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1969–present:  Philippines Supported by:   United States
United States
(advisors)[1]  Australia[2][3]  Indonesia[4][5]   Malaysia
Malaysia
(since 2001)[4][6][7][8]

International Monitoring Team (IMT)

 Brunei  Indonesia  Japan  Libya  Malaysia  Norway  European Union

1969–2014: Bangsamoro: MNLF (until 1996)[9] MILF (until 2014) Former support: Libya
Libya
(until 2006)[10][11][12][13] Pakistan
Pakistan
(until 2002)[14]   Malaysia
Malaysia
(until 1995)[15][16][17]

2005–present NDFP

MRLO

1991–present: Jihadist groups: BIFF (2008–present) Ansar Khalifa Philippines
Philippines
(2014–present) ISIS (2014–present)

Abu Sayyaf[18][19] (1991–present) Turaifie group (2017-present)[20]

Former jihadist groups: Maute group (2013–2017)[21][22][23] KIM (2011–2013)[24] Rajah Sulaiman movement (1991–unknown)[25][26]

Commanders and leaders

Ferdinand Marcos (1969–1986) Corazon Aquino (1986–1992) Fidel V. Ramos (1992–1998) Joseph Estrada (1998–2001) Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (2001–2010) Benigno Aquino III (2010–2016) Rodrigo Duterte (2016–present)

Nur Misuari
Nur Misuari
(1969–1996) Habier Malik † Muslimin Sema (1969–1996) Habib Mujahab Hashim (1969–1996) Abul Khayr Alonto
Abul Khayr Alonto
(1969–1996) Murad Ebrahim
Murad Ebrahim
(1978–2014) Hashim Salamat
Hashim Salamat
(deceased) Former support: Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
(1969–1981)[27] Muammar Gaddafi
Muammar Gaddafi
(1969–2011) Mustapha Harun
Mustapha Harun
(1969–1995)[28][29]

Khadaffy Janjalani † Galib Andang † Ameril Umbra Kato † Radullan Sahiron Isnilon Totoni Hapilon †[18][30] Omar Maute † Abdullah Maute †

Strength

125,000–130,000[31]

15,000 (2012)[31] 11,000 (2012)[31] Unspecified

Casualties and losses

Total killed: At least 120,000 including civilians

v t e

Moro conflict

(1967–1999)

Operation Merdeka (Sabah) (1967) Jabidah (1968) Manili (1971) Jolo
Jolo
(1974) Malisbong Ipil

(2000–2010)

Philippine campaign against the MILF (2000) Rizal Day Dos Palmas (2001) Misuari Zamboanga City
Zamboanga City
(2002) Buliok Complex (2003) SuperFerry 14 (2004) Central Mindanao
Mindanao
(2006) Basilan
Basilan
(2007) Battle of North Cotabato
North Cotabato
(2008) Central Mindanao
Mindanao
(2009)

(2011–present)

Zamboanga City
Zamboanga City
(2013) Operation Darkhorse (2014) Basilan
Basilan
(2014) Mamasapano (2015) Tipo-Tipo (2016) 2016 Butig clashes

February clash November clash

Davao City
Davao City
(2016) Bohol (2017) Marawi (2017)

The Moro conflict[32] is an insurgency in the Mindanao
Mindanao
region of the Philippines. Due to marginalisation produced by continuous Resettlement Policy sustained at start of Mindanao
Mindanao
and Sulu
Sulu
inclusion to the Philippine Commonwealth territory of 1935, by 1969, political tensions and open hostilities developed between the Government of the Philippines
Philippines
and Moro Muslim
Muslim
rebel groups.[33] The developing Moro Insurgency
Insurgency
was ultimately triggered by the Jabidah massacre, which saw the killing of 60 Filipino Muslim
Filipino Muslim
commandos on a planned operation to reclaim the eastern part of the Malaysian state of Sabah. In response, the University of the Philippines
Philippines
professor Nur Misuari
Nur Misuari
established the Moro National Liberation Front
Moro National Liberation Front
(MNLF), an armed insurgent group that was committed to establishing an independent entity composed of Mindanao, Sulu, and Palawan. Over the successive years, the MNLF has splintered into several different groups including the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF), which wanted to establish an Islamic state within the Philippines. The Moro Insurgency
Insurgency
is rooted in a long history of resistance by the Bangsamoro people against foreign rule, dating back to the American annexation of the Philippines
Philippines
in 1898 even as they are not part of Spain's Act of War. Since then, Moro resistance has persisted against the Philippine government. Casualty statistics vary for the conflict; however, the conservative estimates of the Uppsala Conflict Data Program
Uppsala Conflict Data Program
indicate that at least 6,015 people were killed in armed conflict between the Government of Philippines
Philippines
and ASG, BIFM, MILF, and MNLF factions between 1989 and 2012.[34]

Contents

1 Origins 2 History

2.1 Marcos (1965–86) 2.2 C. Aquino and Ramos (1986–98) 2.3 Estrada (1998–2001) 2.4 Macapagal Arroyo (2001–10) 2.5 Benigno Aquino (2010–2016) 2.6 Duterte (2016–present)

3 See also 4 References 5 External links

Origins[edit] Main articles: Spanish–Moro conflict, Moro Rebellion, and Philippine resistance against Japan
Japan
§ Moro resistance on Mindanao
Mindanao
and Sulu

Christian Filipinos, who served under the Spanish Army, searching for Moro rebels during the Spanish–Moro conflict
Spanish–Moro conflict
c. 1887. The insurgency problem in Mindanao
Mindanao
is rooted in the 1500s, when the Spanish arrived in the Moro heartland.

Part of a series on the

History of the Philippines

Prehistory (pre–900) Paleolithic
Paleolithic
age

Awidon Mesa Formation Callao Limestone Formation

Neolithic
Neolithic
age

Callao and Tabon peoples Arrival of the Negritos Austronesian expansion Angono Petroglyphs Lal-lo and Gattaran Shell Middens Jade culture

Iron age

Sa Huyun Culture Society of the Igorot Ancient barangays

Events/Artifacts

Balangay grave goods Manunggul Jar Prehistoric gems Sa Huyun-Kalanay Complex Maitum Anthropomorphic Pottery

Archaic epoch (900–1565) Historically documented city-states/polities (by geography from North to South)

Samtoy chieftaincy Caboloan Tondo Namayan Rajahnate of Maynila Ma-i Madja-as Chiefdom of Taytay Rajahnate of Cebu Kedatuan of Dapitan Rajahnate of Butuan Sultanate of Maguindanao Lanao confederacy Sultanate of Sulu

Legendary

Suwarnapumi Chryse Ophir Tawalisi Wāḳwāḳ Sanfotsi Zabag kingdom Ten Bornean Datus

Events/Artifacts

Maragtas Laguna Copperplate Inscription Butuan Ivory Seal Limestone tombs Batanes citadels Golden Tara Gold Kinnara Ticao Stone Inscription Butuan Silver Paleograph Buddhist art Majapahit conflict Brunei
Brunei
War

Colonial period (1521–1946) Spanish era

First Mass in the Philippines Catholic Church in the Philippines Santo Niño de Cebú Battle of Mactan Sandugo Spanish capture of Manila New Spain Captaincy General Spanish East Indies Manila galleon Revolts and uprisings Chinese invasion Castilian War Sulu
Sulu
Sea pirates Doctrina Christiana Dutch invasions Brunei
Brunei
Civil War Bohol secession British Invasion Silang Revolt Confradia de San Jose Florante at Laura Dutch invasions Brunei
Brunei
Civil War Bohol secession British Invasion Florante at Laura Propaganda Movement Gomburza Noli me tangere La Solidaridad El filibusterismo La Liga Filipina Katipunan Cry of Pugad Lawin Philippine Revolution Execution of Rizal Tejeros Convention Execution of Bonifacio Republic of Biak-na-Bato Spanish–American War Battle of Manila Bay American capture of Manila Declaration of Independence Siege of Baler Malolos Congress First Republic Philippine–American War Assassination of Gen. Antonio Luna Death of Gen. Gregorio del Pilar Capture of Pres. Aguinaldo

