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Montserrat
Montserrat
(/mɒntsəˈræt/) is a Caribbean
Caribbean
island in the Leeward Islands, which is part of the chain known as the Lesser Antilles, in the former British West Indies. It is a British Overseas Territory (BOT). Montserrat
Montserrat
measures approximately 16 km (10 mi) in length and 11 km (7 mi) in width, with approximately 40 km (25 mi) of coastline.[2] Montserrat
Montserrat
is nicknamed "The Emerald Isle of the Caribbean" both for its resemblance to coastal Ireland
Ireland
and for the Irish ancestry
Irish ancestry
of many of its inhabitants.[3][4] On 18 July 1995, the previously dormant Soufrière Hills
Soufrière Hills
volcano, in the southern part of the island, became active. Eruptions destroyed Montserrat's Georgian era
Georgian era
capital city of Plymouth. Between 1995 and 2000, two-thirds of the island's population was forced to flee, primarily to the United Kingdom, leaving fewer than 1,200 people on the island as of 1997 (rising to nearly 5,000 by 2016).[5][6] The volcanic activity continues, mostly affecting the vicinity of Plymouth, including its docking facilities, and the eastern side of the island around the former W. H. Bramble Airport, the remnants of which were buried by flows from volcanic activity on 11 February 2010. An exclusion zone that extends from the south coast of the island north to parts of the Belham Valley was imposed because of the size of the existing volcanic dome and the resulting potential for pyroclastic activity. Visitors are generally not permitted entry into the exclusion zone, but a view of the destruction of Plymouth can be seen from the top of Garibaldi Hill in Isles Bay. Relatively quiet since early 2010, the volcano continues to be closely monitored by the Montserrat
Montserrat
Volcano
Volcano
Observatory.[7][8] A new town and port are being developed at Little Bay, which is on the northwest coast of the island. While this construction proceeds, the centre of government and businesses is at Brades.[9]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 18th century 2.2 Irish language
Irish language
in Montserrat 2.3 New crops and politics

3 Politics and government 4 Communications 5 Geography

5.1 Volcano
Volcano
and exclusion zone 5.2 Wildlife

6 Economy 7 Demographics

7.1 Ethnic groups

8 Education 9 Culture

9.1 Media 9.2 Cuisine 9.3 Yachting

10 Sports

10.1 Athletics 10.2 Basketball 10.3 Cricket 10.4 Football 10.5 Surfing

11 Parishes 12 Settlements

12.1 Settlements in the safe zone 12.2 Abandoned settlements in the exclusion zone

13 Notable Montserratians 14 See also 15 References 16 External links

Etymology[edit] In 1493, Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
named the island Santa María de Montserrate, after the Virgin of Montserrat
Virgin of Montserrat
in the Monastery of Montserrat, on Montserrat
Montserrat
mountain, near Barcelona
Barcelona
in Catalonia, Spain.[10] "Montserrat" means "serrated mountain" in Catalan.

False-color time-lapse images of the Soufrière Hills
Soufrière Hills
volcanic dome collapse in 2010, from NASA

Plymouth City and volcano

Eruption of the Soufrière Hills
Soufrière Hills
volcano on 22 September 1997

History[edit]

A view of half of the coastline of Little Bay, and a glimpse of Carrs Bay, taken from partway up the headland between Little Bay and Rendezvous Bay, 2012

