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Mosul
Mosul
(Arabic: الموصل‎ al-Mawṣil, Kurdish: مووسڵ‎, Syriac: ܡܘܨܠ‎, translit. Māwṣil) is a major city in northern Iraq. Located some 400 km (250 mi) north of Baghdad, Mosul
Mosul
stands on the west bank of the Tigris, opposite the ancient Assyrian city of Nineveh
Nineveh
on the east bank. The metropolitan area has grown to encompass substantial areas on both the "Left Bank" (east side) and the "Right Bank" (west side), as the two banks are described by the locals compared to the flow direction of Tigris. At the start of the 21st century, Mosul
Mosul
and its surrounds had an ethnically and religiously diverse population; the majority of Mosul's population were Arabs, with Assyrians,[4][5][6] Armenians, Turkmens, Kurds, Yazidis, Shabakis, Mandaeans, Kawliya, Circassians
Circassians
in addition to other, smaller ethnic minorities. In religious terms, mainstream Sunni Islam
Sunni Islam
was the largest religion, but with a significant number of followers of the Salafi movement
Salafi movement
and Christianity
Christianity
(the latter followed by the Assyrians and Armenians), as well as Shia Islam, Sufism, Yazidism, Shabakism, Yarsanism
Yarsanism
and Mandaeism. Mosul's population grew rapidly around the turn of the millennium and by 2004 was estimated to be 1,846,500.[7] In 2014, the Islamic State of Iraq
Iraq
and the Levant seized control of the city.[8] The Iraqi government recaptured it in the 2016–2017 Battle of Mosul. Historically, important products of the area include Mosul
Mosul
marble and oil. The city of Mosul
Mosul
is home to the University of Mosul and its renowned Medical College, which together was one of the largest educational and research centers in Iraq
Iraq
and the Middle East. Mosul, together with the nearby Nineveh
Nineveh
plains, is one of the historic centers for the Assyrians[9][10] and their churches; the Assyrian Church of the East; its offshoot, the Chaldean Catholic Church; and the Syriac Orthodox Church, containing the tombs of several Old Testament prophets such as Jonah, some of which were destroyed by ISIL in July 2014.[11]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Ancient era and early Middle Ages 2.2 9th century to 1535 2.3 Ottoman period 2.4 1918 to 1990s 2.5 2003 American Invasion 2.6 Christian Exodus 2.7 Government by Islamic State of Iraq
Iraq
and the Levant (ISIL)

2.7.1 Women 2.7.2 Persecution of religious and ethnic minorities and destruction of cultural sites 2.7.3 Human rights 2.7.4 Armed opposition 2.7.5 Battle of Mosul
Mosul
(2016–2017)

3 Demography

3.1 Religion

4 Infrastructure 5 Geography

5.1 Climate

6 Historical and religious buildings

6.1 Mosques
Mosques
and shrines 6.2 Churches and monasteries 6.3 Other sites

7 Arts

7.1 Painting 7.2 Metalwork

8 Education 9 Sport 10 Notable people 11 See also 12 References 13 Sources 14 External links

Etymology[edit] The name of the city is first mentioned by Xenophon
Xenophon
in his expeditionary logs in Achaemenid Assyria
Achaemenid Assyria
of 401 BC, during the reign of the Persian Achaemenid Empire. There, he notes a small Assyrian town of "Mépsila" (Ancient Greek: Μέψιλα) on the Tigris somewhere about where modern Mosul
Mosul
is today (Anabasis, III.iv.10). It may be safer to identify Xenophon's Mépsila with the site of Iski Mosul, or "Old Mosul", about 30 km (19 mi) north of modern Mosul, where six centuries after Xenophon's report, the Sasanian Empire's center of Budh-Ardhashir was built. Be that as it may, the name Mepsila is doubtless the root for the modern name. In its current Arabic
Arabic
form and spelling, the term Mosul, or rather "Mawsil", stands for the "linking point" – or loosely, the "Junction City," in Arabic. Mosul
Mosul
should not be confused with the ancient Assyrian capital of Nineveh, which is located across the Tigris
Tigris
from Mosul
Mosul
on the eastern bank, at the famed archaeological mound of Kuyunjik (Turkoman for "sheep's hill"). This area is known today as the town of Nebi Yunus ("prophet Jonah") and is now populated largely by Kurds. It is the only fully Kurdish neighborhood in Mosul. The site contains the tomb of the Biblical Jonah, as he lived and died in the then capital of ancient Assyria. Today, this entire area has been absorbed into the Mosul
Mosul
metropolitan area. The indigenous Assyrians still refer to the entire city of Mosul
Mosul
as Nineveh
Nineveh
(or rather, Ninweh).[12] The ancient Nineveh
Nineveh
was succeeded by Mepsila after the fall of Assyria between 612–599 BC at the hands of a coalition of Babylonians, Medes, Persians, Scythians, Cimmerians
Cimmerians
and Sagartians. The Assyrians largely abandoned the city, building new smaller settlements such as Mepsila nearby.[13] Mosul
Mosul
is also named al-Faiha ("the Paradise"), al-Khaḍrah ("the Green"), and al-Hadbah ("the Humped"). It is sometimes described as "The Pearl of the North"[14] and "the city of a million soldiers".[15] History[edit] Ancient era and early Middle Ages[edit] See also: Syria
Syria
§ Etymology

Dair Mar Elia
Dair Mar Elia
south of Mosul, Iraq's oldest monastery of the Assyrian Church of the East, dating from the 6th century. It was destroyed by ISIS
ISIS
in 2014.

The area in which Mosul
Mosul
lies was an integral part of Assyria
Assyria
from as early as the 25th century BC. After the Akkadian Empire
Akkadian Empire
(2335–2154 BC) which united all of the peoples of Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
under one rule, Mosul
Mosul
again became a continuous part of Assyria
Assyria
proper from circa 2050 BC through to the fall of the Neo-Assyrian Empire
Neo-Assyrian Empire
between 612–599 BC. Mosul
Mosul
remained within the geopolitical province of Assyria
Assyria
for a further thirteen centuries (as a part of Achaemenid Assyria, Seleucid Syria, Roman Assyria
Assyria
and Sasanian Asōristān) until the early Muslim conquests of the mid-7th century. After the Muslim conquests, the region saw a gradual influx of Muslim Arab, Kurdish and Turkic peoples, although the Assyrians continue to use the name Athura for the ecclesiastical province. Nineveh
Nineveh
is mentioned in the Old Assyrian Empire
Old Assyrian Empire
(2025–1750), and during the reign of Shamshi-Adad I
Shamshi-Adad I
(1809–1776 BC) it is listed as a centre of worship of the goddess Ishtar, and it remained as such during the Middle Assyrian Empire
Middle Assyrian Empire
(1365–1056 BC). During the Neo-Assyrian Empire
Neo-Assyrian Empire
(911–605 BC) Nineveh
Nineveh
grew in size and importance, particularly from the reigns of Tukulti-Ninurta II
Tukulti-Ninurta II
and Ashurnasirpal II
Ashurnasirpal II
(883–859 BC) onward, however he chose the city of Kalhu
Kalhu
(the Biblical Calah, modern Nimrud) as his capital in place of the ancient traditional capital of Aššur (Ashur), 30 km (19 mi) from present day Mosul. Thereafter successive Assyrian emperor-monarchs such as Shalmaneser III, Adad-nirari III, Tiglath-Pileser III, Shalmaneser V
Shalmaneser V
and Sargon II continued to expand the city. In approximately 700 BC, King Sennacherib
Sennacherib
made Nineveh
Nineveh
the new capital of Assyria. Immense building work was undertaken, and Nineveh
Nineveh
eclipsed Babylon, Kalhu
Kalhu
and Aššur in both size and importance, making it the largest city in the world. A number of scholars believe the true location of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon
Babylon
were in fact at Nineveh.[16] The mound of Kuyunjik in Mosul
Mosul
is the site of the palaces of King Sennacherib, and his successors Esarhaddon, Ashurbanipal, (who established the Library of Ashurbanipal) and Ashur-etil-ilani. The Assyrian Empire began to unravel from 626 BC onwards, being consumed by a decade of brutal internal civil wars, greatly weakening it. A war-ravaged Assyria
Assyria
was subsequently attacked in 616 BC by a vast coalition of its former subjects, most notably the Babylonians, Medes, Persians, Chaldeans, Scythians, Cimmerians, and Sagartians. Nineveh fell after a siege and bitter house to house fighting in 612 BC during the reign of Sinsharishkun who was killed defending his capital. His successor, Ashur-uballit II, fought his way out of Nineveh
Nineveh
and formed a new Assyrian capital at Harran
Harran
(now southeastern Turkey). Mosul
Mosul
(then Mepsila) later succeeded Nineveh
Nineveh
as the Tigris
Tigris
bridgehead of the road that linked Assyria
Assyria
and Anatolia
Anatolia
with the short lived Median Empire and succeeding Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
(546–332 BC) where it was a part of the geopolitical province of Athura, where the region saw a significant economic revival. Mosul
Mosul
became part of the Seleucid Empire
Seleucid Empire
after Alexander’s conquests in 332 BC. While little is known of the city from the Hellenistic period, Mosul
Mosul
likely belonged to the Seleucid satrapy of Syria, the Greek term for Assyria, Syria
Syria
originally meaning Assyria
Assyria
rather than the modern nation of Syria, which was conquered by the Parthian Empire circa 150 BC. Mosul
Mosul
changed hands once again with the rise of the Sasanian Empire
Sasanian Empire
in 225 and became a part of the Sasanian province of Asōristān. Christianity
Christianity
was present among the indigenous Assyrian people
Assyrian people
in Mosul as early as the 1st century, although the ancient Mesopotamian religion remained strong until the 4th century. It became an episcopal seat of the Assyrian Church of the East
Assyrian Church of the East
in the 6th century. In 637 (other sources say 641), during the period of the Caliph Umar, Mosul
Mosul
was annexed to the Rashidun Caliphate
Rashidun Caliphate
by Utba bin Farqad Al-Salami, during the early Muslim conquests, after which it was dissolved as a geopolitical entity. 9th century to 1535[edit]