American colonial period

Tagalog Republic Negros Republic Zamboanga Republic Moro Rebellion Iglesia Filipina Independiente Execution of Sakay Philippine Constabulary Insular Government Philippine Assembly Flag Act of 1907 Rizal Monument Iglesia ni Cristo Bayan Ko Jones Law Tydings–McDuffie Act Commonwealth Japanese occupation Establishment of Hukbalahap Fall of Bataan and Corregidor Bataan Death March Second Republic Return of Gen. Douglas MacArthur Battle of Leyte
Battle of Leyte
Gulf Destruction of Manila

Post-colonial period (1946–1986)

Treaty of Manila Third Republic Cold War Hukbalahap
Hukbalahap
Rebellion SEATO Bandung Conference Magsaysay plane crash Filipino First policy Agricultural Land Reform Code North Borneo dispute Jabidah massacre Marcos dictatorship ASEAN Declaration CPP–NPA–NDF rebellion Moro Conflict Spratly islands dispute Vietnamese boat people Assassination of Benigno Aquino Jr. Escalante massacre 1986 Snap Presidential Elections

Contemporary history (1986–present)

People Power Revolution 1986–90 coup attempts MV Doña Paz
MV Doña Paz
Tragedy Pinatubo eruption Sarmenta-Gomez Rape-slay case Execution of Flor Contemplacion Ozone Disco Tragedy Sarah Balabagan case 1997 Asian financial crisis 2000 All-out war against MILF Second EDSA Revolution EDSA III War on Terror Oakwood mutiny Hello Garci scandal 2006 state of national emergency Manila Peninsula siege NBN–ZTE deal MV Princess of the Stars
MV Princess of the Stars
Tragedy South China Sea disputes Death of Corazon Aquino Tropical Storm Ondoy Maguindanao
Maguindanao
massacre Manila hostage crisis Corona Impeachment case K+12 Program Pork barrel scam Super Typhoon Yolanda Enhanced Defense Cooperation Agreement Mamasapano massacre Mary Jane Veloso
Mary Jane Veloso
case Valenzuela factory fire Philippine Drug War Battle of Marawi Shooting of Kian delos Santos Davao City
Davao City
mall fire Death of Joanna Demafelis

By topic

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portal

v t e

The Moros had a history of resistance against Spanish, American, and Japanese rule for 400 years. During the Spanish–Moro conflict, Spain repeatedly tried to conquer the Moro Sultanate of Sulu, Sultanate of Maguindanao, and the Confederation of sultanates in Lanao. The armed struggle against the Japanese, Spanish, Americans and Christian Filipinos
Filipinos
is considered by current Moro Muslim
Muslim
leaders to be part of a four-century-long "national liberation movement" of the Bangsamoro (Moro Nation).[35] The root of the conflict originates in the Spanish and American wars against the Moros.[36] Following the Spanish–American War
Spanish–American War
in 1898, another conflict sparked in southern Philippines
Philippines
between the revolutionary Muslims in the Philippines
Philippines
and the United States
United States
military that took place between 1899 and 1913. Filipinos
Filipinos
opposed foreign rule from the United States, which claimed the Philippines
Philippines
as its territory. On 14 August 1898, after defeating Spanish forces, the United States
United States
had established a military government in the Philippines
Philippines
under General Wesley Merritt
Wesley Merritt
as Military Governor.[37] American forces took control from the Spanish government in Jolo
Jolo
on 18 May 1899, and at Zamboanga in December 1899.[38] Brigadier General
Brigadier General
John C. Bates
John C. Bates
was sent to negotiate a treaty with the Sultan of Sulu, Jamalul Kiram II. Kiram was disappointed by the American takeover, as he expected to regain sovereignty after the defeat of Spanish forces in the archipelago. Bates' main goal was to guarantee Moro neutrality in the Philippine–American War, and to establish order in the southern Philippines. After some negotiation, the Bates Treaty was signed which was based on an earlier Spanish treaty.[39] The Bates Treaty did ensure the neutrality of the Muslims in the south, but it was actually set up to buy time for the Americans until the war in the north ended.[40][41][42] After the war, in 1915, the Americans imposed the Carpenter Treaty on Sulu.[43] On 20 March 1900, General Bates was replaced by Brigadier General William August Kobbé
William August Kobbé
and the District of Mindanao- Jolo
Jolo
was upgraded to a full department. American forces in Mindanao
Mindanao
were reinforced and hostilities with the Moro people
Moro people
lessened, although there are reports of Americans and other civilians being attacked and slain by Moros. The American invasion began in 1904 and ended at the term of Major General John J. Pershing, the third and final military governor of Moro Province, although major resistance continued in Bud Dajo and Mount Bagsak in Jolo. The United States
United States
military killed hundreds of Moro in the Moro Crater massacre.[44][45][46][47] Repeated rebellions by the Moros against American rule continued to break out even after the main Moro Rebellion
Moro Rebellion
ended, right up to the Japanese occupation of the Philippines
Philippines
during World War II. During the Japanese invasion of the Philippines, the Moros waged an insurgency against the Japanese on Mindanao
Mindanao
and Sulu
Sulu
until Japan
Japan
surrendered in 1945. Moro Juramentados attacked the Spanish, Americans, Philippine Constabulary and the Japanese. History[edit] See also: Timeline of the Moro conflict The American colonial government and subsequently the Philippine government pursued a policy of intra-ethnic migration by resettling significant numbers of Christian Filipino settlers from the Visayas and Luzon
Luzon
onto tracts of land in Mindanao, beginning in the 1920s. This policy allowed Christian Filipinos
Filipinos
to outnumber both the Moro and Lumad
Lumad
populations by the 1970s, which was a contributing factor in aggravating grievances between the Moro and Filipino Christian settlers as disputes over land increased. Another grievance by the Moro people
Moro people
is the extraction of Mindanao's natural resources by the central government whilst many Moros continued to live in poverty. Moro Muslims and Lumads were supplanted by the Spanish and American colonization programs, with Christian Filipino settlers eventually taking control of key areas along newly-built roads and disrupting traditional Moro administrative structures and control over resources. The Americans preferred Christians to become administrators of newly defined townships instead of Lumad
Lumad
and Moro, with environmental degradation resulting from unsustainable population growth (due to the influx of settler migrants) and timber logging.[48] Marcos (1965–86)[edit] Main article: Jabidah massacre Under President Ferdinand Marcos, it was alleged that at least 11 Muslim
Muslim
military trainees were killed in Corregidor, by soldiers of the Armed Forces of the Philippines.[49][50] The trainees were believed to be a part of an upcoming rebellion.[50] By then, University of the Philippines
Philippines
professor Nur Misuari
Nur Misuari
had formed the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) to condemn the alleged killings of 11 Filipino Muslims and to seek the establishment of a Bangsamoro nation through the force of arms.[50] In 1969, the MNLF was established and commenced an armed struggle against the Philippine government.[50] During one of the fierce battles of the insurgency in 1974, Jolo, Sulu
Jolo, Sulu
was extensively damaged and news of the tragedy galvanized other Muslims around the world to pay greater attention to the conflict. Many civilians were supposedly killed when the Armed Forces razed much of Jolo
Jolo
municipality to the ground in a scorched-earth tactic.[51] Two years later, the Philippine government and the MNLF signed the Tripoli Agreement, declaring a ceasefire on both sides. The agreement provided that Mindanao
Mindanao
would remain a part of the Philippines, but 13 of its provinces would be under the autonomous government for the Bangsamoro people.[50] President Marcos later reneged on the agreement, and violence ensued. The Philippine government allegedly encouraged Christian settlers in Mindanao
Mindanao
to form a militia called the Ilaga to fight the Moros. The Ilaga engaged in killings and human rights abuses and were responsible for the Manili massacre
Manili massacre
of 65 Moro Muslim
Muslim
civilians in a mosque in June 1971, including women and children.[52] The Ilaga allegedly also engaged in cannibalism, cutting off the body parts of their victims to eat in rituals.[53] On 24 September 1974, the Philippine Army
Philippine Army
killed at least 1,000 Moro civilians who were praying in a mosque in what is known as the Malisbong massacre.[54] In 1978, Sheikh Salamat Hashim established the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF), a splinter group of the MNLF seeking to establish an Islamic state.[55] Conflicts between these rebel groups and the Armed Forces of the Philippines
Philippines
would continue until the end of President Marcos' regime. C. Aquino and Ramos (1986–98)[edit] Earlier in her term, President Corazon Aquino
Corazon Aquino
arranged a meeting with MNLF chairman Nur Misuari
Nur Misuari
and several MNLF rebel groups in Sulu, which paved the way for a series of negotiations. In 1989, the Autonomous Region in Muslim
Muslim
Mindanao
Mindanao
(ARMM) was created under Republic Act No. 6734 or the ARMM Organic Act, pursuant to the 1987 Constitution.[56] In 1991, Abdurajak Janjalani, a former teacher who studied Islam
Islam
in the Middle East, formed the Abu Sayyaf
Abu Sayyaf
Group after reportedly meeting Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden
in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in the 1980s. Janjalani recruited former members of the MNLF for the more radical and theocratic Abu Sayyaf.[50] Under the Presidency of Fidel V. Ramos, several negotiations and peace talks[33] were held and the ARMM solidified and was to have its own geopolitical system.[50] Estrada (1998–2001)[edit] Main article: 2000 Philippine campaign against the Moro Islamic Liberation Front

Political map of the Autonomous Region in Muslim
Muslim
Mindanao
Mindanao
(ARMM).

