of IS's Caliphate have voiced protest against IS online in
the aftermath of destruction of ancient cultural sites.
Turkish diplomats and consular staff were detained for over 100
Further information: Mass executions in
ISIL occupied Mosul
Scores of people have been executed without fair trial.
Civilians living in
Mosul are not permitted to leave IS-controlled
areas. IS has executed several civilians that were trying to flee
Iraqi army convoy in Mosul, 17 November 2016
The urban guerrilla warfare groups may be called the Nabi Yunus
Brigade after the Nabi Yunus mosque, or the Kataeb al-
Brigade). The brigade claims to have killed IS members with sniper
fire. In the countryside around Mosul, Kurdish and Assyrian
militia have also taken up arms to resist IS oppression, and have
successfully repelled IS attacks on Kurdish and Assyrian towns and
Mosul offensive (2016)
Mosul offensive (2016) and Battle of
After more than two years of IS occupation of Mosul, Iraqi, Kurdish,
American and French forces launched a joint offensive to recapture the
city on 16 October 2016. The battle for
Mosul was considered
key in the military intervention against IS. Turkish warplanes
participated in the coalition strikes on Mosul, amid the escalating
Baghdad and Ankara about the Turkish presence in
Bashiqa. A military offensive to retake the city was the largest
deployment of Iraqi forces since the 2003 invasion by U.S. and
coalition forces On July 9, 2017, Prime Minister Haider Al-Abadi
arrived in preparation to announce the full liberation of
reclaim the city after three years of
ISIL control. A formal
declaration was made on the next day.
A souk (traditional market) in Mosul, 1932
During the 20th century,
Mosul city had been indicative of the
mingling ethnic and religious cultures of Iraq. There used to be a
Arab majority in urban areas, such as downtown
Mosul west of the
Tigris; across the
Tigris and further north in the suburban areas,
thousands of Assyrians, Kurds, Turkmens, Shabaks, Yazidis, Armenians
Mandeans made up the rest of Mosul's population.
concentrated on the eastern outskirts of the city.
Celebration at the Syriac Orthodox Monastery in Mosul, early 20th
Mosul has predominant
Sunni population. This city had an ancient
Jewish population. Like their counterparts elsewhere in Iraq, most
were forced out in 1950–51. Most Iraqi
Jews have moved to Israel,
and some to the United States. In 2003, during the
Iraq War, a
rabbi in the American army found an abandoned, dilapidated synagogue
Mosul dating back to the 13th century.
During the IS occupation, religious minorities were targeted by IS to
convert to Islam, pay tribute (jizya) money, leave, or be killed.
During the IS attack on Mosul, over 100,000 Christians fled the
city. The persecution of Christians in
Mosul and the surrounding
Nineveh Plains removed a Christian community that had been present in
the region since the 1st century AD.
View of the
Tigris river in Mosul
Mosul Dam was built in the 1980s to supply
hydroelectricity and water. However water supply cuts are common
and mobile phone networks have been shut down. Several reports
have described the dam as very dangerous and in need of repairs,
repairs that could not be performed because of the war with ISIL.
Unfortunately, over two million have fled the city of
Mosul because of
acts of terrorism.
There are five bridges crossing the
Tigris in Mosul, known from north
to south as:
Al Shohada Bridge (also known as "Third Bridge")
Old Bridge (or "Iron Bridge", also known as "First Bridge")
Al Huriya Bridge (literally: "Freedom Bridge", also known as "Second
Battle of Mosul (2016–17)
Battle of Mosul (2016–17) between
ISIL and the Iraqi Army
supported by an international coalition, two bridges were 'damaged' by
coalition airstrikes in October 2016, two others in November, and the
Old Bridge was 'disabled' in early December. According to the BBC
in late December, the bridges were targeted to disrupt the resupply of
ISIL forces in East
Mosul from West Mosul. In January 2017, CNN
ISIL itself had 'destroyed' all bridges to slow the
Iraqi ground troops' advance, citing Iraqi commander Lt. Gen. Abdul
Amir Rasheed Yarallah.