Archaeological field work in 2012, in Montserrat's Centre Hills indicated there was an Archaic (pre-Arawak) occupation between 4000 and 2500 BP.[11] Later coastal sites show the presence of the Saladoid culture.[12] In November 1493, Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
passed Montserrat
Montserrat
in his second voyage, after being told that the island was unoccupied due to raids by the Caribs.[13] A number of Irishmen settled in Montserrat
Montserrat
in 1632.[14] The preponderance of Irish in the first wave of European settlers led a leading legal scholar to remark that a "nice question" is whether the original settlers took with them the law of the Kingdom of Ireland insofar as it differed from the law of the Kingdom of England.[15] The Irish being historical allies of the French, especially in their dislike of the English, invited the French to claim the island in 1666, although no troops were sent by France
France
to maintain control.[14] It was captured shortly afterwards by the English and English control of the island was confirmed under the Treaty of Breda the following year.[14] Despite the seizing by force of the island by the English, the island's legal status is that of a "colony acquired by settlement".[14] A neo-feudal colony developed amongst the "redlegs".[16][better source needed] The colonists began to transport Sub-Saharan African slaves for labour, as was common to most Caribbean
Caribbean
islands. The colonists built an economy based on the production of sugar, rum, arrowroot and sea island cotton, cultivated on large plantations manned by slave labour. By the late 18th century, numerous plantations had been developed on the island. Many Irish continued to be transported to the island, to work as indentured servants; some were exiled during the English Cromwellian conquest of Ireland.[17] 18th century[edit] On 17 March 1768, slaves rebelled but failed to achieve freedom.[18] The people of Montserrat
Montserrat
celebrate St Patrick's Day
St Patrick's Day
as a public holiday due to the slave revolt. Festivities held that week commemorate the culture of Montserrat
Montserrat
in song, dance, food and traditional costumes. In 1782, during the American Revolutionary War, as America's first ally, France
France
captured Montserrat
Montserrat
in their war of support of the Americans. The French, not intending on truly colonizing the island, then agreed to return the island to the Great Britain under the 1783 Treaty of Paris.[19] Irish language
Irish language
in Montserrat[edit] The Irish constituted the largest proportion of the white population from the founding of the colony in 1628. Many were indentured labourers; others were merchants or plantation owners. The geographer Thomas Jeffrey claimed in The West India
India
Atlas (1780) that the majority of those on Montserrat
Montserrat
were either Irish or of Irish descent, “so that the use of the Irish language
Irish language
is preserved on the island, even among the Negroes”.[20] African slaves and Irish colonists of all classes were in constant contact, with sexual relationships being common and a population of mixed descent appearing as a consequence.[21] The Irish were also prominent in Caribbean
Caribbean
commerce, with their merchants importing Irish goods such as beef, pork, butter and herring, and also importing slaves.[22] There is indirect evidence that the use of the Irish language continued in Montserrat
Montserrat
until at least the middle of the nineteenth century. The Kilkenny diarist and Irish scholar Amhlaoibh Ó Súilleabháin noted in 1831 that he had heard that Irish was still spoken in Montserrat
Montserrat
by both black and white inhabitants.[23] A letter by W.F. Butler in The Atheneum (15 July 1905) quotes an account by a Cork civil servant, C. Cremen, of what he had heard from a retired sailor called John O’Donovan, a fluent Irish speaker:

He frequently told me that in the year 1852, when mate of the brig Kaloolah, he went ashore on the island of Montserrat
Montserrat
which was then out of the usual track of shipping. He said he was much surprised to hear the negroes actually talking Irish among themselves, and that he joined in the conversation…[23]

The British phonetician John C. Wells
John C. Wells
conducted research into speech in Montserrat
Montserrat
in 1977-78 (which included also Montserratians resident in London).[24] He found media claims that Irish speech, whether Anglo-Irish
Anglo-Irish
or Irish Gaelic, influenced contemporary Montserratian speech were largely exaggerated.[24] He found little in phonology, morphology or syntax that could be attributed to Irish influence, and only a small number of Irish words in use, with one case being minnseach [ˈmʲiɲʃəx] for goat.[24] New crops and politics[edit] Britain abolished slavery in Montserrat
Montserrat
and its other territories effective August 1834.[25] During the nineteenth century, falling sugar prices had an adverse effect on the island's economy, as Brazil
Brazil
and other nations competed in the trade.[26][27] In 1857, the British philanthropist Joseph Sturge
Joseph Sturge
bought a sugar estate to prove it was economically viable to employ paid labour rather than slaves. Numerous members of the Sturge family bought additional land. In 1869 the family established the Montserrat
Montserrat
Company Limited and planted Key lime
Key lime
trees, started the commercial production of lime juice, set up a school, and sold parcels of land to the inhabitants of the island. Much of Montserrat
Montserrat
came to be owned by smallholders.[28][29] From 1871 to 1958, Montserrat
Montserrat
was administered as part of the federal crown colony of the British Leeward Islands, becoming a province of the short-lived West Indies Federation
West Indies Federation
from 1958 to 1962.[30] In 1979, The Beatles
The Beatles
producer George Martin, opened AIR Studios Montserrat, which resulted in musical artists such as Dire Straits, Paul McCartney, Duran Duran, The Police, Elton John, Jimmy Buffett
Jimmy Buffett
and The Rolling Stones
The Rolling Stones
visiting the island to record albums.[31] The 2011 estimate by the CIA indicates that 30% of the island's land is classified as agricultural, 20% as arable, 25% as forest and the balance as "other".[32]