During his term, President Joseph Ejercito Estrada declared an "all-out war" against the MILF on 21 March 2000, although a series of negotiations for cessation of hostilities were held.[55] Apparently, several conflicts in and around Mindanao
Mindanao
erupted and clashes between the Philippine Military and the rebel groups resulted in substantial loss of life. During Estrada's term, these rebel groups kidnapped three Italian priests, two of whom were later released and one was shot dead;[57][58] seized the municipal hall of Talayan, Maguindanao
Talayan, Maguindanao
and Kauswagan, Lanao del Norte; bombed the RORO ferry M/V Our Lady of Mediatrix at Ozamiz; and took over Narciso Ramos Highway. All these incidents resulted in massive loss of investments abroad, especially in the area of Mindanao. As a result, the Armed Forces of the Philippines
Philippines
launched a successful campaign against these rebel groups and 43 minor camps, 13 major camps including the MILF headquarters, and Camp Abubakar[59] fell. The MILF suffered heavy losses and the head of the MILF, Sheikh Salamat Hashim, fled the country and sought refuge in Malaysia. On 5 October 2000, 609 rebels surrendered in Cagayan de Oro, along with renegade town mayor Mulapandi Cosain Sarip.[60] This was followed by another surrender of 855 rebels on 29 December 2000. President Estrada then ordered that the Philippine flag be raised in Mindanao, which symbolized victory. It was raised on 9 July 2000 near a Madh'hab
Madh'hab
and again the next day for President Estrada, who held a feast inside a classroom just meters away from a mosque.[59] As a result, several Islamic rebel groups retaliated, bombing several key locations within the National Capital Region on 30 December 2000, resulting in 22 deaths and hundreds of people injured. Saifullah Yunos, one of the perpetrators, was arrested in Cagayan de Oro
Cagayan de Oro
as he was about to board a plane bound for Manila in May 2003.[61] In 2004, two members of the Jemaah Islamiyah
Jemaah Islamiyah
were arrested, namely Mamasao Naga and Abdul Pata as they were identified by Fathur Rahman al-Ghozi as responsible for the train bombing.[62] Al-Ghozi was also arrested, but was later killed in a firefight when he tried to escape the prison on 13 October 2003. Macapagal Arroyo (2001–10)[edit] On 27 May 2001, the Abu Sayyaf
Abu Sayyaf
seized twenty hostages from an upscale resort in Palawan. Four of the hostages managed to escape.[63] The kidnapping group composed of 40 gunmen then seized the Dr. Jose Torres Memorial Hospital and St. Peter's Church compound in the town of Lamitan
Lamitan
in Basilan[64] and claimed to have taken captive 200 people, although 20 people were confirmed to be taken captive inside the hospital, including the staff and the patients.[65][66] There was a crossfire between the Army and the Abu Sayyaf
Abu Sayyaf
rebels in Lamitan
Lamitan
following the hospital takeover which resulted in the deaths of 12 soldiers, including the army captain.[66] Up to 22 soldiers were reportedly killed in an effort to rescue the hostages. Five more captives escaped during the battle at Lamitan. Two of the captives were killed prior to the siege in Lamitan, including one beheading.[63] The Abu Sayyaf
Abu Sayyaf
then conducted a series of raids, including one at a coconut plantation[67] where the rebel groups hacked the heads of two men using bolo knives. The owners and a security guard were also held captive and the rebel groups burned down two buildings, including a chapel, a week after the battle in Lamitan.[67] Another raid was conducted on 2 August 2001 on Barangay Balobo in Lamitan, Basilan. After three days, the Philippine Army rescued numerous hostages[68] after they overtook the hideout of the militants, where 11 bodies were found beheaded.[69] Other hostages were either released or had escaped.[68] On 13 June 2001, the number of hostages was calculated at around 28, as three more people were found beheaded in Basilan,[70] including Guillermo Sobero.[71] They were beheaded since the Philippine Army would not halt the rescue operation.[71] The Burnhams were still in the group of 14 still held captive, according to three hostages who escaped in October 2001.[71] On 7 June 2002, after a year of the hostages being held captive, a rescue mission was conducted resulting in the deaths of Martin Burnham and a nurse named Ediborah Yap[72] after they were caught in the crossfire. Martin was killed by three gunshots to the chest while Gracia Burnham was wounded in her right leg. By this time Nur Misuari
Nur Misuari
ordered his supporters to attack government targets to prevent the holding of elections on ARMM in November 2001, ushering his exit as the governor of the region.[50] Misuari would be later arrested in 2007 in Malaysia and was deported back to the Philippines
Philippines
for trial.[50] In July 2004, Gracia Burnham testified at a trial of eight Abu Sayyaf members, identifying six of the suspects as being her former captors, including Alhamzer Limbong, Abdul Azan Diamla, Abu Khari Moctar, Bas Ishmael, Alzen Jandul and Dazid Baize. Fourteen Abu Sayyaf
Abu Sayyaf
members were sentenced to life imprisonment while four were acquitted. Alhamzer Limbong was later killed in a prison uprising.[73] These rebel groups, especially the Abu Sayyaf, conducted several terror attacks, namely the bombings at Zamboanga in October 2002; the bombing of SuperFerry 14 in February 2004; the simultaneous bombings in Central Mindanao
Mindanao
in October 2006; the beheadings of several Philippine Marines in July 2007; the Batasang Pambansa bombing in November 2007; and the 2009 bombings in Mindanao. One thousand MILF rebels under the command of Umbra Kato have seized control of thirty-five villages in the North Cotabato
North Cotabato
province. Two thousand Philippine troops with helicopters and artillery were sent into the seized area on 9 August to liberate it from the rebels. The MILF had wanted North Cotabato
North Cotabato
to be included in the Autonomous Region of Muslim
Muslim
Mindanao. The government and MILF had been negotiating for the inclusion of the province in the Muslim
Muslim
Autonomous Region but the Supreme Court had struck down the proposal after hearing concerns from local Christian leaders in the region. The rebel troops were ordered to leave the area by their commanders, but the contingents under Kato refused to leave the villages they had occupied and instead dug in. The Philippine Army
Philippine Army
responded on 9 August by bombarding them. The next day, the government forces moved to retake the villages, recapturing two of them from the rebels.[74][75] Numerous clashes erupted between the Philippine Army
Philippine Army
and the rebel groups, such as the clash on 14 June 2009 that killed 10 rebels.[76] Between 2002 and 2015, the Philippines
Philippines
and the United States
United States
were part of a joint military campaign against Islamist terrorism known as Operation Enduring Freedom
Operation Enduring Freedom
– Philippines.[77] This was part of the War on Terror. Benigno Aquino (2010–2016)[edit] In 2013, two main camps of the Abu Sayyaf
Abu Sayyaf
group were overrun by forces of the Moro National Liberation Front
Moro National Liberation Front
(MNLF) in its latest offensive in Patikul.[78] According to MNLF leader Nur Misuari, the MNLF offensive against the Abu Sayyaf
Abu Sayyaf
is because of the MNLF opposition to the Abu Sayyaf's human rights abuses, which go against Islam. During the term of President Benigno Aquino III, a series of peace talks for the cessation of hostilities was held, including the meeting of MILF Chair Al Haj Murad Ibrahim in Tokyo, Japan
Japan
which was lauded on both sides.[50] Norway
Norway
also joined the International Monitoring Team (IMT) in January 2011, overseeing the ceasefire agreement between the government and MILF on Mindanao. Despite the peace talks, a series of conflicts erupted. On 10 September 2011, Jal Idris, a hardcore member of Abu Sayyaf, was arrested by government forces after a crossfire between the Philippine Army
Philippine Army
and the rebel group[79] The Armed Forces of the Philippines
Philippines
also killed three Abu Sayyaf
Abu Sayyaf
militants in a stand-off[80] the day after the arrest of Jal Idris. Terrorism continued throughout President Aquino's term. Notable cases include when four merchants and a guide were killed by Abu Sayyaf bandits in January 2011.[81] Later a soldier was killed in a clash against the rebels.[82] In August 2011, rebel factions attacked a village in Sulu, killing seven Marines and taking seven civilians captive. They later freed two of the hostages after a ransom was paid.[83] Also, several areas of Mindanao
Mindanao
were bombed in August by the government, and a Filipino businesswoman was abducted in September 2011,[84] who was later freed after the three gunmen were gunned down by the Armed Forces of the Philippines.[85] On 20 October 2011, the MILF was blamed for an attack on 40 government soldiers in the province of Basilan, which led to the deaths of 19 soldiers and six MILF fighters.[86] This violated the ceasefire agreement between the government and MILF, which caused outrage in the government and led to the continuation of the war against terrorism in the country. The Zamboanga City crisis
Zamboanga City crisis
erupted on 9 September 2013, when a MNLF faction known by other groups as the Rogue MNLF Elements (RME), under the Sulu
Sulu
State Revolutionary Command (SSRC), led by Ustadz Habier Malik and Khaid Ajibon attempted to raise the flag of the self-proclaimed Bangsamoro Republik
Bangsamoro Republik
at Zamboanga City
Zamboanga City
Hall (which had earlier declared its independence on 12 August 2013 in Talipao, Sulu), and took civilians hostage. This armed incursion was met by the Armed Forces of the Philippines
Philippines
(AFP) and the Philippine National Police (PNP), which sought to free the hostages and expel the MNLF from the city. The standoff degenerated into urban warfare, and had brought parts of the city under a standstill for days. On 28 September, the government declared the end of military operations in Zamboanga City after successfully defeating the MNLF and rescuing all the hostages. On 24 January 2014, the Philippines
Philippines
government chief negotiator Miriam Coronel Ferer and MILF chief negotiator Murad Ebrahim
Murad Ebrahim
signed a peace agreement in Kuala Lumpur. The agreement would pave the way for the creation of the new Muslim
Muslim
autonomous entity called "Bangsamoro" under a law to be approved by the Philippine Congress.[87] The government aims to set up the region by 2016. The agreement calls for Muslim self-rule in parts of the southern Philippines
Philippines
in exchange for a deactivation of rebel forces by the MILF. MILF forces would turn over their firearms to a third party to be selected by the MILF and the Philippine government. A regional police force would be established, and the Philippine military would reduce the presence of troops and help disband private armies in the area.[88] On March 27, 2014, the peace process concluded with the signing of the Comprehensive Agreement on the Bangsamoro between the Government of the Philippines and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front. The New York Times
The New York Times
claimed that the peace deal between the Philippines and MILF "seeks to bring prosperity to the restive south and weaken the appeal of the extremist groups", and linked the winding down of an American military counterterrorism operation to increased American military cooperation with the Philippines
Philippines
against China.[89] The New York Times hailed Mr Aquino's peace agreement as an "accomplishment" as it reported on Aquino raising the alarm on China in the South China Sea.[90] The New York Times
The New York Times
editorial board published an article siding with the Philippines
Philippines
against China in the South China Sea dispute and supporting the Philippines' actions against China.[91][92] The New York Times
The New York Times
editorial board endorsed aggressive American military action against China in the South China Sea.[93][94] On 23 July 2014, Abu Sayyaf
Abu Sayyaf
leader Isnilon Hapilon swore loyalty to Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi
Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi
in a video, along with the rest of the organization, giving ISIL a presence in the Philippines.[18][19] In September 2014, the group began kidnapping people to ransom, in the name of ISIL.[95] On 25 January 2015, the Philippine National Police's SAF conducted an operation to capture Abdul Basit Usman and Marwan in Mamasapano, Maguindanao. They were trapped between the MILF's 105th Base Command, the BIFF, and several armed groups. Forty four SAF members were killed, but they were able to eliminate Marwan. Alleged US involvement in the botched operation would likely be a setback for a so-called Asian "pivot" by the United States
United States
military.[96] In February 2015, the BIFF unsuccessfully fought for territory in the boundary of Maguindanao
Maguindanao
and North Cotabato
North Cotabato
provinces. Subsequently, the Philippine Army, along with the Philippine Marines, declared a state of all-out-war against the BIFF. MILF forces were pulled out to prevent them from falling victim to the fighting. Duterte (2016–present)[edit]