A Persian miniature
Persian miniature
depicting the siege of Mosul
Mosul
in 1261–63 from: Rashid-al-Din Hamadani, Jami' al-tawarikh, Bibliothèque Nationale de France .

In the late 9th century control over Mosul
Mosul
was seized by the Turkish dynasts Ishaq ibn Kundaj
Ishaq ibn Kundaj
and his son Muhammad, but in 893 Mosul
Mosul
came once again under the direct control of the Abbasid Caliphate. In the early 10th century Mosul
Mosul
came under the control of the native Arab Hamdanid dynasty. From Mosul, the Hamdanids under Abdallah ibn Hamdan and his son Nasir al-Dawla
Nasir al-Dawla
expanded their control over Upper Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
for several decades, first as governors of the Abbassids and later as de facto independent rulers. A century later they were supplanted by the Uqaylid dynasty. Ibn Hawqal, who visited Mosul
Mosul
in 968, described it as a beautiful town inhabited mainly by Kurds.[17] Mosul
Mosul
was conquered by the Seljuq Empire
Seljuq Empire
in the 11th century. After a period under semi-independent atabeg such as Mawdud, in 1127 it became the centre of power of the Zengid dynasty. Saladin
Saladin
besieged the city unsuccessfully in 1182 but finally gained control of it in 1186. In the 13th century it was captured by the Mongols
Mongols
led by Hulagu Khan, but was spared the usual destruction since its governor, Badr al-Din Luʾluʾ, helped the Khan in his following campaigns in Syria. After the Mongol defeat in the Battle of Ain Jalut
Battle of Ain Jalut
against the Mamluks, Badr al-Din's son sided with the latter; this led to the destruction of the city, which later regained some importance but never recovered its original splendor. Mosul
Mosul
was thenceforth ruled by the Mongol Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
and Jalairid Sultanate
Jalairid Sultanate
and escaped Timur's destructions. During 1165 Benjamin of Tudela
Benjamin of Tudela
passed through Mosul; in his papers he wrote that he found a small Jewish
Jewish
community estimated as 7000 people in Mosul, the community was led by Rabbi Zakkai, presumably connected to the Davidic line. In 1288–1289, the Exilarch
Exilarch
was in Mosul
Mosul
and signed a supporting paper for Maimonides.[18][19] In the early 16th century, Mosul
Mosul
was under the Turkmen federation of the Ağ Qoyunlu, but in 1508 it was conquered by the Safavid dynasty
Safavid dynasty
of Iran. Ottoman period[edit] What started as irregular attacks in 1517 was finalized in 1538, when Ottoman Sultan
Sultan
Suleyman the Magnificent
Suleyman the Magnificent
added Mosul
Mosul
to his empire by capturing it from his archrivals — Safavid Persia.[20] Thenceforth Mosul
Mosul
was governed by a pasha. Mosul
Mosul
was celebrated for its line of walls, comprising seven gates with large towers, a renowned hospital (maristan) and a covered market (qaysariyya), and was also famous for its fabrics and flourishing trades. Although Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
had been acquired by the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
in 1555 by the Peace of Amasya, until the Treaty of Zuhab in 1639 Ottoman control over Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
was not decisive.[21] After the Peace of Amasya, the Safavids recaptured most of Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
one more time during the reign of king Abbas I (r. 1588–1629). Amongst the newly appointed Safavid governors of Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
during those years was Qasem Sultan
Sultan
Afshar, who was appointed governor of Mosul
Mosul
in 1622.[22][23] Prior to 1638, the city of Mosul
Mosul
was considered to the Ottomans "still a mere fortress, important for its strategic position as an offensive platform for Ottoman campaigns into Iraq, as well as a defensive stronghold and (staging post) guarding the approaches to Anatolia
Anatolia
and to the Syrian coast. Then, with the Ottoman reconquest of Baghdad
Baghdad
(1638), the liwa’ of Mosul
Mosul
became an independent wilaya."[24]:202 Despite being a part of the Ottoman Empire, during the four centuries of Ottoman rule Mosul
Mosul
was considered "the most independent district" within the Middle East, following the Roman model of indirect rule through local notables.[25]:203–4 "Mosuli culture developed less along Ottoman–Turkish lines than along Iraqi– Arab
Arab
lines; and Turkish, the official language of the State, was certainly not the dominant language in the province."[24]:203 In line with its status as a politically stable trade route between the Mediterranean and the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
Mosul
Mosul
developed considerably during the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. Similar to the development of the Mamluk
Mamluk
dynasty in Baghdad, during this time "the Jalili family was establishing itself as the undisputed master of Mosul", and "helping to connect Mosul
Mosul
with a pre-Ottoman, pre-Turcoman, pre-Mongol, Arab
Arab
cultural heritage which was to put the town on its way to recapturing some of the prestige and prominence it had enjoyed under the golden reign of Badr ad-Din Lu’lu’."[24]:203 Along with the al-Umari and Tasin al-Mufti families, the Jalilis formed an "urban-based small and medium gentry and a new landed elite", which proceeded to displace the control of previous rural tribes.[26] Such families proceed to establish themselves through private enterprise, solidifying their influence and assets through rents on land and taxes on urban and rural manufacturing. As well as elected officials, the social architecture of Mosul
Mosul
was highly influenced by the Dominican fathers who arrived in Mosul
Mosul
in 1750, sent by Pope Benedict XIV
Pope Benedict XIV
( Mosul
Mosul
had a large Christian population, predominantly indigenous Assyrians).[27] They were followed by the Dominican nuns in 1873. They established a number of schools, health clinics, a printing press and an orphanage. The nuns also established workshops to teach girls sewing and embroidery.[28] A congregation of Dominican sisters, founded in the 19th century, still had its motherhouse in Mosul
Mosul
by the early 21st century. Over 120 Assyrian Iraqi Sisters belonged to this congregation.[27] In the nineteenth century the Ottoman government started to reclaim central control over its outlying provinces. Their aim was to "restore Ottoman law, and rejuvenate the military" as well as reviving "a secure tax base for the government".[29]:24–26 In order to reestablish rule in 1834 the Sultan
Sultan
abolished public elections for the position of governor, and began "neutraliz[ing] local families such as the Jalilis and their class."[29]:28–29 and appointing new, non-Maslawi governors directly. In line with its reintegration within central government rule, Mosul
Mosul
was required to conform to new Ottoman reform legislation, including the standardization of tariff rates, the consolidation of internal taxes and the integration of the administrative apparatus with the central government.[29]:26 This process started in 1834 with the appointment of Bayraktar Mehmet Pasha, who was to rule Mosul
Mosul
for the next four years. After the reign of Bayraktar Mehmet Pasha, the Ottoman government (wishing still to restrain the influence of powerful local families) appointed a series of governors in rapid succession, ruling “for only a brief period before being sent somewhere else to govern, making it impossible for any of them to achieve a substantial local power base.”[29]:29 Mosul's importance as a trading center declined after the opening of the Suez canal, which enabled goods to travel to and from India by sea rather than by land across Iraq
Iraq
and through Mosul.

A coffee house in Mosul, 1914.

