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A chronicle (Latin: chronica, from Greek χρονικά, from χρόνος, chronos, "time") is a historical account of facts and events ranged in chronological order, as in a time line. Typically, equal weight is given for historically important events and local events, the purpose being the recording of events that occurred, seen from the perspective of the chronicler. This is in contrast to a narrative or history, which sets selected events in a meaningful interpretive context and excludes those the author does not see as important. Where a chronicler obtained the information varies; some chronicles are written from first-hand knowledge, some are from witnesses or participants in events, still others are accounts passed mouth to mouth prior to being written down.[1] Some used written material: Charters, letters, or the works of earlier chroniclers.[1] Still others are tales of such unknown origins so as to hold mythical status.[1] Copyists also affected chronicles in creative copying, making corrections or in updating or continuing a chronicle with information not available to the original author(s).[1] The reliability of a particular chronicle is an important determination for modern historians.[1] In modern times various contemporary newspapers or other periodicals have adopted "chronicle" as part of their name. Various fictional stories have also adopted "chronicle" as part of their title, to give an impression of epic proportion to their stories. A chronicle which traces world history is called a universal chronicle.

Contents

1 Subgroups 2 English chronicles 3 Alphabetical list of notable chronicles 4 See also 5 References

Subgroups[edit] Scholars categorize the genre of chronicle into two subgroups: live chronicles, and dead chronicles. A dead chronicle is one where the author gathers his list of events up to the time of his writing, but does not record further events as they occur. A live chronicle is where one or more authors add to a chronicle in a regular fashion, recording contemporary events shortly after they occur. Because of the immediacy of the information, historians tend to value live chronicles, such as annals, over dead ones. The term often refers to a book written by a chronicler in the Middle Ages describing historical events in a country, or the lives of a nobleman or a clergyman, although it is also applied to a record of public events. The earliest medieval chronicle to combine both retrospective (dead) and contemporary (live) entries, is the Chronicle of Ireland, which spans the years 431 to 911.[2] Chronicles are the predecessors of modern "time lines" rather than analytical histories. They represent accounts, in prose or verse, of local or distant events over a considerable period of time, both the lifetime of the individual chronicler and often those of several subsequent continuators. If the chronicles deal with events year by year, they are often called annals. Unlike the modern historian, most chroniclers tended to take their information as they found it, and made little attempt to separate fact from legend. The point of view of most chroniclers is highly localised, to the extent that many anonymous chroniclers can be sited in individual abbeys. It is impossible to say how many chronicles exist, as the many ambiguities in the definition of the genre make it impossible to draw clear distinctions of what should or should not be included. However, the Encyclopedia of the Medieval Chronicle
Encyclopedia of the Medieval Chronicle
lists some 2,500 items written between 300 and 1500 AD. English chronicles[edit] The most important English chronicles are the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, started under the patronage of King Alfred in the 9th century and continued until the 12th century, and the Chronicles of England, Scotland
Scotland
and Ireland (1577–87) by Raphael Holinshed
Raphael Holinshed
and other writers; the latter documents were important sources of materials for Elizabethan drama.[3] Later 16th century Scottish chronicles, written after the Reformation, shape history according to Catholic or Protestant viewpoints.