During the last stages of battle to retake Mosul,
Lise Grande stated
that per an initial assessment, basic infrastructure repair will cost
over 1 billion USD. She stated that while stabilization in east Mosul
can be achieved in two months, in some districts of
Mosul it might
take years with six out of 44 districts almost completely destroyed.
All districts of
Mosul received light or moderate damage. Per the
United Nations, 15 districts out of the 54 residential districts in
the western half of
Mosul were heavily damaged while at least 23 were
Mosul has a hot semi-arid climate, verging on the Mediterranean
climate (Csa), with extremely hot dry summers and moderately wet,
relatively cool winters.
Climate data for Mosul
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average precipitation days
World Meteorological Organisation
World Meteorological Organisation (UN)
Source #2: Weatherbase (extremes only)
Historical and religious buildings
Mosul is rich in old historical places and ancient buildings: mosques,
castles, churches, monasteries, and schools, many of which have
architectural features and decorative work of significance. The town
center is dominated by a maze of streets and attractive 19th-century
houses. There are old houses here of beauty. The markets are
particularly interesting not simply for themselves alone but for the
mixture of people who jostle there: Arabs, Kurds, Assyrians, Iraqi
Jews, Kurdish Jews, Iraqi Turkmens, Armenians, Yazidi, Mandeans,
Romani and Shabaks.
Mosul Museum contains many interesting finds from the ancient
sites of the old Assyrian capital cities
Nineveh and Nimrud. The Mosul
Museum is a beautiful old building, around a courtyard and with an
impressive facade of
Mosul marble containing displays of
depicted in tableau[clarification needed] form. Recently, On February
26, 2015, IS militants destroyed the ancient Assyrian artifacts of the
The English writer
Agatha Christie lived in
Mosul whilst her second
husband, Max Mallowan, an archaeologist, was involved in the
excavation in Nimrud.
Mosques and shrines
Mosques and shrines of Mosul
Mosul Grand Mosque
Umayyad Mosque: The first ever in the city, built in 640 AD by Utba
bin Farqad Al-Salami after he conquered
Mosul in the reign of Caliph
Umar ibn Al-Khattab. The only original part extant to recent times was
the remarkably elaborate brickwork 52m high minaret that leans like
the Tower of Pisa, called Al-Hadba (The Humped). It was largely
destroyed during the Battle of Mosul.
The Great (Nuriddin) Mosque: Built by Nuriddin Zangi in 1172 AD next
door to the Umayyad Mosque.
Ibn Battuta (the great Moroccan traveller)
found a marble fountain there and a mihrab (the niche that indicates
the direction of Mecca) with a
Kufic inscription. It was reportedly
destroyed during the Battle of Mosul.
Mujahidi Mosque: The mosque dates back to 12th century AD, and is
distinguished for its shen [clarification needed] dome and elaborately
Prophet Younis Mosque and Shrine: Located east of the city, and
included the tomb of
Prophet Younis (Jonah), dating back to the 8th
century BC, with a tooth of the whale that swallowed and later
released him. It was completely demolished by IS in July 2014.
Prophet Jirjis Mosque and Shrine: The late 14th century mosque and
Prophet Jirjis (George) was built over the Quraysh
cemetery. It was destroyed by IS in July 2014.
Prophet Daniel Shrine: A
Tomb attributed to
Prophet Daniel was
destroyed by IS in July 2014.
Hamou Qado (Hema Kado) Mosque: An Ottoman-era mosque in the central
Maydan area built in 1881, and officially named Mosque of Abdulla Ibn
Chalabi Ibn Abdul-Qadi. It was destroyed by IS in March 2015
because it contained a tomb that was revered and visited by local
Muslims on Thursdays and Fridays.