Mosul
Mosul
was the capital of Mosul Vilayet
Mosul Vilayet
one of the three vilayets (provinces) of Ottoman Iraq, with a brief break in 1623 when Persia seized the city. During World War I
World War I
the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
sided with Germany, the Austro-Hungarian Empire
Austro-Hungarian Empire
and Bulgaria
Bulgaria
against the British Empire, France
France
and the Russian Empire. In northern Mesopotamia, northern Syria and south east Turkey
Turkey
the Ottomans held the armed support of the Kurds, Turcomans, Circassians
Circassians
and some Arab
Arab
groups, while the British and Russians were militarily supported by the Assyrians and Armenians (particularly in the wake of the Armenian genocide
Armenian genocide
and Assyrian genocide), and some Arab
Arab
groups. The Ottomans were defeated, and in 1918 the British occupied Mosul, and indeed the whole of Iraq. 1918 to 1990s[edit] At the end of World War I
World War I
in October 1918, after the signature of the Armistice of Mudros, British forces occupied Mosul. After the war, the city and the surrounding area became part of the Occupied Enemy Territory Administration (1918–20) and shortly Mandatory Iraq (1920–32). This mandate was contested by Turkey
Turkey
which continued to claim the area based on the fact that it was under Ottoman control during the signature of the Armistice. In the Treaty of Lausanne, the dispute over Mosul
Mosul
was left for future resolution by the League of Nations. Iraq's possession of Mosul
Mosul
was confirmed by the League of Nations
League of Nations
brokered agreement between Turkey and Great Britain in 1926. Former Ottoman Mosul Vilayet
Mosul Vilayet
eventually became Nineveh
Nineveh
Province of Iraq, but Mosul
Mosul
remained the provincial capital.

Mosul
Mosul
in 1932.

Mosul's fortunes revived with the discovery of oil in the area, from the late 1920s onward. It became a nexus for the movement of oil via truck and pipeline to both Turkey
Turkey
and Syria. Qyuarrah Refinery was built within about an hour's drive from the city and was used to process tar for road-building projects. It was damaged but not destroyed during the Iran– Iraq
Iraq
War. The opening of the University of Mosul in 1967 enabled the education of many in the city and surrounding areas. After the 1991 uprisings by the Kurds
Kurds
Mosul
Mosul
did not fall within the Kurdish-ruled area, but it was included in the northern no-fly zone imposed and patrolled by the United States and Britain between 1991 and 2003. Although this prevented Saddam's forces from mounting large-scale military operations again in the region, it did not stop the regime from implementing a steady policy of "Arabisation" by which the demography of some areas of Nineveh Governorate
Nineveh Governorate
were gradually changed. Despite the program Mosul
Mosul
and its surrounding towns and villages remained home to a mixture of Arabs, Kurds, Assyrians, Armenians, Turkmens, Shabaks, a few Jews, and isolated populations of Yazidis, Mandeans, Kawliya and Circassians. Saddam
Saddam
was able to garrison portions of the 5th Army within the city of Mosul, had Mosul International Airport
Mosul International Airport
under military control, and recruited heavily from the city for his military's officer corps. This may have been due to the fact that most of the officers and generals of the Iraqi Army were from Mosul
Mosul
long before the Saddam
Saddam
regime era. 2003 American Invasion[edit]

Saddam
Saddam
Hussein's sons Qusay and Uday were killed in a gun battle in Mosul
Mosul
on July 22, 2003.

When the 2003 invasion of Iraq
Iraq
was being planned, the United States had originally intended to base troops in Turkey
Turkey
and mount a thrust into northern Iraq
Iraq
to capture Mosul. However, the Turkish parliament refused to grant permission for the operation. When the Iraq
Iraq
War did break out in March 2003, US military activity in the area was confined to strategic bombing with airdropped special forces operating in the vicinity. Mosul
Mosul
fell on April 11, 2003, when the Iraqi Army 5th Corps, loyal to Saddam, abandoned the city and eventually surrendered, two days after the fall of Baghdad. US Army Special
Special
Forces with Kurdish fighters quickly took civil control of the city. Thereafter began widespread looting before an agreement was reached to cede overall control to US forces. On July 22, 2003, Saddam
Saddam
Hussein's sons, Uday Hussein
Uday Hussein
and Qusay Hussein, were killed in a gun battle with Coalition forces in Mosul after a failed attempt at their apprehension.[30] Mosul
Mosul
also served as the operational base for the US Army's 101st Airborne Division
101st Airborne Division
during the occupational phase of the Operation Iraqi Freedom. During its tenure, the 101st Airborne Division
101st Airborne Division
was able to extensively survey the city and, advised by the 431st Civil Affairs Battalion, non-governmental organizations, and the people of Mosul, began reconstruction work by employing the people of Mosul
Mosul
in the areas of security, electricity, local governance, drinking water, wastewater, trash disposal, roads, bridges, and environmental concerns.[31] Other US Army units to have occupied the city include the 4th Brigade Combat Team of the 1st Cavalry Division, the 172nd Stryker
Stryker
Brigade, the 3rd Brigade-2nd Infantry Division, 18th Engineer Brigade (Combat), Alpha Company 14th Engineer Battalion-555th Combat Engineer Brigade, 1st Brigade-25th Infantry Division, the 511th Military Police Company, the 812th Military Police Company and company-size units from Reserve components, an element of the 364th Civil Affairs Brigade, and the 404th Civil Affairs Battalion which covered the areas north of the Green Line.[clarification needed] On June 24, 2004, a coordinated series of car-bombs killed 62 people, many of them policemen.

The memorial that stands outside the entrance to the Dining Hall on FOB Marez where the December 21, 2004 suicide attack occurred.

On December 21, 2004, fourteen US soldiers, four American employees of Halliburton, and four Iraqi soldiers were killed in a suicide attack on a dining hall at the Forward Operating Base
Forward Operating Base
(FOB) Marez next to the main US military airfield at Mosul. The Pentagon
The Pentagon
reported that 72 other personnel were injured in the attack carried out by a suicide bomber wearing an explosive vest and the uniform of the Iraqi security services. The Islamist group Army of Ansar al-Sunna
Army of Ansar al-Sunna
(partly evolved from Ansar al-Islam) declared responsibility for the attack in an Internet statement. In December 2007, Iraq
Iraq
reopened Mosul
Mosul
International Airport. An Iraqi Airways flight carried 152 Hajj
Hajj
pilgrims to Baghdad, the first commercial flight since US forces declared a no-fly zone in 1993, although further commercial flight remained prohibited.[32] On January 23, 2008, an explosion in an apartment building killed 36 people. The following day, a suicide bomber dressed as a police officer assassinated the local police chief, Brig. Gen. Salah Mohammed al-Jubouri, the director of police for Ninevah province, as he toured the site of the blast.[33] In May 2008, a military offensive of the Ninawa campaign
Ninawa campaign
was launched by US-backed Iraqi Army Forces led by Maj. Gen. Riyadh Jalal Tawfiq, the commander of military operations in Mosul, in the hope of bringing back stability and security to the city.[34] Though the representatives of Mosul
Mosul
in the Iraqi Parliament, the intellectuals of the city, and other concerned humanitarian groups agreed on the pressing need for a solution to the unbearable conditions of the city, they still believed that the solution was merely political and administrative. They also questioned whether such a large-scale military offensive would spare the lives of innocent people.[35] All these factors deprived the city of its historical, scientific, and intellectual foundations in the last 4 years[clarification needed], when many scientists, professors, academics, doctors, health professionals, engineers, lawyers, journalists, religious clergy (both Muslims and Christians), historians, as well as professionals and artists in all walks of life, were either killed or forced to leave the city under the threat of being shot, exactly as happened elsewhere in Iraq
Iraq
in the years following 2003.[36][37][38][39] Christian Exodus[edit] In 2008, many Assyrian Christians
Assyrian Christians
(about 12,000) fled the city following a wave of murders and threats against their community. The murder of a dozen Assyrians, threats that others would be murdered unless they converted to Islam and the destruction of their houses sparked a rapid exodus of the Christian population. Some families crossed the borders to Syria
Syria
and Turkey
Turkey
while others were given shelter in churches and monasteries. Accusations were exchanged between Sunni
Sunni
fundamentalists and some Kurdish groups for being behind this new exodus. For the time being the motivation of these acts is unclear, but some claims linked it to the imminent provincial elections which took place in January 2009, and the related Assyrian Christians' demands for broader representation in the provincial councils.[40][41] As was predicted by the DIA and others,[42] Mosul
Mosul
was attacked on June 4, 2014 and after 6 days of fighting, on June 10, 2014, Islamic State took over the city during the 2014 Northern Iraq offensive.[43][44][45] As of August 2014[update], the city's new IS administration was initially dysfunctional with frequent power cuts, tainted water supply, collapse of infrastructure support and failing health care.[46] Government by Islamic State of Iraq
Iraq
and the Levant (ISIL)[edit] Further information: Fall of Mosul

Humvee
Humvee
down after isis attack

On June 10, 2014, Islamic State of Iraq
Iraq
and the Levant took control of Mosul.[47][48] Troop shortages and infighting among top officers and Iraqi political leaders played into Islamic State's hands and fuelled panic that led to the city's abandonment.[49] Kurdish intelligence had been warned by a reliable source in early 2014 that Mosul
Mosul
would be attacked by IS and ex-Baathists (and had informed the US and UK);[50] however, Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki
Nouri al-Maliki
and the Defence Minister turned down repeated offers of help from the peshmerga. Half a million people escaped on foot or by car in the next 2 days.[51] ISIL
ISIL
acquired three divisions' worth of up-to-date American arms and munitions—including M1129
M1129
Stryker
Stryker
120-mm mortars and at least 700 armoured Humvee
Humvee
vehicles from the then fleeing, or since massacred, Iraqi army.[52] Many residents initially welcomed IS[53] and according to a member of the UK Defence Select Committee Mosul
Mosul
"fell because the people living there were fed up with the sectarianism of the Shia dominated Iraqi government."[52]

Iraqi soldiers drive past an ISIL
ISIL
sign in eastern Mosul, January 2017.