Alphabetical list of notable chronicles[edit] This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
— England Annales Bertiniani – West Francia Annales Cambriae
Annales Cambriae
– Wales Annales seu cronicae incliti Regni Poloniae – Poland Annals
Annals
of Inisfallen — Ireland Annals
Annals
of Lough Cé – Ireland Annals
Annals
of the Four Masters — Ireland Annals
Annals
of Spring and Autumn — China Babylonian Chronicles
Babylonian Chronicles
— Mesopotamia Anonymous Bulgarian Chronicle — Bulgaria Bodhi Vamsa
Bodhi Vamsa
— Sri Lanka Buranji — Ahoms, Assam, India Cāmadevivaṃsa — a Northern Thai Chronicle Culavamsa
Culavamsa
— Sri Lanka (Chronica Polonorum): see Gesta principum Polonorum Cheitharol Kumbaba (kumpapa) – Manipur, India Chronica Gentis Scotorum Chronica seu originale regum et principum Poloniae
Chronica seu originale regum et principum Poloniae
– Poland Chronicon of Eusebius Chronicon Scotorum – Ireland Chronicon of Thietmar of Merseburg Chronicle of Finland (Chronicon Finlandiae) by Johannes Messenius
Johannes Messenius
– Finland Dioclean Priest's Chronicle — Europe Chronicle of the Slavs — Europe Chronicle of Greater Poland – Poland Chronicle (Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh) Chronica Hungarorum
Chronica Hungarorum
History
History
of Hungary Chronicle of Jean de Venette – France Chronicle of the Bishops of England (De Gestis Pontificum Anglorum) by William of Malmesbury Chronicle of the Kings of England (De Gestis Regum Anglorum) by William of Malmesbury Chronographia – 11th century History
History
of the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantium) by Michael Psellos Comentarios Reales de los Incas Conversion of Kartli — Georgia Cronaca fiorentina
Cronaca fiorentina
Chronicle of Florence
Florence
up to the end of the 14th Century
Century
by Baldassarre Bonaiuti Cronicae et gesta ducum sive principum Polonorum
Cronicae et gesta ducum sive principum Polonorum
– Poland Croyland Chronicle
Croyland Chronicle
— England Dawn-Breakers (Nabil's Narrative) — Bahá'í Faith
Bahá'í Faith
and Middle East Dipavamsa
Dipavamsa
— Sri Lanka Divan of the Abkhazian Kings
Divan of the Abkhazian Kings
— Georgia Eric Chronicles — Sweden Eusebius Chronicle — Mediterranean and Middle East Fragmentary Annals
Annals
of Ireland – Ireland Froissart's Chronicles
Froissart's Chronicles
— France and Western Europe Galician-Volhynian Chronicle — Ukraine Georgian Chronicles
Georgian Chronicles
— Georgia Gesta Normannorum Ducum
Gesta Normannorum Ducum
— Normandy Gesta principum Polonorum Grandes Chroniques de France
Grandes Chroniques de France
— France Henry of Livona Chronicle — Eastern Europe Historia Ecclesiastica — Norman England The Historie and Chronicles of Scotland, Robert Lindsay of Pitscottie History of the Prophets and Kings Middle East
Middle East
and Mediterranean Hustyn Chronicle – Eastern Europe Jans der Enikel
Jans der Enikel
— Europe and Mediterranean Jinakalamali – Northern Thailand Joannis de Czarnkow chronicon Polonorum – Poland Jerome's Chronicle — Mediterranean and Middle East Kaiserchronik
Kaiserchronik
-Central and southern Europe, Germany Kano Chronicle — Nigeria Lethrense Chronicle — Denmark Madala Panji
Madala Panji
Chronicle of the Jagannath Temple in Puri, India, related to the History
History
of Odisha Mahavamsa
Mahavamsa
— Sri Lanka Manx Chronicle
Manx Chronicle
– Isle of Man Nabonidus Chronicle
Nabonidus Chronicle
— Mesopotamia Nuova Cronica
Nuova Cronica
— Florence Paschale Chronicle — Mediterranean Primary Chronicle
Primary Chronicle
— Eastern Europe Puranas
Puranas
— India Rajatarangini
Rajatarangini
— Kashmir Roit and Quheil of Tyme -Scotland, Adam Abell Roskildense Chronicle — Denmark Royal Frankish Annals
Annals
— Frankish Empire Scotichronicon
Scotichronicon
– by the Scottish historian Walter Bower Skibby Chronicle – Danish Latin chronicle from the 1530s Swiss illustrated chronicles
Swiss illustrated chronicles
— Switzerland Zizhi Tongjian
Zizhi Tongjian
— China

See also[edit]

Books of Chronicles Chronicles of Nepal List of English chronicles Medieval Chronicle Society

References[edit]

^ a b c d e Elisabeth M. C. Van Houts, Memory and Gender in Medieval Europe: 900–1200 (Toronto ; Buffalo : University of Toronto Press, 1999), pp. 19–20 ^ Roy Flechner, '"The Chronicle of Ireland: Then and Now" Early Medieval Europe v.21:4(2013)422-54 Article ^ 'A Glossary of Literary Terms' – M.H. Abrams

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