This article needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (October 2017)

The MILF and MNLF have expressed their commitment to peace and to finally ending the 47-year-old insurgency. Meanwhile, the offensive against Abu Sayyaf
Abu Sayyaf
and other splinter groups has continued, with skirmishes in Jolo, Basilan
Basilan
and other parts of Mindanao. A bombing at Davao City
Davao City
in September 2016 killed 15 people. Meanwhile, on May 23, 2017, the Maute group attacked Marawi, forcing President Rodrigo Duterte to declare Proclamation No. 216, putting the whole of Mindanao under the state of martial law, and suspension of the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus. The clashes continued until October 2017. See also[edit]

Discrimination portal War portal Terrorism portal Philippines
Philippines
portal

Communist insurgency in the Philippines Cross border attacks in Sabah History of the Philippines Moro people Moro Rebellion Peace process with the Bangsamoro in the Philippines Refugees of the Philippines Rohingya conflict South Thailand insurgency Spanish–Moro Wars Terrorism in the Philippines

References[edit]

^ "Defense.gov News Article: Trainers, Advisors Help Philippines
Philippines
Fight Terrorism". Archived from the original on July 14, 2015. Retrieved 29 June 2015.  ^ Philippines
Philippines
to be a key recipient of Australia's New Regional Counter-Terrorism Package – Australian Embassy (archived from the original Archived March 20, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. on 1 September 2007) ^ Wroe, David (22 June 2017). "RAAF spy planes to join fight against Islamic State in the Philippines". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 23 June 2017.  ^ a b Malcolm Cook (17 March 2014). "Peace's Best Chance in Muslim Mindanao" (PDF). Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 7. ISSN 2335-6677. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 18, 2015. Retrieved 15 September 2014.  ^ Anak Agung Banyu Perwita (2007). Indonesia
Indonesia
and the Muslim
Muslim
World: Islam
Islam
and Secularism in the Foreign Policy of Soeharto and Beyond. NIAS Press. pp. 116–117. ISBN 978-87-91114-92-2.  ^ " Nur Misuari
Nur Misuari
to be repatriated to stand trial". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 20 December 2001. Archived from the original on July 5, 2014. Retrieved 8 July 2014.  ^ Soliman M. Santos (2003). Malaysia's Role in the Peace Negotiations Between the Philippine Government and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front. Southeast Asian Conflict Studies Network. ISBN 978-983-2514-38-1.  ^ " Malaysia
Malaysia
asks PHL for help in tracking militants with Abu Sayyaf ties". GMA-News. 6 July 2014. Retrieved 8 July 2014.  ^ Ivan Molloy. "Revolution in the Philippines
Philippines
– The Question of an Alliance Between Islam
Islam
and Communism". University of California. Retrieved 1 May 2012.  ^ "Khadafy admits aiding Muslim
Muslim
seccesionists". Philippine Daily Inquirer. 5 August 1986. p. 2.  ^ Paul J. Smith (21 September 2004). Terrorism and Violence in Southeast Asia: Transnational Challenges to States and Regional Stability. M.E. Sharpe. pp. 194–. ISBN 978-0-7656-3626-3.  ^ William Larousse (1 January 2001). A Local Church Living for Dialogue: Muslim-Christian Relations in Mindanao-Sulu, Philippines : 1965-2000. Gregorian Biblical BookShop. pp. 151 & 162. ISBN 978-88-7652-879-8.  ^ Michelle Ann Miller (2012). Autonomy and Armed Separatism in South and Southeast Asia. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. pp. 291–. ISBN 978-981-4379-97-7.  ^ Moshe Yegar (2002). Between Integration and Secession: The Muslim Communities of the Southern Philippines, Southern Thailand, and Western Burma/Myanmar. Lexington Books. pp. 256–. ISBN 978-0-7391-0356-2.  ^ Tan, Andrew T/H. (2009). A Handbook of Terrorism and Insurgency
Insurgency
in Southeast Asia. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing. pp. 230, 238. ISBN 1847207189.  ^ Isak Svensson (27 November 2014). International Mediation Bias and Peacemaking: Taking Sides in Civil Wars. Routledge. pp. 69–. ISBN 978-1-135-10544-0.  ^ " Philippines
Philippines
rebel leader arrested". BBC News. 25 November 2001. Archived from the original on September 26, 2015. Retrieved 26 September 2015. Malaysia's Inspector-General of Police Norian Mai said Mr Misuari and six of his followers were arrested at 3.30 am on Saturday (1930 GMT Friday) on Jampiras island off Sabah
Sabah
state. Manila had ordered his arrest on charges of instigating a rebellion after the government suspended his governorship of an autonomous Muslim
Muslim
region in Mindanao, the ARMM. Although the Philippines
Philippines
has no extradition treaty with Malaysia, the authorities have already made clear that they intend to hand Mr Misuari over to the authorities in Manila as soon as possible. Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad had said before the arrest that, although his country had provided support to the rebel group in the past in its bid for autonomy, Mr Misuari had not used his powers correctly. "Therefore, we no longer feel responsible to provide him with any assistance," he said.  ^ a b c Maria A. Ressa. "Senior Abu Sayyaf
Abu Sayyaf
leader swears oath to ISIS". Rappler. Retrieved 8 March 2015.  ^ a b "ISIS Now Has Military Allies in 11 Countries". Daily Intelligencer. New York. Retrieved 25 November 2014.  ^ "Maute recruitment continues around Marawi - AFP". ABS-CBN Corporation. 15 December 2017. Retrieved 10 January 2018.  ^ "Islamic freedom fighters, Abu Sayyaf
Abu Sayyaf
next after Maute 'wipeout' — defense chief". The Manila Times. 24 October 2017. Retrieved 22 October 2017.  ^ "3 soldiers killed, 11 hurt in Lanao del Sur clash". philstar.com. Retrieved 2016-02-27.  ^ Umel, Richel. "Army reports killing 20 'terrorists' in clashes with Lanao Sur armed group". globalnation.inquirer.net. Retrieved 2016-02-27.  ^ Kristine Angeli Sabillo. "New al-Qaeda-inspired group eyed in Mindanao
Mindanao
blasts—terror expert". Retrieved 29 June 2015.  ^ Philippines
Philippines
arrests key militants - BBC.com ^ Cochrane, Joe (May 2006). "Ticking Time Bombs". Newsweek International. MSN. Archived from the original on 20 September 2006.  ^ Moshe Yegar (1 January 2002). Between Integration and Secession: The Muslim
Muslim
Communities of the Southern Philippines, Southern Thailand, and Western Burma/Myanmar. Lexington Books. pp. 258–. ISBN 978-0-7391-0356-2.  ^ Andrew Tian Huat Tan (1 January 2004). Security Perspectives of the Malay Archipelago: Security Linkages in the Second Front in the War on Terrorism. Edward Elgar. ISBN 978-1-84376-997-2.  ^ Shanti Nair (11 January 2013). Islam
Islam
in Malaysian Foreign Policy. Routledge. pp. 67–. ISBN 978-1-134-96099-6. Mustapha was directly implicated in the provision of training facilities for separatist Moro guerrillas as well harbouring Moro Muslim
Muslim
refugees in Sabah
Sabah
due to his ethnic connection.  ^ David Von Drehle (26 February 2015). "What Comes After the War on ISIS". TIME.com. Retrieved 29 June 2015.  ^ a b c Lisa Huang; Victor Musembi; Ljiljana Petronic (June 21, 2012). "The State- Moro Conflict
Moro Conflict
in the Philippines" (PDF). Carleton. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 29, 2015. Retrieved September 29, 2015.  ^ Gutierrez, Eric; Borras, Saturnino Jr (July 20, 2004). "Moro Conflict: Landlessness and Misdirected State Policies". East-West Center Washington – via Amazon.  ^ a b "The CenSEI Report (Vol. 2, No. 13, April 2-8, 2012)". Retrieved 26 January 2015.  ^ "Database - Uppsala Conflict Data Program