On 21 January 2015, the US began coordinating airstrikes with a Kurdish-launched offensive, to help them begin the planned operation to retake the city of Mosul.[54] Once home to at least 70,000 Assyrian Christians
Assyrian Christians
there are possibly none left today in Mosul, any that do remain are forced to pay a tax for remaining Christian, and live under the constant threat of violence.[55][56] The indigenous Assyrians of ancient Mesopotamian ancestry, who have a history in the region dating back over 5,000 years suffered their Christian churches and monasteries being vandalised and burned down,[57] their ancient Assyrian heritage sites dating back to the Iron Age
Iron Age
destroyed, their homes and possessions stolen by IS,[58] and ultimatums to convert to Islam, leave their ancient homelands, or be murdered.[58][59] During the IS government of Mosul, several phone lines have been cut by IS and many cell phone towers and internet access points were destroyed.[60] According to western and pro-Iraqi government press, the residents of the city have been de facto prisoners,[61] forbidden to leave the city unless they post with IS a significant collateral of family members, personal wealth and property. They may then leave the city upon paying a significant "departure tax"[62] on a three-day pass (for a higher fee they can surrender their home, pay the fee and leave for good) and if those with a three-day pass fail to return in that time their assets will be seized and family will be killed.[63] Most female Yazidis
Yazidis
from Mosul
Mosul
and the greater Mosul
Mosul
region (Nineveh) are imprisoned and occasionally killed for resistance[64] to being sold as sex slaves.[65] Islamic State has killed or expelled most minority groups and converted some Yazidi
Yazidi
males and Christians to Islam. Women are required to cover their bodies from head to foot in a strict variant of Sharia rule, and men are required to fully grow their beards and hair in line with Islamic State edicts. Life in Mosul is one of violent oppression where people suspected of activism against the occupiers, resistance activities, homosexuality, promiscuity or adultery are brutally and summarily tortured and murdered.[66] The IS governor of Mosul, Alian Natiq Mabroush was killed on 18 March 2016 along with ten other jihadist leaders in a U.S. airstrike.[67] During the occupation residents have fought back against IS. In one notable incident they were able to kill five IS militants and destroy two of their vehicles.[68] Women[edit] Women must be accompanied by a male guardian[51][69] and wear clothing that covers their body completely including gloves for the hands, niqab for the head and khimar for the full coverage of the body from shoulders to feet.[66] According to some NGOs, rape cases in the city prove a pattern of genocide and will lead to a conviction of genocide against the Islamic State, in the International Criminal Court, a permanent international tribunal to prosecute individuals for war-time rape, genocide, crimes against humanity, and aggression.[70][71] Islamic State was in August 2015 reported to be selling captured women and girls to sex slave traders.[72] Persecution of religious and ethnic minorities and destruction of cultural sites[edit] IS issued an edict expelling (in effect ethnically cleansing) the remaining predominantly ethnic Assyrian and Armenian Christian Mosul citizens, after the Christians refused to attend a meeting to discuss their future status. According to Duraid Hikmat, an expert on minority relationships and resident of Mosul, the Christians were fearful to attend.[73] Emboldened IS authorities systematically destroyed and vandalised Abrahamic cultural artifacts such as the cross from St. Ephrem's Cathedral, the tomb of Jonah, and a statue of the Virgin Mary. IS militants destroyed and pillaged the Tomb
Tomb
of Seth
Seth
in Mosul. Artifacts within the tomb were removed to an unknown location.[74] Students from Muslim Shia and Sufi minorities have also been abducted.[8] According to a UN report IS forces are persecuting ethnic groups in and near Mosul. The Assyrians, Kurds, Armenians, Yazidis, Turcoman, Mandeans, Kawliya and Shabaks
Shabaks
are victims of unprovoked religiously motivated murders, assaults, theft, kidnappings and the destruction of their cultural sites.[73]

Mosque of the Prophet Yunus
Mosque of the Prophet Yunus
or Younis (Jonah): On one of the two most prominent mounds of Nineveh
Nineveh
ruins, used to rise the Mosque (an Assyrian Church year[clarification needed]) of Prophet
Prophet
Younis "Biblical Jonah". Jonah
Jonah
(Yonan) the son of Amittai, from the 8th century BC, is believed to be buried here, where King Esarhaddon
Esarhaddon
of Assyria
Assyria
had once built a palace. It was one of the most important mosques in Mosul
Mosul
and one of the few historic mosques that are found on the east side of the city. On July 24, 2014, the building was destroyed by explosives set by forces of Islamic State.[75] Mosque of the Prophet
Prophet
Jerjis (Georges): The mosque is believed to be the burial place of Prophet
Prophet
Jerjis. Built of marble with shen reliefs and renovated last in 1393 AD it was mentioned by the explorer Ibn Jubair in the 12th century AD, and is believed also to embrace the tomb of Al-Hur bin Yousif. Mashad Yahya Abul Kassem: Built in the 13th century it was on the right bank of the Tigris
Tigris
and was known for its conical dome, decorative brickwork and calligraphy engraved in Mosul
Mosul
blue marble. Mosul
Mosul
library: Including the Sunni
Sunni
Muslim library, the library of the 265-year-old Latin Church and Monastery of the Dominican Fathers and the Mosul Museum
Mosul Museum
Library. Among the 112,709 books and manuscripts thought lost are a collection of Iraqi newspapers dating from the early 20th century, as well as maps, books and collections from the Ottoman period; some were registered on a UNESCO rarities list. The library was ransacked and destroyed by explosives on 25 February 2015.[76] Mosul Museum
Mosul Museum
and Nergal Gate: Statues and artefacts that date from the Assyrian and Akkadian empires, including artefacts from sites including the Assyrian cities of Nineveh, Ashur, Arrapha, Dur-Sharrukin
Dur-Sharrukin
and Kalhu
Kalhu
(Nimrud) and the Neo-Assyrian
Neo-Assyrian
site of Hatra.[77][78] Their plans for uprising were accelerated when IS scheduled the destruction of the al-Ḥadbā[79] Many former supporters of IS's Caliphate have voiced protest against IS online in the aftermath of destruction of ancient cultural sites. Turkish diplomats and consular staff were detained for over 100 days.[80]

Human rights[edit] Further information: Mass executions in ISIL
ISIL
occupied Mosul Scores of people have been executed without fair trial.[81][82] Civilians living in Mosul
Mosul
are not permitted to leave IS-controlled areas. IS has executed several civilians that were trying to flee Mosul.[83] Armed opposition[edit]

Iraqi army convoy in Mosul, 17 November 2016

The urban guerrilla warfare groups may be called the Nabi Yunus Brigade after the Nabi Yunus mosque, or the Kataeb al- Mosul
Mosul
(Mosul Brigade).[84] The brigade claims to have killed IS members with sniper fire.[85] In the countryside around Mosul, Kurdish and Assyrian militia have also taken up arms to resist IS oppression, and have successfully repelled IS attacks on Kurdish and Assyrian towns and villages.[86][87] Battle of Mosul
Mosul
(2016–2017)[edit] Main articles: Mosul offensive (2016)
Mosul offensive (2016)
and Battle of Mosul
Mosul
(2016–17) After more than two years of IS occupation of Mosul, Iraqi, Kurdish, American and French forces launched a joint offensive to recapture the city on 16 October 2016.[88][89] The battle for Mosul
Mosul
was considered key in the military intervention against IS.[90] Turkish warplanes participated in the coalition strikes on Mosul, amid the escalating dispute between Baghdad
Baghdad
and Ankara about the Turkish presence in Bashiqa.[91] A military offensive to retake the city was the largest deployment of Iraqi forces since the 2003 invasion by U.S. and coalition forces[92] On July 9, 2017, Prime Minister Haider Al-Abadi arrived in preparation to announce the full liberation of Mosul
Mosul
and reclaim the city after three years of ISIL
ISIL
control.[93] A formal declaration was made on the next day.[94] Demography[edit]