Montserrat
Montserrat
from the Guadeloupe
Guadeloupe
Passage

In the early hours of 17 September 1989, Hurricane Hugo, passed the island as a Category 4 hurricane. It damaged more than 90% of the structures on the island. AIR Studios
AIR Studios
Montserrat
Montserrat
closed, and the tourist economy was virtually wiped out.[33] In the fall of 2017, Montserrat
Montserrat
was not hit by Hurricane Irma
Hurricane Irma
and sustained only minor damage from Hurricane Maria.[34] Politics and government[edit] Montserrat
Montserrat
is an internally self-governing overseas territory of the United Kingdom.[35] The United Nations
United Nations
Committee on Decolonization includes Montserrat
Montserrat
on the United Nations
United Nations
list of Non-Self-Governing Territories. The island's Chief of State is Queen Elizabeth II represented by an appointed Governor. Executive power is exercised by the government, whereas the Premier is the head of government. The Premier is appointed by the Governor from among the members of the Legislative Assembly which consists of nine elected members. The leader of the party with a majority of seats is usually the one who is appointed.[36] Legislative power
Legislative power
is vested in both the government and the Legislative Assembly. The Assembly also includes two ex-officio members, the attorney general and financial secretary.[37] Military defense is the responsibility of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
so the island has no regular army. The Judiciary
Judiciary
is independent of the executive and the legislature. Further information: Attorney General of Montserrat Communications[edit] The island is served by landline telephones, fully digitalized, with 3,000 subscribers and by mobile cellular, with an estimated number of 5,000 handsets in use. An estimated 2,860 users have internet access. (July 2016 estimates.) Public radio service is provided by Radio Montserrat. There is a single televsion broadcaster, PTV.[38] Cable and satellite television service is available.[39] Geography[edit]

Montserrat's coastline

Main article: Geography of Montserrat The island of Montserrat
Montserrat
is approximately 480 km (300 mi) east-southeast of Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
and 48 km (30 mi) southwest of Antigua. The island lies north-northwest of Suriname
Suriname
and French Guiana (France). It comprises 104 km2 (40 sq mi) and is gradually increasing owing to the buildup of volcanic deposits on the southeast coast. The island is 16 km (9.9 mi) long and 11 km (6.8 mi) wide, with rock cliffs rising 15 to 30 m (49 to 98 ft) above the sea and a number of smooth bottomed sandy beaches scattered among coves on the western (Caribbean) side of the island. Montserrat
Montserrat
has two islets, Virgin and Statue Rock. Volcano
Volcano
and exclusion zone[edit]

Plymouth, the former capital city and major port of Montserrat, on 12 July 1997, after pyroclastic flows burned much of what was not covered in ash