Churches and monasteries
Main article: List of churches and monasteries in Nineveh
Mar Mattai monastery
Mar Mattai monastery of the Syriac Orthodox Church
Mosul had the highest proportion of
Assyrian Christians of all the
Iraqi cities outside of the Kurdish region, and contains several
interesting old churches, some of which originally date back to the
early centuries of Christianity. Its ancient Assyrian churches are
often hidden and their entrances in thick walls are not easy to find.
Some of them have suffered from overmuch restoration.
Shamoun Al-Safa (St. Peter, Mar Petros): This church dates from the
13th century is and named after Shamoun Al-Safa or St. Peter (Mar
Petros in Assyrian Aramaic). Earlier it had the name of the two
Apostles, Peter and Paul, and was inhabited by the nuns of the Sacred
Church of St. Thomas (Mar Touma in Assyrian Aramaic): One of the
oldest historical churches, named after St. Thomas the Apostle who
preached the Gospel in the East, including India. The exact time of
its foundation is unknown, but it was before 770 AD, since Al-Mahdi,
the Abbasid Caliph, is mentioned as listening to a grievance
concerning this church on his trip to Mosul.
Mar Petion Church: Mar Petion, educated by his cousin in a monastery,
was martyred in 446 AD. It is the first Chaldean Catholic church in
Mosul, after the union of many Assyrians with Rome in the 17th
century. It dates back to the 10th century, and lies 3 m below street
level. This church suffered destruction, and it has been reconstructed
many times. A hall was built on one of its three parts in 1942. As a
result, most of its artistic features have been severely damaged.
Ancient Tahira Church (The Immaculate): Near Bash Tapia, considered
one of the most ancient churches in Mosul. No evidence helps to
determine its exact area. It could be either the remnants of the
church of the Upper Monastery or the ruined Mar Zena Church. Al-Tahira
Church dates back to the 7th century, and it lies 3 m below street
level. Reconstructed last in 1743.
Mar Hudeni Church: It was named after Mar
Ahudemmeh (Hudeni) Maphrian
Tikrit who was martyred in 575 AD. Mar Hudeni is an old church of
the Tikritans in Mosul. It dates back to the 10th century, lies 7 m
below street level and was first reconstructed in 1970. People can get
mineral water from the well in its yard. The chain, fixed in the wall,
is thought to cure epileptics.
St. George's Monastery (Mar Gurguis): One of the oldest churches in
Mosul, named after St. George, located to the north of Mosul, was
probably built late in the 17th century. Pilgrims from different parts
of the North[clarification needed] visit it yearly in the spring, when
many people also go out to its whereabouts on holiday.[clarification
needed] It is about 6 m below street level. A modern church was built
over the old one in 1931, abolishing much of its archeological
significance. The only monuments left are a marble door-frame
decorated with a carved Estrangelo (Syriac) inscription, and two
niches, which date back to the 13th or 14th century.
Mar Matte: This famous monastery is situated about 20 km
(12 mi) east of
Mosul on the top of a high mountain (Mount
Maqloub). It was built by Mar Matte, a monk who fled with several
other monks in 362 AD from the Monastery of Zuknin near the City of
Amid (Diyarbakir) in the southern part of Asia Minor (modern Turkey)
and the north of
Iraq during the reign of Emperor Julian the Apostate
(361–363 AD). It has a precious library containing Syrianic
Monastery of Mar Behnam: Also called Deir Al-Jubb (The Cistern
Monastery) and built in the 12th or 13th century, it lies in the
Nineveh Plain near
Nimrud about 32 km (20 mi) southwest of
Mosul. The monastery, a great fort-like building, rises next to the
tomb of Mar Behnam, a prince who was killed by the Sassanians, perhaps
during the 4th century AD. A legend made him a son of an Assyrian
St. Elijah's Monastery (Dair Mar Elia): Dating from the 6th century,
it was the oldest Christian Monastery in Iraq, until its destruction
by IS in January 2016.