A souk (traditional market) in Mosul, 1932

During the 20th century, Mosul
Mosul
city had been indicative of the mingling ethnic and religious cultures of Iraq. There used to be a Sunni
Sunni
Arab
Arab
majority in urban areas, such as downtown Mosul
Mosul
west of the Tigris; across the Tigris
Tigris
and further north in the suburban areas, thousands of Assyrians, Kurds, Turkmens, Shabaks, Yazidis, Armenians and Mandeans
Mandeans
made up the rest of Mosul's population.[95] Shabaks
Shabaks
were concentrated on the eastern outskirts of the city. Religion[edit]

Celebration at the Syriac Orthodox Monastery in Mosul, early 20th century

Mosul
Mosul
has predominant Sunni
Sunni
population. This city had an ancient Jewish
Jewish
population. Like their counterparts elsewhere in Iraq, most were forced out in 1950–51. Most Iraqi Jews
Jews
have moved to Israel, and some to the United States.[96] In 2003, during the Iraq
Iraq
War, a rabbi in the American army found an abandoned, dilapidated synagogue in Mosul
Mosul
dating back to the 13th century.[97][98] During the IS occupation, religious minorities were targeted by IS to convert to Islam, pay tribute (jizya) money, leave, or be killed.[99] During the IS attack on Mosul, over 100,000 Christians fled the city.[100] The persecution of Christians in Mosul
Mosul
and the surrounding Nineveh
Nineveh
Plains removed a Christian community that had been present in the region since the 1st century AD.[101] Infrastructure[edit]

View of the Tigris
Tigris
river in Mosul

The Mosul Dam
Mosul Dam
was built in the 1980s to supply Mosul
Mosul
with hydroelectricity and water. However water supply cuts are common[102] and mobile phone networks have been shut down.[103] Several reports have described the dam as very dangerous and in need of repairs, repairs that could not be performed because of the war with ISIL. Unfortunately, over two million have fled the city of Mosul
Mosul
because of acts of terrorism. There are five bridges crossing the Tigris
Tigris
in Mosul, known from north to south as:[104]

Al Shohada Bridge (also known as "Third Bridge") Fifth Bridge Old Bridge (or "Iron Bridge", also known as "First Bridge") Al Huriya Bridge (literally: "Freedom Bridge", also known as "Second Bridge") Fourth Bridge

During the Battle of Mosul (2016–17)
Battle of Mosul (2016–17)
between ISIL
ISIL
and the Iraqi Army supported by an international coalition, two bridges were 'damaged' by coalition airstrikes in October 2016, two others in November, and the Old Bridge was 'disabled' in early December.[104] According to the BBC in late December, the bridges were targeted to disrupt the resupply of ISIL
ISIL
forces in East Mosul
Mosul
from West Mosul.[104] In January 2017, CNN reported that ISIL
ISIL
itself had 'destroyed' all bridges to slow the Iraqi ground troops' advance, citing Iraqi commander Lt. Gen. Abdul Amir Rasheed Yarallah.[105] During the last stages of battle to retake Mosul, Lise Grande stated that per an initial assessment, basic infrastructure repair will cost over 1 billion USD. She stated that while stabilization in east Mosul can be achieved in two months, in some districts of Mosul
Mosul
it might take years with six out of 44 districts almost completely destroyed. All districts of Mosul
Mosul
received light or moderate damage.[106] Per the United Nations, 15 districts out of the 54 residential districts in the western half of Mosul
Mosul
were heavily damaged while at least 23 were moderately damaged.[107] Geography[edit] Climate[edit] Mosul
Mosul
has a hot semi-arid climate, verging on the Mediterranean climate (Csa), with extremely hot dry summers and moderately wet, relatively cool winters.

Climate data for Mosul

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 21.1 (70) 26.9 (80.4) 31.8 (89.2) 35.5 (95.9) 42.9 (109.2) 44.1 (111.4) 47.8 (118) 49.3 (120.7) 46.1 (115) 42.2 (108) 32.5 (90.5) 25.0 (77) 49.3 (120.7)

Average high °C (°F) 12.8 (55) 15.3 (59.5) 19.0 (66.2) 25.4 (77.7) 32.9 (91.2) 39.6 (103.3) 43.4 (110.1) 43 (109) 38.7 (101.7) 31.2 (88.2) 22.3 (72.1) 15 (59) 28.22 (82.75)

Average low °C (°F) 2.5 (36.5) 3.5 (38.3) 6.3 (43.3) 10.2 (50.4) 15 (59) 19.5 (67.1) 22.9 (73.2) 21.8 (71.2) 16.6 (61.9) 11.4 (52.5) 7 (45) 3.3 (37.9) 11.67 (53.03)

Record low °C (°F) −17.6 (0.3) −12.3 (9.9) −5.8 (21.6) −4.0 (24.8) 2.5 (36.5) 9.7 (49.5) 11.6 (52.9) 14.5 (58.1) 8.9 (48) −2.6 (27.3) −6.1 (21) −15.4 (4.3) −17.6 (0.3)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 62.1 (2.445) 62.7 (2.469) 63.2 (2.488) 44.1 (1.736) 15.2 (0.598) 1.1 (0.043) 0.2 (0.008) 0.0 (0) 0.3 (0.012) 11.8 (0.465) 45.0 (1.772) 57.9 (2.28) 363.6 (14.316)

Average precipitation days 11 11 12 9 6 0 0 0 0 5 7 10 71

Source #1: World Meteorological Organisation
World Meteorological Organisation
(UN)[108]

Source #2: Weatherbase (extremes only)[109]

Historical and religious buildings[edit] Mosul
Mosul
is rich in old historical places and ancient buildings: mosques, castles, churches, monasteries, and schools, many of which have architectural features and decorative work of significance. The town center is dominated by a maze of streets and attractive 19th-century houses. There are old houses here of beauty. The markets are particularly interesting not simply for themselves alone but for the mixture of people who jostle there: Arabs, Kurds, Assyrians, Iraqi Jews, Kurdish Jews, Iraqi Turkmens, Armenians, Yazidi, Mandeans, Romani and Shabaks. The Mosul Museum
Mosul Museum
contains many interesting finds from the ancient sites of the old Assyrian capital cities Nineveh
Nineveh
and Nimrud. The Mosul Museum is a beautiful old building, around a courtyard and with an impressive facade of Mosul
Mosul
marble containing displays of Mosul
Mosul
life depicted in tableau[clarification needed] form. Recently, On February 26, 2015, IS militants destroyed the ancient Assyrian artifacts of the museum. The English writer Agatha Christie
Agatha Christie
lived in Mosul
Mosul
whilst her second husband, Max Mallowan, an archaeologist, was involved in the excavation in Nimrud. Mosques
Mosques
and shrines[edit] Main article: Mosques
Mosques
and shrines of Mosul

Mosul
Mosul
Grand Mosque

Umayyad Mosque: The first ever in the city, built in 640 AD by Utba bin Farqad Al-Salami after he conquered Mosul
Mosul
in the reign of Caliph Umar
Umar
ibn Al-Khattab. The only original part extant to recent times was the remarkably elaborate brickwork 52m high minaret that leans like the Tower of Pisa, called Al-Hadba (The Humped). It was largely destroyed during the Battle of Mosul. The Great (Nuriddin) Mosque: Built by Nuriddin Zangi in 1172 AD next door to the Umayyad Mosque. Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
(the great Moroccan traveller) found a marble fountain there and a mihrab (the niche that indicates the direction of Mecca) with a Kufic
Kufic
inscription. It was reportedly destroyed during the Battle of Mosul. Mujahidi Mosque: The mosque dates back to 12th century AD, and is distinguished for its shen [clarification needed] dome and elaborately wrought mihrab. Prophet
Prophet
Younis Mosque and Shrine: Located east of the city, and included the tomb of Prophet
Prophet
Younis (Jonah), dating back to the 8th century BC, with a tooth of the whale that swallowed and later released him. It was completely demolished by IS in July 2014.[110] Prophet
Prophet
Jirjis Mosque and Shrine: The late 14th century mosque and shrine honoring Prophet
Prophet
Jirjis (George) was built over the Quraysh cemetery. It was destroyed by IS in July 2014.[111] Prophet
Prophet
Daniel Shrine: A Tomb
Tomb
attributed to Prophet
Prophet
Daniel was destroyed by IS in July 2014.[112][113] Hamou Qado (Hema Kado) Mosque: An Ottoman-era mosque in the central Maydan area built in 1881, and officially named Mosque of Abdulla Ibn Chalabi Ibn Abdul-Qadi.[114] It was destroyed by IS in March 2015 because it contained a tomb that was revered and visited by local Muslims on Thursdays and Fridays.[115]

Churches and monasteries[edit] Main article: List of churches and monasteries in Nineveh

Mar Mattai monastery
Mar Mattai monastery
of the Syriac Orthodox Church

Mosul
Mosul
had the highest proportion of Assyrian Christians
Assyrian Christians
of all the Iraqi cities outside of the Kurdish region, and contains several interesting old churches, some of which originally date back to the early centuries of Christianity. Its ancient Assyrian churches are often hidden and their entrances in thick walls are not easy to find. Some of them have suffered from overmuch restoration.