Uppsala Conflict Data Program
(UCDP) – Philippines". Uppsala Conflict Data Program. Retrieved 8 March 2015.  ^ Banlaoi 2012 Archived April 27, 2016, at the Wayback Machine., p. 24. ^ Bale, Jeffrey M. "The Abu Sayyaf
Abu Sayyaf
Group in its Philippine and International Contexts". pp. 4–8.  ^ Halstead, Murat (1898), "XI. The Administration of General Merrit", The Story of the Philippines
Philippines
and Our New Possessions, Including the Ladrones, Hawaii, Cuba and Porto Rico, pp. 110–112  ^ Hurley, Victor (1936). "Mindinao and Sulu
Sulu
in 1898". Swish of the Kris. New York: E.P. Dutton & Co. Archived from the original on July 12, 2008. Retrieved 2 December 2007.  ^ Tucker, Spencer (2009). The Encyclopedia of the Spanish-American and Philippine-American Wars: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. pp. 48–49. ISBN 978-1-85109-951-1.  ^ Kho, Madge. "The Bates Treaty". Philippine Update. Retrieved 26 June 2015.  ^ Luga p. 22. Archived April 13, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "A Brief History of America and the Moros 1899-1920".  ^ Ibrahim Alfian (Teuku.) (1987). Perang di Jalan Allah: Perang Aceh, 1873-1912. Pustaka Sinar Harapan. p. 130.  ^ "WOMEN AND CHILDREN KILLED IN MORO BATTLE". The New York Times. March 11, 1906. Retrieved 24 September 2013.  ^ Mark Twain, Weapons of Satire, pp. 168-178, Syracuse University Press, Syracuse, NY 1992 ^ Dphrepaulezz, Omar H. (5-6-2013). "The Right Sort of White Men": General Leonard Wood and the U.S. Army in the Southern Philippines, 1898-1906 (Doctoral Dissertations). p. 8. Retrieved 11 August 2015.  Check date values in: date= (help) ^ "BusinessWorld - Should there be a Moro nation?". Retrieved 29 June 2015.  ^ Hiromitsu Umehara; Germelino M. Bautista (2004). Communities at the Margins: Reflections on Social, Economic, and Environmental Change in the Philippines. Ateneo University Press. pp. 22–. ISBN 978-971-550-464-5.  ^ "Lone survivor recalls Jabidah Massacre". Philippine Daily Inquirer. 18 March 2008. Archived from the original on September 13, 2015. Retrieved 5 May 2012.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Fighting and talking: A Mindanao
Mindanao
conflict timeline". GMA News and Public Affairs. 27 October 2011. Retrieved 5 May 2012.  ^ "MNLF Official Website".  ^ “The evolution of Philippine Muslim
Muslim
insurgency” by Marco Garrido, Asia Times Online March 6, 2003, retrieved September 14, 2008 ^ "TAD TAD". YouTube. Retrieved 26 January 2015.  ^ "1,500 Moro massacre victims during Martial Law honored". MindaNews. Retrieved 29 September 2015.  ^ a b "Speech of Former President Estrada on the GRP-MORO Conflict". Human Development Network. 18 September 2008. Retrieved 2 May 2012.  ^ "ARMM history and organization". GMA News and Public Affairs. 11 August 2008. Retrieved 5 May 2012.  ^ "WHAT WENT BEFORE: Third Italian priest killed". Philippine Daily Inquirer. 18 October 2011. Retrieved 3 May 2012.  ^ "Italian priest shot dead in Mindanao". The Philippine Star. 18 October 2011. Retrieved 3 May 2012.  ^ a b "The fall of MILF's Camp Abubakar in Maguindanao
Maguindanao
10 years ago". 10 July 2010. Retrieved 5 May 2012.  ^ "Over 600 Muslim
Muslim
Rebels Surrender, Philippine Leader Says more to Follow". 5 October 2000. Retrieved 5 May 2012.  ^ Joel M. Sy Egco (26 May 2003). "Rizal Day suspect caught". Manila Standard Today. Archived from the original on October 12, 2007. Retrieved 15 February 2007.  ^ Benjamin Pulta; Miko Santos (30 December 2003). "Gov't seeks re-raffling of LRT bombing case". Sun.Star. Archived from the original on May 7, 2005. Retrieved 8 February 2007.  ^ a b " Philippines
Philippines
hostage search begins". BBC News. 27 May 2001. Retrieved 23 March 2010.  ^ " Abu Sayyaf
Abu Sayyaf
kidnappings, bombings and other attacks". GMA News. 23 August 2007. Retrieved 22 March 2010.  ^ " Philippines
Philippines
hostage crisis deepens". BBC News. 2 June 2001. Retrieved 23 March 2010.  ^ a b " Abu Sayyaf
Abu Sayyaf
bandits kill two hostages, escape military siege". CDNN. 4 June 2001. Archived from the original on May 16, 2008. Retrieved 23 March 2010.  ^ a b " Philippines
Philippines
offer averts beheading". BBC News. 11 June 2001. Retrieved 23 March 2010.  ^ a b "Hostages rescued in the Philippines". BBC News. 5 August 2002. Retrieved 23 March 2010.  ^ "Balobo Killings in Basilan
Basilan
Province, August 2, 2001". Human Rights Watch. July 2007. Retrieved 23 March 2010.  ^ " Philippines
Philippines
bodies identified". BBC News. 13 June 2001. Retrieved 23 March 2010.  ^ a b c "US hostage confirmed dead". BBC News. 12 October 2001. Retrieved 23 March 2010.  ^ "Hostages die in Philippine rescue bid". BBC News. 7 June 2002. Retrieved 23 March 2010.  ^ " Philippines
Philippines
Brace for Retaliation". Associated Press. 7 June 2002. Archived from the original on May 9, 2010. Retrieved 23 March 2010.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on September 15, 2012. Retrieved March 27, 2014.  ^ Huma Yusuf (11 August 2008). "Clashes with Muslim
Muslim
rebels in Philippines
Philippines
displace thousands". The Christian Science Monitor. Archived from the original on December 24, 2008. Retrieved 8 March 2015.  ^ "10 MILF rebels killed in Freedom Day clashes". Zambotimes. 14 June 2009. Retrieved 8 May 2012.  ^ "Philippines- Mindanao
Mindanao
conflict – At a Glance". AlertNet. Retrieved 6 May 2012.  ^ Pareño, Roel. "MNLF overruns 2 Abu Sayyaf
Abu Sayyaf
camps". The Philippine Star.  ^ "Government Forces Arrest Suspected Abu Sayyaf
Abu Sayyaf
Hardcore Man". Sun.Star. 10 September 2011.  ^ "Filipino Troops kill 3 Gunmen Allied to Abu Sayyaf". Associated Press. 11 September 2011. [dead link] ^ "Five killed by suspected Abu Sayyaf
Abu Sayyaf
bandits in Basilan". Manila Bulletin. 12 January 2011. Archived from the original on September 15, 2012. Retrieved 8 May 2012.  ^ "One Soldier killed in Basilan
Basilan
clash". Philippine Star. Retrieved 7 May 2014.  ^ "2 kidnapped traders freed in Philippines". The Mindanao
Mindanao
Examiner. 28 August 2011.  ^ "Gunmen Abduct Filipino Businesswoman in Southern Philippines, Officials Say". Star Tribune. 4 September 2011.  ^ "Philippine Troops Kill 3 Militants, Rescue Trader". newsrt.us. Associated Press. 19 September 2011.  External link in publisher= (help) ^ "19 Soldiers slain in Basilan". Inquirer.net. 20 October 2011.  ^ "Philippines' Aquino asks Congress to enact Muslim
Muslim
autonomy law". The Rakyat Post. Kuala Lumpur. Reuters. 10 September 2014. Archived from the original on September 15, 2014.  ^ "Philippine peace breakthrough". Bangkok Post. 25 January 2014.  ^ WHALEY, FLOYD; SCHMITT, ERIC (26 June 2014). "U.S. Phasing Out Its Counterterrorism Unit in Philippines". The New York Times.  ^ Bradsher, KEITH (5 February 2014). "Philippine Leader Sounds Alarm on China". The New York Times.  ^ THE EDITORIAL BOARD (17 July 2015). "The South China Sea, in Court". The New York Times.  ^ THE EDITORIAL BOARD (2 April 2014). "Risky Games in the South China Sea". The New York Times.  ^ THE EDITORIAL BOARD (29 May 2015). "Pushback in the South China Sea". The New York Times.  ^ THE EDITORIAL BOARD (12 July 2014). "Still at Odds With China". The New York Times.  ^ Philip Oltermann (24 September 2014). "Islamists in Philippines threaten to kill German hostages". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 8 March 2015.  ^ Cloud, David S.; Leon, Sunshine de (10 September 2015). "A heavy price paid for botched terrorist raid by Philippines
Philippines
and U.S." Los Angeles Times. 