Other Christian historical buildings:
The Roman Catholic Church (built by the Dominican Fathers in Nineveh
Street in 1893)
Rabban Hormizd Monastery, the monastery of Notre-Dame des Semences,
near the Assyrian town of Alqosh
Bash Tapia Castle: A ruined castle rising high over the Tigris, which
was one of the few remnants of Mosul's old walls until it was blown up
by IS in 2015.
Qara Serai (The Black Palace): The remnants of the 13th-century palace
Sultan Badruddin Lu'lu'.
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Mosul School of Painting refers to a style of miniature
painting that developed in northern
Iraq in the late 12th to early
13th century under the patronage of the
Zangid dynasty (1127–1222).
In technique and style the
Mosul school was similar to the painting of
the Seljuq Turks, who controlled
Iraq at that time, but the Mosul
artists had a sharper sense of realism based on the subject matter and
degree of detail in the painting rather than on representation in
three dimensions, which did not occur. Most of the
was Seljuq—for example, the use of figures seated cross-legged in a
frontal position. Certain symbolic elements however, such as the
crescent and serpents, were derived from the classical Mesopotamian
Mosul paintings were illustrations of manuscripts—mainly
scientific works, animal books, and lyric poetry. A frontispiece
painting, now held in the Bibliothèque nationale, Paris, dating from
a late 12th century copy of Galen's medical treatise, the Kitab
al-diriyak ("Book of Antidotes"), is a good example of the earlier
work of the
Mosul school. It depicts four figures surrounding a
central, seated figure who holds a crescent-shaped halo. The painting
is in a variety of whole hues; reds, blues, greens, and gold. The
Küfic lettering is blue. The total effect is best described as
Another mid-13th century frontispiece held in the Nationalbibliothek,
Vienna, to another copy of the same text suggests the quality of later
Mosul painting. There is realism in its depiction of the preparation
of a ruler's meal and of horsemen engaged in various activities, and
the painting is as many hued as that of the early
Mosul school, yet it
is somehow less spirited. The composition is more elaborate but less
successful. By this time the
Baghdad school, which combined the styles
of the Syrian and early
Mosul schools, had begun to dominate. With the
invasion of the
Mongols in the mid-13th century the
Mosul school came
to an end, but its achievements were influential in both the Mamluk
and the Mongol schools of miniature painting.
From the 13th-century metal craftsmen centred in
Mosul influenced the
metalwork of the Islamic world, from North Africa to eastern Iran.
Under the active patronage of the
Zangid dynasty, the
developed an extraordinarily refined technique of inlay—particularly
in silver—far overshadowing the earlier work of the Sāmānids in
Persia and the Būyids in Iraq.
Mosul craftsmen used both gold and silver for inlay on bronze and
brass. After delicate engraving had prepared the surface of the piece,
strips of gold and silver were worked so carefully that not the
slightest irregularity appeared in the whole of the elaborate design.
The technique was carried by
Mosul metalworkers to Aleppo, Damascus,
Baghdad, Cairo, and Persia; similar pieces from those centres are
Among the most famous surviving
Mosul pieces is a brass ewer inlaid
with silver from 1232, and now in the British Museum, by the artist
Shujā’ ibn Mana. The ewer features representational as well as
abstract design, depicting battle scenes, animals and musicians within
Mosul metalworkers also created pieces for Eastern
Christians. A candlestick of this variety from 1238 and housed in the
Musée des Arts Décoratifs, Paris, attributed to Dà’ūd ibn
Salamah of Mosul, is bronze with silver inlay. It displays the
familiar medallions but is also engraved with scenes showing Christ as
a child. Rows of standing figures, probably saints, decorate the base.
The background is decorated with typically Islamic vine scrolls and
intricate arabesques, giving the piece a unique look.
As per IS policy, even primary schools are gender segregated, putting
a strain on educational resources. Previously the city's largest
University of Mosul was closed in 2014.