Shamoun Al-Safa (St. Peter, Mar Petros): This church dates from the 13th century is and named after Shamoun Al-Safa or St. Peter (Mar Petros in Assyrian Aramaic). Earlier it had the name of the two Apostles, Peter and Paul, and was inhabited by the nuns of the Sacred Hearts. Church of St. Thomas (Mar Touma in Assyrian Aramaic): One of the oldest historical churches, named after St. Thomas the Apostle who preached the Gospel in the East, including India. The exact time of its foundation is unknown, but it was before 770 AD, since Al-Mahdi, the Abbasid Caliph, is mentioned as listening to a grievance concerning this church on his trip to Mosul. Mar Petion Church: Mar Petion, educated by his cousin in a monastery, was martyred in 446 AD. It is the first Chaldean Catholic church in Mosul, after the union of many Assyrians with Rome in the 17th century. It dates back to the 10th century, and lies 3 m below street level. This church suffered destruction, and it has been reconstructed many times. A hall was built on one of its three parts in 1942. As a result, most of its artistic features have been severely damaged. Ancient Tahira Church (The Immaculate): Near Bash Tapia, considered one of the most ancient churches in Mosul. No evidence helps to determine its exact area. It could be either the remnants of the church of the Upper Monastery or the ruined Mar Zena Church. Al-Tahira Church dates back to the 7th century, and it lies 3 m below street level. Reconstructed last in 1743. Mar Hudeni Church: It was named after Mar Ahudemmeh (Hudeni) Maphrian of Tikrit
Tikrit
who was martyred in 575 AD. Mar Hudeni is an old church of the Tikritans in Mosul. It dates back to the 10th century, lies 7 m below street level and was first reconstructed in 1970. People can get mineral water from the well in its yard. The chain, fixed in the wall, is thought to cure epileptics. St. George's Monastery (Mar Gurguis): One of the oldest churches in Mosul, named after St. George, located to the north of Mosul, was probably built late in the 17th century. Pilgrims from different parts of the North[clarification needed] visit it yearly in the spring, when many people also go out to its whereabouts on holiday.[clarification needed] It is about 6 m below street level. A modern church was built over the old one in 1931, abolishing much of its archeological significance. The only monuments left are a marble door-frame decorated with a carved Estrangelo (Syriac) inscription, and two niches, which date back to the 13th or 14th century. Mar Matte: This famous monastery is situated about 20 km (12 mi) east of Mosul
Mosul
on the top of a high mountain (Mount Maqloub). It was built by Mar Matte, a monk who fled with several other monks in 362 AD from the Monastery of Zuknin near the City of Amid (Diyarbakir) in the southern part of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) and the north of Iraq
Iraq
during the reign of Emperor Julian the Apostate (361–363 AD). It has a precious library containing Syrianic scriptures. Monastery of Mar Behnam: Also called Deir Al-Jubb (The Cistern Monastery) and built in the 12th or 13th century, it lies in the Nineveh
Nineveh
Plain near Nimrud
Nimrud
about 32 km (20 mi) southwest of Mosul. The monastery, a great fort-like building, rises next to the tomb of Mar Behnam, a prince who was killed by the Sassanians, perhaps during the 4th century AD. A legend made him a son of an Assyrian king. St. Elijah's Monastery (Dair Mar Elia): Dating from the 6th century, it was the oldest Christian Monastery in Iraq, until its destruction by IS in January 2016.[116][117]

Other Christian historical buildings:

The Roman Catholic Church (built by the Dominican Fathers in Nineveh Street in 1893) Mar Michael Mar Elias Mar Oraha Rabban Hormizd Monastery, the monastery of Notre-Dame des Semences, near the Assyrian town of Alqosh

Other sites[edit]

Bash Tapia Castle: A ruined castle rising high over the Tigris, which was one of the few remnants of Mosul's old walls until it was blown up by IS in 2015. Qara Serai (The Black Palace): The remnants of the 13th-century palace of Sultan
Sultan
Badruddin Lu'lu'.

Arts[edit]

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Painting[edit] The so-called Mosul
Mosul
School of Painting refers to a style of miniature painting that developed in northern Iraq
Iraq
in the late 12th to early 13th century under the patronage of the Zangid
Zangid
dynasty (1127–1222). In technique and style the Mosul
Mosul
school was similar to the painting of the Seljuq Turks, who controlled Iraq
Iraq
at that time, but the Mosul artists had a sharper sense of realism based on the subject matter and degree of detail in the painting rather than on representation in three dimensions, which did not occur. Most of the Mosul
Mosul
iconography was Seljuq—for example, the use of figures seated cross-legged in a frontal position. Certain symbolic elements however, such as the crescent and serpents, were derived from the classical Mesopotamian repertory. Most Mosul
Mosul
paintings were illustrations of manuscripts—mainly scientific works, animal books, and lyric poetry. A frontispiece painting, now held in the Bibliothèque nationale, Paris, dating from a late 12th century copy of Galen's medical treatise, the Kitab al-diriyak ("Book of Antidotes"), is a good example of the earlier work of the Mosul
Mosul
school. It depicts four figures surrounding a central, seated figure who holds a crescent-shaped halo. The painting is in a variety of whole hues; reds, blues, greens, and gold. The Küfic lettering is blue. The total effect is best described as majestic. Another mid-13th century frontispiece held in the Nationalbibliothek, Vienna, to another copy of the same text suggests the quality of later Mosul
Mosul
painting. There is realism in its depiction of the preparation of a ruler's meal and of horsemen engaged in various activities, and the painting is as many hued as that of the early Mosul
Mosul
school, yet it is somehow less spirited. The composition is more elaborate but less successful. By this time the Baghdad
Baghdad
school, which combined the styles of the Syrian and early Mosul
Mosul
schools, had begun to dominate. With the invasion of the Mongols
Mongols
in the mid-13th century the Mosul
Mosul
school came to an end, but its achievements were influential in both the Mamluk and the Mongol schools of miniature painting. Metalwork[edit] From the 13th-century metal craftsmen centred in Mosul
Mosul
influenced the metalwork of the Islamic world, from North Africa to eastern Iran. Under the active patronage of the Zangid
Zangid
dynasty, the Mosul
Mosul
School developed an extraordinarily refined technique of inlay—particularly in silver—far overshadowing the earlier work of the Sāmānids in Persia
Persia
and the Būyids in Iraq. Mosul
Mosul
craftsmen used both gold and silver for inlay on bronze and brass. After delicate engraving had prepared the surface of the piece, strips of gold and silver were worked so carefully that not the slightest irregularity appeared in the whole of the elaborate design. The technique was carried by Mosul
Mosul
metalworkers to Aleppo, Damascus, Baghdad, Cairo, and Persia; similar pieces from those centres are called Mosul
Mosul
bronzes. Among the most famous surviving Mosul
Mosul
pieces is a brass ewer inlaid with silver from 1232, and now in the British Museum, by the artist Shujā’ ibn Mana. The ewer features representational as well as abstract design, depicting battle scenes, animals and musicians within medallions. Mosul
Mosul
metalworkers also created pieces for Eastern Christians. A candlestick of this variety from 1238 and housed in the Musée des Arts Décoratifs, Paris, attributed to Dà’ūd ibn Salamah of Mosul, is bronze with silver inlay. It displays the familiar medallions but is also engraved with scenes showing Christ as a child. Rows of standing figures, probably saints, decorate the base. The background is decorated with typically Islamic vine scrolls and intricate arabesques, giving the piece a unique look. Education[edit] As per IS policy, even primary schools are gender segregated, putting a strain on educational resources.[103] Previously the city's largest university, the University of Mosul was closed in 2014.[118] On January 15, 2017, 30 schools reopened in the east of the city, allowing 16,000 children to start classes again. Some of them had no education at all since IS took over Mosul
Mosul
in June 2014.[119] Sport[edit] The city has one football team capable of competing in the top-flight of Iraqi football – Mosul
Mosul
FC. Notable people[edit]

