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Moscow (/ˈmɒsk/, /ˈmɒsk/;[10][11] Russian: Москва, tr. Moskva, IPA: [mɐˈskva] (About this soundlisten)) is the capital and largest city of Russia. The city stands on the Moskva River in Central Russia, with a population estimated at 12.4 million residents within the city limits,[12] while over 17 million residents live in the urban area,[13] and over 20 million residents live in the Moscow Metropolitan Area.[14] The city covers an area of 2,511 square kilometres (970 sq mi), while the urban area covers 5,891 square kilometres (2,275 sq mi),[13] and the metropolitan area covers over 26,000 square kilometres (10,000 sq mi).[14] Moscow is among the world's largest cities, being the most populous city entirely within Europe, the most populous urban area in Europe,[13] the most populous metropolitan area in Europe,[14] and also the largest city by land area on the European continent.[15]

Originally established in 1147, Moscow grew to become a prosperous and powerful city that served as the capital of the Grand Duchy that bears its namesake. When the Grand Duchy of Moscow evolved into the Tsardom of Russia, Moscow still remained as the political and economic center for most of the Tsardom's history. When the Tsardom was reformed into the Russian Empire, the capital was moved from Moscow to Saint Petersburg, diminishing the influence of the city. The capital was then moved back to Moscow following the Russian Revolution and the city was brought back as the political centre of the Russian SFSR and the Soviet Union. When the Soviet Union dissolved, Moscow remained as the capital city of the contemporary and newly established Russian Federation.

As the northernmost and coldest megacity in the world, and with a history that dates over eight centuries, Moscow is governed as a federal city that serves as the political, economic, cultural, and scientific centre of Russia and Eastern Europe. As an alpha world city,[16] Moscow has one of the world's largest urban economies, and is one of the most expensive cities in the world. The city is one of the fastest growing tourist destinations in the world,[17] and is one of Europe's most visited cities. Moscow is home to the third-highest number of billionaires of any city in the world,[18] and has the highest number of billionaires of any city in Europe. The Moscow International Business Center is one of largest financial centres of Europe and the world, and features some of Europe's tallest skyscrapers. Muscovites enjoy public digital services more than anywhere else in Europe,[19] and the best e-government services in the world.[20] Moscow is also home to the tallest free-standing structure in Europe, the Ostankino Tower, and was the host city of the 1980 Summer Olympics, and one of the host cities of the 2018 FIFA World Cup.

As the historic core of Russia, Moscow serves as the home of numerous Russian artists, scientists, and sports figures due to the presence of its various museums, academic and political institutions and theatres. The city is home to several UNESCO World Heritage Sites, and is well known for its display of Russian architecture, particularly its historic Red Square, and buildings such as the Saint Basil's Cathedral and the Moscow Kremlin, of which the latter serves as the seat of power of the Government of Russia. Moscow is home to many Russian companies in numerous industries, and is served by a comprehensive transit network, which includes four international airports, nine railway terminals, a tram system, a monorail system, the largest trolleybus fleet in Europe,[21] the largest fleet of carsharing vehicles in the world,[22] and most notably the Moscow Metro, the busiest metro system in Europe, and one of the largest rapid transit systems in the world. The city has over 40 percent of its territory covered by greenery, making it one of the greenest cities in Europe and the world.[15][23]

Moscow as viewed from the International Space Station, January 29, 2014

The Third Ring Road, was completed in 2003 as a high-speed freeway.

The first and innermost major ring, Bulvarnoye Koltso (Boulevard Ring), was built at the former location of the 16th-century city wall around what used to be called Bely Gorod (White Town).[112] The Bulvarnoye Koltso is technically not a ring; it does not form a complete circle, but instead a horseshoe-like arc that begins at the Cathedral of Christ the Savior and ends at the Yauza River. The second primary ring, located outside the bell end of the Boulevard Ring, is the Sadovoye Koltso (Garden Ring). Like the Boulevard Ring, the Garden Ring follows the path of a 16th-century wall that used to encompass part of Moscow.[112]

The Third Ring Road, was completed in 2003 as a high-speed freeway.

The Fourth Transport Ring, another freeway, was planned, but cancelled in 2011. It will be replaced by a system of chordal highways.

Aside from aforementioned hierarchy, line 5 of Moscow Metro is a circle-shaped looped subway line (hence the name Koltsevaya Liniya, "ring line"), which is located between the Sadovoye Koltso and Third Transport Ring.

September 10, 2016, Moscow Central Circle renovated railroad (former Moskovskaya Okruzhnaya Zheleznaya Doroga) was introduced as 14th line of Moscow Metro. The railroad itself was in use since 1907, but before the renovation, it was a non-electrified railroad for transit needs of fueled locomotives only.

Another circle metro line - Big Circle Line (Bolshaya Koltsevaya Liniya) is under construction and will be finished about 2023.

The outermost ring within Moscow is the Moscow Metro is a circle-shaped looped subway line (hence the name Koltsevaya Liniya, "ring line"), which is located between the Sadovoye Koltso and Third Transport Ring.

September 10, 2016, Moscow Central Circle renovated railroad (former Moskovskaya Okruzhnaya Zheleznaya Doroga) was introduced as 14th line of Moscow Metro. The railroad itself was in use since 1907, but before the renovation, it was a non-electrified railroad for transit needs of fueled locomotives only.