On January 15, 2017, 30 schools reopened in the east of the city,
allowing 16,000 children to start classes again. Some of them had no
education at all since IS took over
Mosul in June 2014.
The city has one football team capable of competing in the top-flight
of Iraqi football –
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section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material
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remove this template message)
Yousif Dhanoon (ar) (يوسف ذنون),
Arabic calligrapher who
designed and executed many inscriptions in mosques throughout the
Zaha Hadid, World-famous architect and first woman to win the Pritzker
award. Was named "dame" by Queen Elizabeth II.
Al Jalili, Ismael, Eye doctor who discovered and researched the
Al Jamil, Sayyar, Historian and political analyst.
Abu Al Soof, Behnam, Archeologist, anthropologist, historian and
writer of Christian ancestry.
Tariq Aziz, Assyrian Deputy Prime Minister 1979–2003 (real name
Michael Youkhanna) (from Tel Keppe)
Munir Bashir, Assyrian musician and famous musician in the Mideast
during the 20th century
Asenath Barzani, first
Jewish female rabbi
Yazidi member of the Iraqi parliament.
Hawar Mulla Mohammed,
Arab Iraqi soccer player for the national team
Paulos Faraj Rahho, Assyrian Chaldean Catholic Archbishop of Mosul,
Taha Yassin Ramadan,
Arab former Vice President of Iraq
Hormuzd Rassam, Assyrian Archaeologist and diplomat of the 19th
Kathem Al Saher,
Arab Iraqi pop singer, songwriter, and musician
Salah al-Din al-Sabbagh,
Arab Iraqi Army officer
Ignatius Gabriel I Tappouni, Assyrian Patriarch of Antioch and all
east for the
Syriac Catholic Church
Syriac Catholic Church between 1929 and 1968, Church
Father of the
Second Vatican Council
Second Vatican Council and the first Eastern Rite
prelate to be raised to the
College of Cardinals
College of Cardinals since the reign of
Pope Pius IX
Ghazi Mashal Ajil al-Yawer,
Arab Interim President of
Ignatius Zakka I, Assyrian Patriarch of Antioch and all east for the
Syriac Orthodox Church
Al-Mishraq, site of 2003 sulfur dioxide disaster
Chaldean Catholic Archeparchy of Mosul
List of Emirs of Mosul
List of places in Iraq
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Jewish Schindler" Draws Backlash For Campaign To Save
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ISIS Forces Last Iraqi
Christians to Flee Mosul", The New York Times, retrieved 1 August
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^ Buchanan, Rose Troup and Saul, Heather (25 February 2015) Isis burns
thousands of books and rare manuscripts from Mosul's libraries The
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Iraq and Kurdish troops make gains". BBC News. 17
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Iraq PM to celebrate victory over IS in the city BBC, 9 July
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^ Cf. Carlos C. Huerta,
Jewish heartbreak and hope in Nineveh.
Jewish heartbreak and hope in Nineveh, By
Carlos C. Huerta ظٹظ‡ظˆط¯ ط§ظ"ظ…ظˆطµظ"".
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Mosul in ONE NIGHT". Express News. Retrieved 20
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Mosul battle: Last bridge 'disabled by air strike'". BBC
News. 27 December 2016. Retrieved 2 March 2017.
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Mosul bridges as
troops advance". CNN. Retrieved 2 March 2017.
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Mosul will cost over $1 billion:
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ISIS destroys 'Jonah's tomb' in Mosul". Al Arabiya. 25 July
^ "Islamic State destroys ancient
Mosul mosque, the third in a week".
The Guardian. Associated Press. 28 July 2014.
^ Clark, Heather (27 July 2014). "Muslim Militants Blow Up Tombs of
Biblical Jonah, Daniel in Iraq". Christian News Network. Retrieved 28
July 2014. Al-Sumaria News also reported on Thursday that local Mosul
official Zuhair al-Chalabi told the outlet that
“implanted explosives around
Prophet Daniel's tomb in
blasted it, leading to its destruction.”