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Yousif Dhanoon (ar) (يوسف ذنون), Arabic
Arabic
calligrapher who designed and executed many inscriptions in mosques throughout the Islamic world. Zaha Hadid, World-famous architect and first woman to win the Pritzker award. Was named "dame" by Queen Elizabeth II. Al Jalili, Ismael, Eye doctor who discovered and researched the "Jalili Syndrome". Al Jamil, Sayyar, Historian and political analyst. Abu Al Soof, Behnam, Archeologist, anthropologist, historian and writer of Christian ancestry. Tariq Aziz, Assyrian Deputy Prime Minister 1979–2003 (real name Michael Youkhanna) (from Tel Keppe) Munir Bashir, Assyrian musician and famous musician in the Mideast during the 20th century Asenath Barzani, first Jewish
Jewish
female rabbi Vian Dakhil, Yazidi
Yazidi
member of the Iraqi parliament. Hawar Mulla Mohammed, Arab
Arab
Iraqi soccer player for the national team Paulos Faraj Rahho, Assyrian Chaldean Catholic Archbishop of Mosul, assassinated 2008 Taha Yassin Ramadan, Arab
Arab
former Vice President of Iraq Hormuzd Rassam, Assyrian Archaeologist and diplomat of the 19th century Kathem Al Saher, Arab
Arab
Iraqi pop singer, songwriter, and musician Salah al-Din al-Sabbagh, Arab
Arab
Iraqi Army officer Ignatius Gabriel I Tappouni, Assyrian Patriarch of Antioch and all east for the Syriac Catholic Church
Syriac Catholic Church
between 1929 and 1968, Church Father of the Second Vatican Council
Second Vatican Council
and the first Eastern Rite prelate to be raised to the College of Cardinals
College of Cardinals
since the reign of Pope Pius IX Ghazi Mashal Ajil al-Yawer, Arab
Arab
Interim President of Iraq
Iraq
during 2004–05 Ignatius Zakka I, Assyrian Patriarch of Antioch and all east for the Syriac Orthodox Church

See also[edit]

Iraq
Iraq
portal

Al-Mishraq, site of 2003 sulfur dioxide disaster Battle of Mosul
Mosul
(2016–17) Chaldean Catholic Archeparchy of Mosul Assyrian homeland Mosul
Mosul
Question Nineveh
Nineveh
plains Yazidi
Yazidi
genocide Tel Keppe List of Emirs of Mosul List of places in Iraq

References[edit]