In July 1995, Montserrat's Soufrière Hills
Soufrière Hills
volcano, dormant for centuries, erupted and soon buried the island's capital, Plymouth, in more than 12 metres (39 ft) of mud, destroyed its airport and docking facilities, and rendered the southern part of the island, now termed the exclusion zone, uninhabitable and not safe for travel. The southern part of the island was evacuated and visits are severely restricted.[40] The exclusion zone also includes two sea areas adjacent to the land areas of most volcanic activity.[5] After the destruction of Plymouth and disruption of the economy, more than half of the population left the island, which also lacked housing. During the late 1990s, additional eruptions occurred. On 25 June 1997, a pyroclastic flow travelled down Mosquito Ghaut. This pyroclastic surge could not be restrained by the ghaut and spilled out of it, killing 19 people who were in the (officially evacuated) Streatham village area. Several others in the area suffered severe burns. For a number of years in the early 2000s, the volcano's activity consisted mostly of infrequent ventings of ash into the uninhabited areas in the south. The ash falls occasionally extended into the northern and western parts of the island. In the most recent period of increased activity at the Soufrière Hills
Soufrière Hills
volcano, from November 2009 through February 2010, ash vented and there was a vulcanian explosion that sent pyroclastic flows down several sides of the mountain. Travel into parts of the exclusion zone is occasionally allowed, though only by a licence from the Royal Montserrat
Montserrat
Police Force.[41] The northern part of Montserrat
Montserrat
has largely been unaffected by volcanic activity, and remains lush and green. In February 2005, The Princess Royal officially opened what is now called the John A. Osborne Airport in the north. Since 2011, it handles several flights daily operated by Fly Montserrat
Montserrat
Airways. Docking facilities are in place at Little Bay, where the new capital town is being constructed; the new government centre is at Brades, a short distance away. In recognition of the disaster, in 1998, the people of Montserrat
Montserrat
were granted full residency rights in the United Kingdom, allowing them to migrate if they chose. British citizenship was granted in 2002.[42] Wildlife[edit] Further information: List of birds of Montserrat, List of mammals of Montserrat, and List of amphibians and reptiles of Montserrat Montserrat, like many isolated islands, is home to rare, endemic plant and animal species. Work undertaken by the Montserrat
Montserrat
National Trust in collaboration with the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
has centred on the conservation of pribby (Rondeletia buxifolia) in the Centre Hills region. Until 2006, this species was known only from one book about the vegetation of Montserrat.[43] In 2006, conservationists also rescued several plants of the endangered Montserrat
Montserrat
orchid (Epidendrum montserratense) from dead trees on the island and installed them in the security of the island's botanic garden. Montserrat
Montserrat
is also home to the critically endangered Giant Ditch Frog (Leptodactylus fallax), known locally as the Mountain Chicken, found only in Montserrat
Montserrat
and Dominica. The species has undergone catastrophic declines due to the amphibian disease Chytridiomycosis and the volcanic eruption in 1997. Experts from Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust have been working with the Montserrat
Montserrat
Department of Environment to conserve the frog in-situ in a project called "Saving the Mountain Chicken",[44] and an ex-situ captive breeding population has been set up in partnership with Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust, Zoological Society of London, North of England
England
Zoological Society, Parken Zoo and the Governments of Montserrat
Montserrat
and Dominica. Releases from this programme have already taken place in a hope to increase the numbers of the frog and reduce extinction risk from Chytridiomycosis. The national bird is the endemic Montserrat oriole
Montserrat oriole
(Icterus oberi).[45] The IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
classifies it as Critically Endangered.[46] Captive populations are held in several zoos in the UK including: Chester Zoo, Zoological Society of London, Jersey Zoo
Jersey Zoo
and Royal Zoological Society of Scotland. The Montserrat galliwasp
Montserrat galliwasp
(Diploglossus montisserrati), a type of lizard, is endemic to Montserrat
Montserrat
and is listed on the IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
as Critically Endangered.[47][48] A species action plan has been developed for this species.[49] In 2005, a biodiversity assessment for the Centre Hills was conducted. To support the work of local conservationists, a team of international partners, including Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Royal Society for the Protection of Birds
Royal Society for the Protection of Birds
and Montana State University, carried out extensive surveys and collected biological data.[50] Researchers from Montana State University
Montana State University
found that the invertebrate fauna was particularly rich on the island. The report found that the number of invertebrate species known to occur in Montserrat
Montserrat
is 1,241. The number of known beetle species is 718 species from 63 families. It is estimated that 120 invertebrates are endemic to Montserrat.[50] Montserrat
Montserrat
is known for its coral reefs and its caves along the shore. These caves house many species of bats, and efforts are underway to monitor and protect the ten species of bats from extinction.[51][52] A species of tarantula simply called the Montserrat
Montserrat
Tarantula is native to the island. It was first bred in captivity at the Chester Zoo in August 2016.[53] Economy[edit]

The MV Caribe Queen is a Nevis
Nevis
ferry boat which shuttles passengers between Antigua
Antigua
and Montserrat
Montserrat
several times a week.

Main article: Economy of Montserrat From 1979 to 1989, Montserrat
Montserrat
was home to a branch of George Martin's AIR Studios, making the island popular with musicians who often went there to record while taking advantage of the island's climate and beautiful surroundings; the studio closed as a result of Hurricane Hugo.[54] The island's operating budget is largely supplied by the British government and administered through the Department for International Development (DFID) amounting to approximately £25 million per year. Additional amounts are secured through income and property taxes, licence and other fees as well as customs duties levied on imported goods. The limited economy of Montserrat, coupled with a population under 5,000, many living in shelters and shacks without utilities, only consumes 1.7 MW of electric power, produced by five diesel generators.[6] Two exploratory geothermal wells have found good resources and the pad for a third geothermal well was prepared in 2016.[55] Together the geothermal wells are expected to produce more power than the island requires.[56] A report published by the CIA indicated that the value of exports totaled the equivalent of US$5.7 million (2017 est.), consisting primarily of electronic components, plastic bags, apparel, hot peppers, limes, live plants and cattle. The value of imports totaled US$31.02 million (2016 est.), consisting primarily of machinery and transportation equipment, foodstuffs, manufactured goods, fuels and lubricants.[57] Demographics[edit] Main article: Demographics of Montserrat The island had a population of 5,879 (according to a 2008 estimate). An estimated 8,000 refugees left the island (primarily to the UK) following the resumption of volcanic activity in July 1995; the population was 13,000 in 1994. The 2011 Montserrat
Montserrat
census indicated a population of 4,922.[58] In early 2016, the estimated population had reached nearly 5000 primarily due to immigration from other islands.[6] Age structure (2003 estimates):