Salah Jubair (1999). Bangsamoro, a Nation Under Endless Tyranny. IQ Marin.  Kadir Che Man (W.) (1990). Muslim
Muslim
Separatism: The Moros of Southern Philippines
Philippines
and the Malays of Southern Thailand. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-588924-6.  Bobby M. Tuazon (2008). The Moro reader: history and contemporary struggles of the Bangsamoro people. Policy Study Publication and Advocacy, Center for People Empowerment in Governance in partnership with Light a Candle Movement for Social Change. ISBN 978-971-93651-6-7. 

External links[edit]

Moro National Liberation Front Moro Islamic Liberation Front Bangsamoro.com Bangsamoro Online Moro Herald Bangsamoro News, History, Tradition, Politics, and Social Commentary Moro Bloggers

v t e

Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos

10th President of the Philippines
Philippines
and 10th First Lady of the Philippines

Family

Josefa Edralin & Mariano Marcos
Mariano Marcos
and Remedios Trinidad & Vicente Lopez-Romualdez (parents) Imee, Bongbong, Irene & Aimee (children) Pacifico Marcos, Pio Marcos and Quirino Lizardo (relatives)

Education

University of the Philippines
Philippines
& U.P. College of Law (Ferdinand) Divine Word University of Tacloban
Divine Word University of Tacloban
& University of Santo Tomas (Imelda)

Political career

Pi Gamma Mu Nacionalista Party 2nd district of Ilocos Norte (1949–1959) President of the Senate of the Philippines Kilusang Bagong Lipunan

Presidency (1965–1986)

Vietnam War Moro conflict

Sabah
Sabah
claim Operation Merdeka and Jabidah massacre Establishment of the MNLF Manili massacre 1976 Tripoli Agreement

Communist Party of the Philippines

New People's Army CPP-NPA-NDF rebellion

First Quarter Storm Plaza Miranda bombing Proclamation No. 1081 Conjugal dictatorship Rolex 12 1973 constitution Miss Universe 1974 Green Revolution Thrilla in Manila Assassination of Ninoy Aquino Binondo Central Bank NAMFREL People Power Revolution

Post-presidency

1st district of Leyte (1995–1998) Here Lies Love Operation Big Bird Marcos scandals Burial

Elections

1949 1963 1965 1967 1969 1970 1971 1973 (Jan) 1973 (Jul) 1975 (KB) 1975 (SB) 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 (SP) 1980 (KB) 1981 (Apr) 1981 (Jun) 1982 (B) 1984 parliamentary 1984 plebiscite 1986 1992 1995 1998 2010 2013 2016

Contributions

Bataan Nuclear Power Plant Batasang Pambansa Coconut Palace Cultural Center of the Philippines Project Gintong Alay Heart Center Lung Center Manila Film Center Masjid Al-Dahab North Luzon
Luzon
Expressway Palace in the Sky Philippine International Convention Center

Predecessor: Diosdado Macapagal, 9th President of the Philippines Successor: Corazon Aquino, 11th President of the Philippines

v t e

Moro conflict
Moro conflict
history, incidents and peace process

Background

Drug abuse Gun cultures Poverty Ethnic issues

Rido

Piracy

Factions

Moro

Moro National Liberation Front
Moro National Liberation Front
(MNLF) Moro Islamic Liberation Front
Moro Islamic Liberation Front
(MILF)1

Jihadists

Abu Sayyaf
Abu Sayyaf
(ASG) Ansar Khalifa Philippines
Philippines
(AKP)1 Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters (BIFF)1 Khalifa Islamiyah Mindanao
Mindanao
(KIM)1 Maute group (MG)1