^ Gladstone, Philip (10 February 2014). "Synop Information for ORBM (40608) in Mosul, Iraq". Weather Quality Reporter. Retrieved 16 June 2014.  ^ "Iraqi City of Mosul
Mosul
Transformed a Year After Islamic State Capture". Wall Street Journal.  ^ "UNSD Demographic Statistics". United Nations
United Nations
Statistics Division 1987.  ^ Soane, E.B. To Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
and Kurdistan in Disguise. John Murray: London, 1912. p. 92. ^ Rev. W.A. Wigram (1929). The Assyrians and Their Neighbours. London. ^ Unrepresented Nations and People Organization (UNPO). Assyrians the Indigenous People of Iraq
Iraq
[1] ^ "Mosul". Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. 1 January 2004.  ^ a b "Report on the Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict in Iraq: 6 July – 10 September 2014" (PDF). UNAMI and OHCHR. Retrieved 21 December 2014.  ^ Dalley, Stephanie (1993). " Nineveh
Nineveh
After 612 BC." Alt-Orientanlische Forshchungen 20. p.134. ^ Robert D Biggs – "Especially in view of the very early establishment of Christianity
Christianity
in Assyria
Assyria
and its continuity to the present and the continuity of the population, I think there is every likelihood that ancient Assyrians are among the ancestors of modern Assyrians of the area." ^ Dana Ford & Mohammed Tawfeeq (25 July 2014). " ISIS
ISIS
militants destroy the tomb of Jonah". CNN.  ^ Dalley, Stephanie (1993) " Nineveh
Nineveh
After 612 BC," Alt-Orientanlische Forshchungen 20, p.134 ^ Reuters article – reprinted in Nabu Magazine, Vol. 3, Issue 1 (1997) ^ "Mosul, Iraq" from AtlasTours.net ^ "The war against Islamic State (2): Mosul
Mosul
beckons". The Economist. 11 April 2015. Retrieved 22 April 2015.  ^ Dalley, Stephanie, (2013) The Mystery of the Hanging Garden of Babylon: an elusive World Wonder traced, Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-966226-5 ^ Bosworth, Edmund (2007). Historic Cities of the Islamic World. Brill. p. 414. ISBN 9789047423836.  ^ עזרא לניאדו, יהודי מוצל, מגלות שומרון עד מבצע עזרא ונחמיה, המכון לחקר יהדות מוצל, טירת-כרמל: ה'תשמ"א. ^ Davidson, Herbert A. (2005). Moses Maimonides: The Man and His Works. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 560. ISBN 0-19-517321-X.  ^ Rothman 2015, p. 236. ^ Shaw, Stanford J.; Shaw, Ezel Kural (1976). History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey: Volume 1, Empire of the Gazis: The Rise and Decline of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
1280–1808. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 199. ISBN 978-0521291637.  ^ Nasiri & Floor 2008, p. 248. ^ Oberling 1984, pp. 582–586. ^ a b c Kemp, Percy (1983). "Power and Knowledge in Jalili Mosul". Middle Eastern Studies. 19 (2): 201–12. doi:10.1080/00263208308700543.  ^ Al-Tikriti, Nabil (2007). "Ottoman Iraq". Journal of the Historical Society. 7 (2): 201–11. doi:10.1111/j.1540-5923.2007.00214.x.  ^ Khoury, Dina Rizk (1997), State and Provincial Society in the Ottoman Empire. Mosul, 1540–1834, Studies in Islamic Civilization, Cambridge, p. 19  ^ a b Woods, Richard (2006). " Iraq
Iraq
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Before Iraq; Like Bees Making Five-Sided Cells. Albanay: State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-7914-4487-2.  ^ Pentagon: Saddam's sons killed in raid . CNN.com (2003-07-22). Retrieved on 2011-07-02. ^ Mosul. Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved on 2011-07-02. ^ Iraq
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24. Archived from the original on 2011-05-21. Retrieved 2011-07-02.  ^ "Losing Mosul?". Time. October 16, 2004. Retrieved May 13, 2010.  ^ Muir, Jim. (2008-10-28) "Iraqi Christians' fear of exile". BBC News. Retrieved on 2011-07-02. ^ "Christians flee Iraqi city after killings, threats, officials say Archived 2008-10-12 at the Wayback Machine.." CNN. 11 October 2008. ^ Micheal O'Brien (June 2015). "Islamic-Schism Prelude to WWIII?". The RINJ Foundation.  ^ Abdulrahim, Raja (5 October 2014). "Iraqi Kurdish forces moving toward complex battle in Mosul". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 21 December 2014.  ^ "Iraq's battles need sense of resolve". BBC News.  ^ "Iraq, Islamic State, Baghdad, War", Al monitor, Sep 2014  ^ Laila Ahmed. "Since Islamic State swept into Mosul, we live encircled by its dark fear". The Guardian.  ^ "Iraqi insurgents seize city". BBC. 11 June 2014.  ^ "Militant group seizes cities in Iraq". CNN. 11 June 2014.  ^ "How Mosul
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ISIS
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Christians Out of the City for Good". Rudaw.  ^ " ISIS
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destroy the oldest Christian monastery in Mosul, Iraq". Archived from the original on 2016-02-02.  ^ a b Hawramy, Fazel (24 July 2014). "'They are savages,' say Christians forced to flee Mosul
Mosul
by Isis" – via The Guardian.  ^ "Patrick Cockburn reports on the brutal reality of life in Mosul under Isis". 9 November 2014.  ^ Ted Thornhill (15 December 2014). "Isis puts Iraq's second-biggest city into lockdown, cutting phone lines and banning residents from leaving ahead of expected assaults from government forces". The Daily Mail.  ^ Loveday morris (October 19, 2015). "Isis in Iraq: Mosul
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ISIS
Child Sex Slave Traders in Mosul
Mosul
Iraq". The RINJ Foundation.  ^ Priya Joshi. "Isis: Hundreds of Yazidi
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captives slaughtered in Mosul". International Business Times.  ^ a b Laila Ahmed (9 June 2015). "Inside Mosul: What's life like under Islamic State?". BBC News.  ^ " ISIS
ISIS
governor of Mosul
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killed in coalition airstrike – ARA News". 18 March 2016.  ^ http://www.iraqinews.com/iraq-war/mosul-residents-clash-with-isis-members/ ^ "Islamic State crisis: Mother fears for son at Mosul
Mosul
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Jewish
Schindler" Draws Backlash For Campaign To Save ISIS
ISIS
Sex Slaves". Vocativ.  ^ a b Rubin, Alissa J (18 July 2014), " ISIS
ISIS
Forces Last Iraqi Christians to Flee Mosul", The New York Times, retrieved 1 August 2013  ^ " ISIS
ISIS
destroys Prophet
Prophet
Sheth shrine in Mosul". Al Arabiya. 26 July 2014. Retrieved 1 August 2014.  ^ "Isis militants blow up Jonah's tomb". The Guardian. 24 July 2014. Retrieved 24 July 2014.  ^ Buchanan, Rose Troup and Saul, Heather (25 February 2015) Isis burns thousands of books and rare manuscripts from Mosul's libraries The Independent ^ " ISIL
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video shows destruction of Mosul
Mosul
artefacts". Al Jazeera. 27 Feb 2015.  ^ Shaheen, Kareem (26 February 2015). "Isis fighters destroy ancient artefacts at Mosul
Mosul
museum". The Guardian.  ^ Kariml, Ammar; Mojon, Jean-Marc (31 July 2014). "In Mosul, resistance against ISIS
ISIS
rises from city's rubble". The Daily Star. Lebanon. Retrieved 1 August 2014.  ^ Erkuş, Sevil (25 September 2014). " Mosul
Mosul
Consulate 'overpowered' by ISIL
ISIL
militants at the gates, Turkish hostage says". Hürriyet Daily News. Retrieved 21 December 2014.  ^ "UN Envoy Condemns Public Execution of Human Rights Lawyer, Ms. Sameera Al-Nuaimy". United Nations
United Nations
Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMI).  ^ "Report on the Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict in Iraq: 6 July – 10 September 2014" (PDF). UNAMI Human Rights Office. Executions following illegal/irregular/unlawful courts, in disrespect of due process and fair trial standards  ^ "ISIS: Mosul
Mosul
residents trapped". The Huffington Post. Mar 13, 2015. Archived from the original on 2015-08-25.  ^ Mezzofiore, Gianluca (30 July 2014). " Mosul
Mosul
Brigades: Local Armed Resistance to Islamic State Gains Support". International Business Times. UK. Retrieved 1 August 2014.  ^ "IS Cracks Down In Mosul, Fearing Residents Mobilizing Against Them". Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty.  ^ "The Assyrian Christian militia are keeping well-armed Isis at bay – but they are running out of ammunition". 22 February 2015.  ^ Cetti-Roberts, Matt (7 March 2015). "Inside the Christian Militias Defending the Nineveh
Nineveh
Plains".  ^ "Battle for Mosul: Iraq
Iraq
and Kurdish troops make gains". BBC News. 17 October 2016. Retrieved 17 October 2016.  ^ Blau, Max; Park, Madison; McLaughlin, Eliott C. (17 October 2016). "Battle for Mosul: Iraqi forces close in". CNN. Retrieved 17 October 2016.  ^ Yan, Holly; Muaddi, Nadeem (17 October 2016). "Why the battle for Mosul
Mosul
matters in the fight against ISIS". CNN. Retrieved 17 October 2016.  ^ "What is the battle for Mosul? Everything you need to know about the fight to liberate Isil's last bastion of power in Iraq". The Daily Telegraph. 17 October 2016. Retrieved 17 October 2016.  ^ https://www.csmonitor.com/World/Middle-East/2017/0811/In-liberated-Mosul-ISIS-still-imperils-the-path-to-city-s-revival ^ Mosul: Iraq
Iraq
PM to celebrate victory over IS in the city BBC, 9 July 2017 ^ "Battle for Mosul: Iraq
Iraq
PM Abadi formally declares victory". BBC. 10 July 2017. Retrieved 10 July 2017.  ^ MosulEncyclopedia.com: Facts, Pictures, Information. Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved on 2011-07-02. ^ Mosul. Jewish
Jewish
Virtual Library. Retrieved on 2011-07-02. ^ Cf. Carlos C. Huerta, Jewish
Jewish
heartbreak and hope in Nineveh. ^ " Jewish
Jewish
Mosul
Mosul
Revisited Jewish
Jewish
heartbreak and hope in Nineveh, By Carlos C. Huerta ظٹظ‡ظˆط¯ ط§ظ"ظ…ظˆطµظ"". almosul.org. Archived from the original on 19 November 2010.  ^ "Iraq: ISIS
ISIS
Abducting, Killing, Expelling Minorities". Human Rights Watch. 19 July 2014. Retrieved 20 October 2016.  ^ Gutteridge, Nick (20 October 2015). " ISIS
ISIS
barbarity: How 100,000 Christians fled Mosul
Mosul
in ONE NIGHT". Express News. Retrieved 20 October 2016.  ^ Logan, Lara (22 March 2015). "Iraq's Christians persecuted by ISIS". CBS News. Retrieved 20 October 2016.  ^ "In Mosul, Water, Electricity Shortages, And Warnings Of Disease".  ^ a b "Islamic State: Diary of life in Mosul". BBC.  ^ a b c " Mosul
Mosul
battle: Last bridge 'disabled by air strike'". BBC News. 27 December 2016. Retrieved 2 March 2017.  ^ Mohammed Tawfeeq (13 January 2017). " ISIS
ISIS
destroys Mosul
Mosul
bridges as troops advance". CNN. Retrieved 2 March 2017.  ^ "Basic infrastructure repair in Mosul
Mosul
will cost over $1 billion: U.N." BBC. 5 July 2017. Retrieved 10 July 2017.  ^ "Mosul: US commander says Iraq
Iraq
must stop Islamic State 2.0". BBC. 11 July 2017. Retrieved 11 July 2017.  ^ "World Weather Information Service – Mosul". United Nations. Retrieved 1 January 2011.  ^ "Mosul, Iraq
Iraq
Travel Weather Averages". Weatherbase. Retrieved 2012-12-19.  ^ " ISIS
ISIS
destroys 'Jonah's tomb' in Mosul". Al Arabiya. 25 July 2014.  ^ "Islamic State destroys ancient Mosul
Mosul
mosque, the third in a week". The Guardian. Associated Press. 28 July 2014.  ^ Clark, Heather (27 July 2014). "Muslim Militants Blow Up Tombs of Biblical Jonah, Daniel in Iraq". Christian News Network. Retrieved 28 July 2014. Al-Sumaria News also reported on Thursday that local Mosul official Zuhair al-Chalabi told the outlet that ISIS
ISIS
likewise “implanted explosives around Prophet
Prophet
Daniel's tomb in Mosul
Mosul
and blasted it, leading to its destruction.”  ^ Hafiz, Yasmine. " ISIS
ISIS
Destroys Jonah's Tomb
Tomb
In Mosul, Iraq, As Militant Violence Continues". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 28 July 2014. The tomb of Daniel, a man revered by Muslims as a prophet though unlike Jonah, he is not mentioned in the Quran, has also been reportedly destroyed. Al-Arabiya reports that Zuhair al-Chalabi, a local Mosul
Mosul
official, told Al-Samaria News that " ISIS
ISIS
implanted explosives around Prophet
Prophet
Daniel's tomb in Mosul
Mosul
and blasted it, leading to its destruction."  ^ " ISIS
ISIS
destroys beloved mosque in central Mosul". Rudaw.  ^ Gianluca Mezzofiore. "Iraq: Isis destroys 19th century Ottoman mosque in central Mosul". International Business Times UK.  ^ Chaplains Struggle to Protect Monastery in Iraq. NPR's Morning Edition, 21 November 2007. Retrieved on 2011-07-02. ^ [1] Retrieved on 2016-01-19 ^ " ISIS
ISIS
Takeover In Iraq: Mosul
Mosul
University Students, Faculty Uncertain About The Future Of Higher Education". International Business Times. 3 December 2014.  ^ " Schools
Schools
are reopening in Mosul, after two years of jihadist rule". The Economist. 31 January 2017. Retrieved 31 January 2017. 

Sources[edit] See also: Bibliography of the history of Mosul

Nasiri, Ali Naqi; Floor, Willem M. (2008). Titles and Emoluments in Safavid Iran: A Third Manual of Safavid Administration. Mage Publishers. p. 309. ISBN 978-1933823232.  Oberling, P. (1984). "AFŠĀR". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. I, Fasc. 6. pp. 582–586. Archived from the original on 2011-04-29.  Rothman, E. Nathalie (2015). Brokering Empire: Trans-Imperial Subjects between Venice and Istanbul. Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0801463129. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mosul.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Mosul.

ninava-explorer Iraq
Iraq
Image – Mosul
Mosul
Satellite Observation Detailed map of Mosul
Mosul
by the National Imagery and Mapping Agency, from lib.utexas.edu ArchNet.org. "Mosul". Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: MIT School of Architecture and Planning. 

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