0–14 years: 23.4% (male 1,062; female 1,041) 15–64 years: 65.3% (male 2,805; female 3,066) 65 years and over: 11.3% (male 537; female 484)

The median age of the population was 28.1 as of 2002 and the sex ratio was 0.96 males/female as of 2000. The population growth rate is 6.9% (2008 est.), with a birth rate of 17.57 births/1,000 population, death rate of 7.34 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.), and net migration rate of 195.35/1,000 population (2000 est.) There is an infant mortality rate of 7.77 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.). The life expectancy at birth is 78.36 years: 76.24 for males and 80.59 for females (2003 est.). The total fertility rate is 1.8 children born/woman (2003 est.). According to a United Nations
United Nations
estimate, the population as of April 2018 was 5,197 (for a density of 52 per square kilometer or 135 people per square mile), with just over 90% living in non-urban areas. [59] In 2001, the CIA estimated the primary religion as Protestant (67.1%, including includes Anglican 21.8%, Methodist 17%, Pentecostal 14.1%, Seventh Day Adventist 10.5%, and Church of God 3.7%), with Roman Catholics constituting 11.6%, Rastafarian 1.4%, other 6.5%, none 2.6%, unspecified 10.8%.[60] Ethnic groups[edit] Residents of Montserrat
Montserrat
are known as Montserratians. The population consists of a number of ethnic groups, including Black, White, Dual Heritage and Creole. The island's population is mainly a mix of Irish and Africans with other minorities. The population is predominantly, but not exclusively, of mixed African-Irish descent.[61] It is not known with certainty how many African slaves and indentured Irish labourers were brought to the West Indies, though according to one estimate some 60,000 Irish were "Barbadosed" by Oliver Cromwell,[62] some of whom would have arrived in Montserrat. Data published by the Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency
indicates the ethnic goup mix as follows (2011 est.):[63]

African/black 88.4% Mixed 3.7% Hispanic/Spanish 3% Caucasian/white 2.7% East Indian/Indian 1.5% Other 0.7%

Education[edit] Further information: Education in Montserrat Education in Montserrat
Education in Montserrat
is compulsory for children between the ages of 5 and 14, and free up to the age of 17. The only secondary school (pre-16 years of age) on the island is the Montserrat
Montserrat
Secondary School (MSS) in Salem.[64] Montserrat Community College
Montserrat Community College
(MCC) is a community college (post-16 and tertiary educational institution) in Salem.[65] The University of the West Indies
University of the West Indies
maintains its Montserrat
Montserrat
Open Campus.[66] University of Science, Arts and Technology
University of Science, Arts and Technology
is a private medical school in Olveston.[67] Culture[edit]

The Montserrat
Montserrat
Cultural Centre overlooking Little Bay

See also: Music of Montserrat
Music of Montserrat
and Cricket
Cricket
in the West Indies