Other (self-intention)

Moro Pirates
Moro Pirates
(MP) Sulu
Sulu
Sultanate under Jamalul Kiram III2

Notable incidents

Philippines

1974 Battle of Jolo Patikul
Patikul
massacre Pata Island massacre North Cotabato
North Cotabato
conflict 1995 Ipil massacre 2000 Philippine campaign against the Moro Islamic Liberation Front Battle of Camp Abubakar Rizal Day bombings Dos Palmas kidnappings Siege of Lamitan 2001 Misuari rebellion 2002 Zamboanga City
Zamboanga City
bombings 2004 SuperFerry 14 bombing 2006 Central Mindanao
Mindanao
bombings 2007 Basilan
Basilan
beheading incident 2009 Mindanao
Mindanao
bombings Maguindanao
Maguindanao
massacre Zamboanga City
Zamboanga City
crisis Battle of Basilan 2014 Bukidnon bus bombing 2015 Mamasapano clash 2016 Battle of Basilan 2016 Davao City
Davao City
bombing 2016 Butig clashes

February November

2017 Bohol clashes Battle of Marawi

Malaysia

1985 Lahad Datu ambush 2000 Sipadan kidnappings 2013 Lahad Datu standoff

Peace process

1976 Tripoli Agreement
1976 Tripoli Agreement
(MNLF) 1987 Jeddah Accord
Jeddah Accord
(MNLF) 1996 Final Peace Agreement (MNLF) 2012 Framework Agreement on the Bangsamoro
Framework Agreement on the Bangsamoro
(MILF) 2014 Comprehensive Agreement on the Bangsamoro
Comprehensive Agreement on the Bangsamoro
(MILF) Bangsamoro peace process

Designated security zones and peace monitoring

Philippines

AFP Western Mindanao
Mindanao
Command (WestMinCom) AFP Eastern Mindanao
Mindanao
Command (EastMinCom)

Malaysia

Eastern Sabah
Sabah
Security Command (ESSCOM) Eastern Sabah
Sabah
Security Zone (ESSZONE)

International

International Monitoring Team (IMT)

Consequences

Refugees of the Philippines Proclamation No. 216

1 Committed only against the Philippines. 2 Committed only against Malaysia.

v t e

Moro conflict

Causes of rebellion

Jabidah massacre
Jabidah massacre
(1968) Manili massacre
Manili massacre
(1971) Tacub massacre
Tacub massacre
(1971) Malisbong massacre
Malisbong massacre
(1974)

Rebel groups

Pro-autonomy or independence

Moro National Liberation Front
Moro National Liberation Front
(MNLF) Moro Islamic Liberation Front
Moro Islamic Liberation Front
(MILF)

Islamists

Abu Sayyaf
Abu Sayyaf
(ASG) Ansar Khalifa Philippines
Philippines
(AKP) Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters (BIFF) Khalifa Islamiyah Mindanao
Mindanao
(KIM) Maute group (MG)

Leaders

Pro-autonomy or independence

Nur Misuari
Nur Misuari
(MNLF) Mus Sema (MNLF) Murad Ebrahim
Murad Ebrahim
(MILF)

Islamists

Isnilon Hapilon (ASG) Khadaffy Janjalani
Khadaffy Janjalani
(ASG) Ameril Umbra Kato (BIFF) Albader Parad (ASG) Abu Sabaya (ASG) Radullan Sahiron
Radullan Sahiron
(ASG) Jainal Antel Sali, Jr.
Jainal Antel Sali, Jr.
(ASG) Ahmed Santos (RSM) Hamsiraji Marusi Sali (ASG) Omar Maute
Omar Maute
(MG) Abdullah Maute
Abdullah Maute
(MG)

Battles

Battle of Jolo
Jolo
(1974) Patikul
Patikul
massacre (1977) Pata Island massacre
Pata Island massacre
(1981) Ipil massacre (1995) North Cotabato conflict (1996) Philippine campaign against the Moro Islamic Liberation Front
Moro Islamic Liberation Front
and the Battle of Camp Abubakar
Battle of Camp Abubakar
(2000) Misuari rebellion (2001) Operation Enduring Freedom
Operation Enduring Freedom
- Philippines
Philippines
(2002-2015) Basilan
Basilan
beheading incident (2007) Zamboanga City crisis
Zamboanga City crisis
(2013) Operation Darkhorse (2014) Battle of Basilan
Basilan
(2014) Mamasapano clash
Mamasapano clash
(2015) Battle of Basilan
Basilan
(2016) Butig clashes

February November 2016

Bohol clashes (2017) Battle of Marawi
Battle of Marawi
(2017)

Incidents involving civilians

Rizal Day bombings
Rizal Day bombings
(2000) Dos Palmas kidnappings
Dos Palmas kidnappings
(2000-2001) Siege of Lamitan
Lamitan
(2001) Zamboanga City
Zamboanga City
bombings (2002) SuperFerry 14 bombing (2004) Central Mindanao
Mindanao
bombings (2006) Mindanao
Mindanao
bombings (2009) Bukidnon bus bombing (2014) Davao City
Davao City
bombing (2016)

Peace process

1976 Tripoli Agreement
1976 Tripoli Agreement
(MNLF) 1987 Jeddah Accord
Jeddah Accord
(MNLF) 1996 Final Peace Agreement (MNLF) 2012 Framework Agreement on the Bangsamoro
Framework Agreement on the Bangsamoro
(MILF) 2014 Comprehensive Agreement on the Bangsamoro
Comprehensive Agreement on the Bangsamoro
(MILF) Bangsamoro peace process

Related articles

Autonomous Region of Muslim
Muslim
Mindanao Bangsamoro Basic Law Bangsamoro political entity Bangsamoro Republik Ilaga International Monitoring Team (IMT) Moro people Proclamation No. 216 Refugees

Links to related articles

v t e

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(2008–11) Other Indonesian conflicts

Papua conflict
Papua conflict
(1969–present) Aceh insurgency (1976–2005)

Myanmar internal conflict (1948–present)

Karen conflict Kachin (2011–present)

Civil conflict in the Philippines

CPP–NPA–NDF Moro

Al-Ma'unah
Al-Ma'unah
(2000-2001) Kampung Medan riots (2001) South Thailand insurgency
South Thailand insurgency
(2004–present)

Central Asia

Tajikistani Civil War
Tajikistani Civil War
(1992–97) Kyrgyz Revolution (2010) South Kyrgyzstan ethnic clashes (2010) Tajikistan Insurgency
Insurgency
(2010–12)

Western Asia (excluding South Caucasus)

Iraqi conflicts

Iraqi–Kurdish (1918–2003)

Civil War (1994–97)

Kurdistan Islamist conflict
Kurdistan Islamist conflict
(2001–03) War (2003–11) Post-War insurgency (2011–13) Civil War (2014–present)

Conflicts with Israel

Israeli–Palestinian (1948–present)

Intifada (2000–05) Gaza–Israel (2006–present)

Israeli–Lebanese (1948–present)

South Lebanon (1985–2000) Lebanon War (2006)

Yemeni conflicts

Yemeni Civil War (1994) al-Qaeda (1998–2015) Houthi (2004–15) South Yemen (2009–15) Yemeni Crisis (2011–present)

Coup d'état (2014–15) Civil War (2015–present)

Civil conflict in Turkey

Political violence (1976–80) Maoist insurgency DHKP/C insurgency PKK conflict Turkey–ISIL conflict

Others

Kurdish separatism in Iran

KDPI insurgency (1989–96) Iran–PJAK conflict
Iran–PJAK conflict
(2004–present)

Sinai insurgency
Sinai insurgency
(2011–present) Bahraini uprising (2011) Syrian Civil War
Syrian Civil War
(2011–present)

Regional spillover

Related topics

War on Terror
War on Terror
(2001–present) Arab Spring
Arab Spring
(2010–11)

Arab Winter

Colour revolutions

European conflicts African conflicts Conflicts in the Americas

v t e

War on Terror

War in Afghanistan Iraq
Iraq
War War in North-West Pakistan Symbolism of terrorism

Participants

Operational

ISAF Operation Enduring Freedom
Operation Enduring Freedom
participants Afghanistan Northern Alliance Iraq
Iraq
(Iraqi Armed Forces) NATO Pakistan United Kingdom United States European Union Philippines Ethiopia