^ Hafiz, Yasmine. "
ISIS Destroys Jonah's
Tomb In Mosul, Iraq, As
Militant Violence Continues". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 28 July
2014. The tomb of Daniel, a man revered by Muslims as a prophet though
unlike Jonah, he is not mentioned in the Quran, has also been
reportedly destroyed. Al-Arabiya reports that Zuhair al-Chalabi, a
Mosul official, told Al-Samaria News that "
Prophet Daniel's tomb in
Mosul and blasted it,
leading to its destruction."
ISIS destroys beloved mosque in central Mosul". Rudaw.
^ Gianluca Mezzofiore. "Iraq: Isis destroys 19th century Ottoman
mosque in central Mosul". International Business Times UK.
^ Chaplains Struggle to Protect Monastery in Iraq. NPR's Morning
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^  Retrieved on 2016-01-19
ISIS Takeover In Iraq:
Mosul University Students, Faculty Uncertain
About The Future Of Higher Education". International Business Times. 3
Schools are reopening in Mosul, after two years of jihadist rule".
The Economist. 31 January 2017. Retrieved 31 January 2017.
See also: Bibliography of the history of Mosul
Nasiri, Ali Naqi; Floor, Willem M. (2008). Titles and Emoluments in
Safavid Iran: A Third Manual of Safavid Administration. Mage
Publishers. p. 309. ISBN 978-1933823232.
Oberling, P. (1984). "AFŠĀR". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. I, Fasc.
6. pp. 582–586. Archived from the original on 2011-04-29.
Rothman, E. Nathalie (2015). Brokering Empire: Trans-Imperial Subjects
between Venice and Istanbul. Cornell University Press.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mosul.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Mosul.
Iraq Image –
Mosul Satellite Observation
Detailed map of
Mosul by the National Imagery and Mapping Agency, from
ArchNet.org. "Mosul". Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: MIT School of
Architecture and Planning.
Turkey (523 km)
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Iraq and their capitals
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Baghdad: 9 Nissan
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Sumel District (Sumel)
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Ain Al-Tamur District
Ain Al-Tamur District (Ain Al-Tamur)
al-Hindiya District (Al-Hindiya)
Kerbala District (Kerbala)
Daquq District (Daquq)
Dibis District (Dibis)
Hawija District (Hawija)
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Ali Al-Gharbi District
Ali Al-Gharbi District (Ali Al-Gharbi)
Amara District (Amarah)
al-Kahla District (Al-Kahla)
al-Maimouna District (Al-Maimouna)
al-Mejar Al-Kabi District (Al-Mejar Al-Kabi)
Qal'at Saleh District (Qal'at Saleh)
al-Khidhir District (Al-Khidhir)
al-Rumaitha District (Al-Rumaitha)
al-Salman District (Al-Salman)
Samawa District (Samawa)
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al-Manathera District (Al-Manathera)
al-Meshkhab district (Al-Meshkhab)
Najaf District (Najaf)
Aqrah District (Aqrah)
al-Ba'aj District (Al-Ba'aj)
al-Hamdaniya District (Bakhdida)
Hatra District (Hatra)
Mosul District (Mosul)
Shekhan District (Ain Sifni)
Sinjar District (Sinjar)
Tel Afar District
Tel Afar District (Tel Afar)
Tel Keppe District (Tel Keppe)
Afak District (Afak)
Diwaniya District (Al Diwaniyah)
Hamza District (Hamza)
al-Shamiya District (Al-Shamiya )
Baiji District (Baiji)
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al-Daur District (Al-Daur)
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Tooz District (Tooz)
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Saidsadiq District (Said Sadiq)
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Badra District (Badra)
al-Hai District (Al-Hai)
Kut District (Kut)
al-Nu'maniya District (Al-Nu'maniya)
al-Suwaira District (Al-Suwaira)