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In 1979, George Martin, an English record producer, built a recording studio on the island called AIR Studios
AIR Studios
Montserrat. For more than a decade, AIR Montserrat
Montserrat
played host to recording sessions by many well known rock musicians, including Dire Straits, Elton John, Michael Jackson and The Rolling Stones.[citation needed] In 1989, Hurricane Hugo destroyed the studios. After the volcanic eruptions of 1995 through 1997, and until his death in 2016, George Martin
George Martin
raised funds to help the victims and families on the island. The first event was a star-studded event at London's Royal Albert Hall in September 1997 (Music for Montserrat) featuring many artists who had previously recorded on the island including Paul McCartney, Mark Knopfler, Elton John, Sting, Eric Clapton and Midge Ure. All the proceeds from the show went towards short-term relief for the islanders.[54] Martin's second major initiative was to release five hundred limited edition lithographs of his score for the Beatles song "Yesterday". Complete with mistakes and tea stains, the lithographs are numbered and signed by Paul McCartney
Paul McCartney
and Martin. The lithograph sale raised more than US$1.4 million which helped fund the building of a new cultural and community centre for Montserrat
Montserrat
and provided a much needed focal point to help the re-generation of the island.[54] Many albums of note were recorded at AIR Studios, including Dire Straits' Brothers in Arms; Duran Duran's Seven and the Ragged Tiger, the Police's Ghost in the Machine and Synchronicity (the video for "Every Little Thing She Does Is Magic" was filmed in Montserrat, but the song ironically was the only one on Ghost in the Machine not recorded there), and Jimmy Buffett's Volcano
Volcano
(named for Soufrière Hills). After sustaining severe damage from Hurricane Hugo
Hurricane Hugo
in 1989, the studio is now a ruin.[54] Ian Anderson
Ian Anderson
(of Jethro Tull) recorded the song "Montserrat" on The Secret Language of Birds
The Secret Language of Birds
in tribute to the volcanic difficulties and feeling among residents of being abandoned by the UK government. Media[edit] Montserrat
Montserrat
has one national radio station, ZJB. The station offers a wide selection of music and news within the island and also on the internet for Montserratians living overseas. Notable shows include the Morning Show with Basil Chambers and Rose Willock's Cultural Show. Cuisine[edit] Main article: Cuisine of Montserrat Montserrat's national dish is goat water, a thick goat meat stew served with crusty bread rolls.[6] Montserrat
Montserrat
cuisine resembles the general British and Caribbean
Caribbean
cuisines, as it is situated in the Caribbean
Caribbean
zone and it is a British territory. The cuisine includes a wide range of light meats, like fish, seafood and chicken, which are mostly grilled or roasted. Being a fusion of numerous cultures, such as Spanish, French, African, Indian and Amerindian, the Caribbean cuisine is unique and complex. More sophisticated meals include the Montserrat
Montserrat
jerk shrimp, with rum, cinnamon bananas and cranberry. In other more rural areas, people prefer to eat homemade food, like the traditional mahi mahi and local breads. Yachting[edit] Montserrat
Montserrat
is home to the Montserrat
Montserrat
Yachting Association.[68] Sports[edit] Athletics[edit] Montserrat
Montserrat
has competed in every Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
since 1994.[69] Basketball[edit] Basketball is growing in popularity in Montserrat
Montserrat
with the country now setting up their own basketball league.[70][71] The league contains six teams, which are the Look-Out Shooters, Davy Hill
Davy Hill
Ras Valley, Cudjoe Head Renegades, St. Peters Hilltop, Salem Jammers and MSS School Warriors.[72] They have also built a new 800 seater complex which cost $1.5 million. Cricket[edit] Cricket
Cricket
is a popular sport in Montserrat. Players from Montserrat
Montserrat
are eligible to play for the West Indies cricket team. Jim Allen was the first to play for the West Indies and he represented the World Series Cricket
Cricket
West Indians. No other player from Montserrat
Montserrat
had gone on to represent the West Indies until Lionel Baker made his One Day International debut against Pakistan
Pakistan
in November 2008.[73] The Montserrat cricket team
Montserrat cricket team
forms a part of the Leeward Islands cricket team in regional domestic cricket, however it plays as a separate entity in minor regional matches,[74] as well having previously played Twenty20
Twenty20
cricket in the Stanford 20/20.[75] Two grounds on the island have held first-class matches for the Leeward Islands, the first and most historic was Sturge Park in Plymouth, which had been in use since the 1920s. This was destroyed in 1997, by the volcanic eruption. A new ground, the Salem Oval, was constructed and opened in 2000. This has also held first-class cricket. A second ground has been constructed at Little Bay.[76] Football[edit] Montserrat
Montserrat
has its own FIFA
FIFA
affiliated football team, and has competed in the World Cup qualifiers five times but failed to advance to the finals from 2002 to 2018. A field for the team was built near the airport by FIFA. In 2002, the team competed in a friendly match with the second-lowest-ranked team in FIFA
FIFA
at that time, Bhutan, in The Other Final, the same day as the final of the 2002 World Cup. Bhutan won 4–0. Montserrat
Montserrat
has failed to qualify for any FIFA
FIFA
World Cup. They have also failed to ever qualify for the Gold Cup and Caribbean Cup. The current national team relies mostly on the diaspora in England
England
and in the last WCQ against Curaçao
Curaçao
nearly all their squad played and lived in England.[citation needed] Surfing[edit] Surfing was introduced by two American brothers in 1980, Carrll and Gary Robilotta. They were also responsible for naming the surfing spots on the island. Carrll wrote for the surfing newsletter The Surf Report, which was used by surfers around the globe. They both made Montserrat
Montserrat
their home for 12 years. Parishes[edit]

Map of Montserrat's parishes: Saint Peter is top, Saint Georges centre and Saint Anthony bottom. The square marks Plymouth, the abandoned capital.