Targets

al-Qaeda Osama bin Laden al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula Abu Sayyaf Anwar al-Awlaki Al-Shabaab Boko Haram Harkat-ul- Jihad
Jihad
al-Islami Hizbul Mujahideen Islamic Courts Union Islamic State of Iraq
Iraq
and the Levant Jaish-e-Mohammed Jemaah Islamiyah Lashkar-e-Taiba Taliban Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan

Conflicts

Operation Enduring Freedom

War in Afghanistan OEF – Philippines Georgia Train and Equip Program Georgia Sustainment and Stability OEF – Horn of Africa OEF – Trans Sahara Drone strikes in Pakistan

Other

Operation Active Endeavour Insurgency
Insurgency
in the Maghreb (2002–present) Insurgency
Insurgency
in the North Caucasus Moro conflict
Moro conflict
in the Philippines Iraq
Iraq
War Iraqi insurgency Operation Linda Nchi Terrorism in Saudi Arabia War in North-West Pakistan War in Somalia (2006–09) 2007 Lebanon conflict al-Qaeda insurgency in Yemen Korean conflict

See also

Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse Axis of evil Black sites Bush Doctrine Clash of Civilizations Cold War Combatant Status Review Tribunal Criticism of the War on Terror Death of Osama bin Laden Enhanced interrogation techniques Torture Memos Extrajudicial prisoners Extraordinary rendition Guantanamo Bay detention camp Iranian Revolution Islamic terrorism Islamism Military Commissions Act of 2006 North Korea and weapons of mass destruction Terrorist Surveillance Program Operation Noble Eagle Operation Eagle Assist Pakistan's role Patriot Act President's Surveillance Program Protect America Act of 2007 September 11 attacks State Sponsors of Terrorism Targeted killing Targeted Killing in International Law Targeted Killings: Law and Morality in an Asymmetrical World Unitary executive theory Unlawful combatant Withdrawal of U.S. troops from Afghanistan CAGE

Terrorism portal War portal

v t e

Militant Islamism
Islamism
in Southeast Asia

Ideology

Islamism Jihadism

Salafi jihadism

Pan-Islamism

Phenomena

Islamic extremism Islamic fundamentalism Islamic terrorism

Organisations

Abu Sayyaf Ansar Khalifa Philippines Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters Barisan Revolusi Nasional Darul Islam Indonesian Mujahedeen Council Islamic Liberation Front of Patani Jamaah Ansharusy Syariah Jemaah Islamiyah Jamaah Ansharut Tauhid Khalifa Islamiyah Mindanao Kumpulan Mujahidin Malaysia Laskar Jihad Maute group Moro Islamic Liberation Front Mujahedeen KOMPAK Mujahidin Indonesia
Indonesia
Timur Patani United Liberation Organisation Pattani Islamic Mujahideen Movement Runda Kumpulan Kecil United Mujahideen Front of Pattani

Leaders

Abdullah Sungkar Abu Bakar Bashir Abu Sabaya Abdurajik Abubakar Janjalani Ataullah abu Ammar Jununi Azahari Husin Dulmatin Khadaffy Janjalani Mahmud Ahmad Murad Ebrahim Noordin Mohammad Top Nur Misuari Sekarmadji Maridjan Kartosoewirjo Zulkifli Abdhir

Events

South Thailand insurgency

Timeline of events related to the South Thailand insurgency

Islamic insurgency in the Philippines Cross border attacks in Sabah 1985 Borobudur bombing Christmas Eve 2000 Indonesia
Indonesia
bombings 2000 Sipadan kidnappings 2000 Philippine consulate bombing Rizal Day bombings Dos Palmas kidnappings Singapore embassies attack plot 2002 Bali bombings 2003 Marriott Hotel bombing 2004 Palopo cafe bombing 2004 SuperFerry 14 bombing 2004 Australian Embassy bombing in Jakarta 2005 Tentena market bombings 2005 Bali bombings 2005 Indonesian beheadings of Christian girls 2005 Palu market bombing 2007 Basilan
Basilan
beheading incident 2009 Jakarta bombings Mamasapano clash 2016 Jakarta attacks 2016 Movida Bar grenade attack 2016 Davao City
Davao City
bombing 2016 Samarinda church bombing 2017 Jakarta bombings

Part of Islamism Militant Islamism
Islamism
in

MENA region South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa

v t e

Islamism

Outline

Islamism Qutbism Salafism

Salafi jihadism

Shia Islamism

Concepts

Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists Islamic democracy Islamic socialism Islamic state

Islamic monarchy Islamic republic

Islamistan Islamization

of knowledge

Pan-Islamism Post-Islamism Sharia Shura Turkish model Two-nation theory Ummah

Movements

Socio- political

Deobandi Hizb ut-Tahrir

in Britain in Central Asia

Islamic Defenders Front Jamaat-e-Islami Millî Görüş Muslim
Muslim
Brotherhood

in Egypt in Syria

Political Party

Freedom and Justice Party Green Algeria Alliance Hadas Hezbollah Islamic Salvation Front Jamaat-e-Islami
Jamaat-e-Islami
Pakistan Jamiat-e Islami Justice and Construction Party Justice and Development Party (Morocco) National Congress National Iraqi Alliance Malaysian Islamic Party Prosperous Justice Party Al Wefaq Welfare Party

Related

Ennahda Movement Gülen movement Islamic Modernism Justice and Development Party (Turkey)

Theorists and political leaders

Muhammad Abduh Jamāl al-Dīn al-Afghānī Qazi Hussain Ahmad Muhammad Asad Hasan al-Banna Necmettin Erbakan Muammar Gaddafi Rached Ghannouchi Safwat Hegazi Muhammad Iqbal Alija Izetbegović Ali Khamenei Ruhollah Khomeini Abul Ala Maududi Taqi al-Din al-Nabhani Yusuf al-Qaradawi Sayyid Qutb Tariq Ramadan Ata Abu Rashta Rashid Rida Navvab Safavi Ali Shariati Haji Shariatullah Hassan al-Turabi Ahmad Yassin Zia-ul-Haq

Salafi movement

Movements

Scholastic

Ahl-i Hadith Madkhalism Sahwa movement Wahhabism

Political

Al Asalah Authenticity Party Al-Islah Al-Nour Party

Islamist Bloc

People Party Young Kashgar Party

Major figures

Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab Nasiruddin Albani Abd al-Aziz ibn Baz Muqbil bin Hadi al-Wadi'i Safar al-Hawali Rabee al-Madkhali Muhammad Al-Munajjid Zakir Naik Salman al-Ouda Ali al-Tamimi Ibn al Uthaymeen

Related

International propagation of Salafism and Wahhabism Islamic religious police Petro-Islam Sufi-Salafi relations

Militant Islamism/Jihadism

Ideology

Qutbism Salafi jihadism

Movements

Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan Militant Islamism
Islamism
based in

MENA region

Egyptian Islamic Jihad Fatah al-Islam Hamas Islamic State of Iraq
Iraq
and the Levant

South Asia

Lashkar-e-Taiba Taliban

Southeast Asia

Abu Sayyaf

Sub-Saharan Africa

Boko Haram al-Shabaab

al-Qaeda

in the Arabian Peninsula in Iraq in North Africa

Major figures

Anwar al-Awlaki Abdullah Yusuf Azzam Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi Osama bin Laden Mohammed Omar Juhayman al-Otaybi Omar Abdel-Rahman Ayman al-Zawahiri

Related

Islamic extremism Islamic terrorism Jihad Slavery Talibanization Worldwide Caliphate

Texts

Reconstruction (Iqbal, 1930s) Forty Hadith (Khomeini, 1940) Principles (Asad, 1961) Milestones (Qutb, 1964) Islamic Government (Khomeini, 1970) Islamic Declaration (Izetbegović, 1969-1970) The Green Book
Book
(Gaddafi, 1975)

Historical events

Zia-ul-Haq's Islamization Iranian Revolution Grand Mosque seizure Soviet invasion of Afghanistan Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam Popular Arab and Islamic Congress Algerian Civil War September 11 attacks War on Terror Arab Spring Arab Winter

Influences

Anti-imperialism Anti-Zionism Islamic response to modernity Islamic revival Modern Islamic philosophy

by region

Balkans Gaza Strip United Kingdom

Related topics

Criticism

Ed Husain

Political aspects of Islam Political Islam

Islamism
Islamism
in

South

.