Montserrat
Montserrat
is divided into three parishes:

Saint Peter Parish Saint Anthony Parish Saint Georges Parish

The locations of settlements on the island have been vastly changed since the volcanic activity began. Only Saint Peter Parish in the northwest of the island is now inhabited, with a population of between 4,000 and 6,000.[77][78] The other two parishes are still too dangerous to inhabit; the volcano is still active in 2013. Settlements[edit]

Little Bay, the site of the new capital. The project was funded by the UK's Department for International Development.[79]

Settlements known to be within the exclusion cannot be accessed and are no longer habitable. See also List of settlements abandoned after the 1997 Soufrière Hills
Soufrière Hills
eruption. Settlements in the safe zone[edit]

Baker Hill Banks Barzeys Blakes Brades [a] Carr's Bay Cavalla Hill Cheap End Cudjoe Head Davy Hill Dick Hill Drummonds Flemmings Fogarty Frith Garibaldi Hill Geralds [b] Hope Jack Boy Hill Judy Piece Katy Hill Lawyers Mountain Little Bay [c] Lookout Manjack Mongo Hill New Windward Estate Nixons Old Towne Olveston Salem Shinlands St. John's St. Peter's Sweeney's Woodlands

a. De facto capital and centre of government. b. Includes the new airport. c. New seaport and town.

Abandoned settlements in the exclusion zone[edit] Settlements in italic have been destroyed by pyroclastic flows since the 1997 eruption. Others have been evacuated or destroyed since 1995.

Amersham Beech Hill Bethel Bramble Bransby Bugby Hole Cork Hill Dagenham Delvins Dyers Elberton Farm Fairfield Fairy Walk Farrells Farells Yard Ffryes Fox's Bay Gages Gallways Estate Gringoes Gun Hill Happy Hill Harris Harris Lookout Hermitage Hodge's Hill Jubilee Kinsale Lees Locust Valley Long Ground Molyneux Morris Parsons Plymouth [d] Richmond Richmond Hill Roche's Yard Robuscus Mt Shooter's Hill Soufrière Spanish Point St. George's Hill St. Patrick's Streatham Trants Trials Tuitts Victoria Webbs Weekes White's Windy Hill

d. De jure capital, now abandoned.

Notable Montserratians[edit]

Jim Allen, former cricketer who represented the World Series Cricket West Indians. Jennette Arnold, the first Montserratian elected as a Member of the London Assembly, who served four terms as Chair of the Assembly. Lionel Baker, the first Montserratian to represent the West Indies in international cricket. Alphonsus "Arrow" Cassell, musician known for his soca song "Hot Hot Hot", which sold over four million copies. Vladimir Farrell, association footballer. Howard A. Fergus, author, poet and three time acting governor of Montserrat. Patricia Griffin, pioneer nurse and volunteer social worker, honored on a 2006 series of stamps recognizing notable citizens.[80] George Irish, writer, human rights activist. E. A. Markham, poet and author. Dean Mason, association footballer. Shane Ryan, writer, human rights activist. M. P. Shiel, writer. Lyle Taylor, association footballer. Maizie Williams, member of pop group Boney M.

See also[edit]

Bibliography of Montserrat Outline of Montserrat Index of Montserrat-related articles

Caribbean
Caribbean
portal Caribbean
Caribbean
Community portal United Kingdom
United Kingdom
portal

References[edit]

^ "UN Data". 2014. Retrieved 8 January 2017.  ^ Montserrat. CIA World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 19 September 2006. Retrieved 1 October 2006.  ^ "The Caribbean
Caribbean
Irish: the other Emerald Isle". The Irish Times. 16 April 2016. Retrieved 9 January 2018.  ^ "► VIDEO: Montserrat, the Emerald Isle of the Caribbean". www.irishtimes.com. Retrieved 9 January 2018.  ^ a b " Montserrat
Montserrat
Volcano
Volcano
Observatory". mvo.ms. Retrieved 2 October 2006.  ^ a b c d Schuessler, Ryan (14 February 2016). "20 years after Montserrat
Montserrat
volcano eruption, many still in shelter housing". Al Jazeera America. Retrieved 23 November 2016. Montserrat’s population has grown to nearly 5,000 people since the eruption — mostly due to an influx of immigrants from other Caribbean
Caribbean
nations.  ^ Bachelor, Blane (20 February 2014). "Montserrat: a modern-day Pompeii in the Caribbean". Fox News.  ^ Pilley, Kevin (29 February 2016). "Bar/fly: Caribbean
Caribbean
island of Montserrat". The New Zealand
New Zealand
Herald.  ^ Handy, Gemma (16 August 2015). "Montserrat: Living with a volcano". BBC News. Retrieved 8 July 2017.  ^ Minahan, James (1 December 2009). The Complete Guide to National Symbols and Emblems: Volume 2. Greenwood Press. p. 724. ISBN 978-0-313-34500-5.  ^ Cherry, John F.; Ryzewski, Krysta; Leppard, Thomas P. & Bocancea, Emanuela (September 2012). "The earliest phase of settlement in the eastern Caribbean: new evidence from Montserrat". Antiquity. 86 (333). Retrieved 25 August 2013.  ^ Reid, Basil A. (2009). Myths and Realities of Caribbean
Caribbean
History. University of Alabama Press. p. 21. ISBN 0817355340. However, archaeological investigations of the very large site of Trants in Montserrat
Montserrat
... [suggest that Trants was] one of the largest Saladoid sites in the Caribbean.  ^ Bergreen, Laurence (2011). Columbus: The Four Voyages. Viking. p. 140. ISBN 9780670023011. At daybreak on November 10, Columbus and his fleet departed from Guadeloupe, sailing northwest along the coast to the island of Montserrat. The handful of Indians aboard his ship explained that the island had been ravaged by the Caribs, who had 'eaten all its inhabitants'.  ^ a b c d Roberts-Wray, Kenneth (1966). Commonwealth and Colonial Law. London: Stevens. p. 855.  ^ Roberts-Wray, Kenneth (1966). Commonwealth and Colonial Law. London: Stevens. p. 856.  ^ Akenson, Donald H. (1997). "Ireland's neo-Feudal Empire, 1630–1650". If the Irish ran the world: Montserrat, 1630–1730. McGill-Queen's University Press. pp. 12–57, 273. ISBN 978-0-7735-1686-1.  ^ " Culture of Montserrat
Culture of Montserrat
- history, people, clothing, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage". everyculture.com. Retrieved 8 July 2017.  ^ Fergus, Howard A. (1996). Gallery Montserrat: some prominent people in our history. Canoe Press, University of West Indies. p. 83. ISBN 976-8125-25-X.  ^ O'Shaughnessy, A. J. (2006). "Caribbean". In Boatner, III, M. M. Landmarks of the American Revolution: Library of Military History (2nd ed.). Detroit, MI: Charles Scribner's Sons. p. 33. ISBN 9780684314730 – via Gale Virtual Reference.  ^ Cited in: Truxes, Thomas M. (2004). Irish-American Trade, 1660-1783. Cambridge University Press. p. 100.  See also: The late Thomas Jefferys, Geographer to the King (1780). The West India
India
Atlas or, A Compendious Description of the West-Indies. Fleet Street, London: Robert Sayer and John Bennett.  ^ Rodgers, Nini (November 2007). "The Irish in the Caribbean 1641-1837: An Overview". Irish Migration Studies in Latin America. 5 (3): 145–156.  ^ McGarrity, Maria (2008). Washed by the Gulf Stream: The Historic and Geographic Relation of Irish and Caribbean
Caribbean
Literature. Associated University Presses. pp. 33–34. ISBN 9780874130287.  ^ a b De Bhaldraithe, Tomás, ed. (1979). "Entry 2700, 1 Aibreán 1831 [1 April 1831]". Cín Lae Amhlaoibh (in Irish). Baile Átha Cliath: An Clóchomhar Tta. p. 84. Is clos dom gurb í an teanga Ghaeilge is teanga mháthartha i Monserrat san India
India
Thiar ó aimsir Olibher Cromaill, noch do dhíbir cuid de chlanna Gael ó Éirinn gusan Oileán sin Montserrat. Labhartar an Ghaeilge ann go coiteann le daoine dubha agus bána. [I heard that the Irish language
Irish language
is the mother tongue in Monserrat in the West Indies since the time of Oliver Cromwell, who banished some Gaelic Irish families there. Irish speaking is common among both blacks and whites.]  ^ a b c Wells, John C. (1980). "The brogue that isn't". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 10: 74–79. doi:10.1017/s0025100300002115. Retrieved 29 April 2017.  ^ "Slavery Abolition Act 1833; Section XII". 28 August 1833. Retrieved 23 May 2016.  ^ Finkelman, Paul; Calder Miller, Joseph, eds. (1998). "Caribbean Region: English Colonies". Macmillan Encyclopedia of World Slavery. Macmillan Reference USA – via GALE World History in Context.  ^ Finkleman, Paul; Calder Miller, Joseph, eds. (1998). "Plantations: Brazil". Macmillan Encyclopedia of World Slavery. Macmillan Reference USA – via GALE World History in Context.  ^ "The Montserrat
Montserrat
Connection". sturgefamily.com. Archived from the original on 4 January 2017. Retrieved 8 July 2017.  ^ "Montserrat". Commonwealth Secretariat. Archived from the original on 8 July 2011. Retrieved 30 January 2007.  ^ Hendry, Ian; Dickson, Susan (2011). British Overseas Territories Law. Oxford: Hart Publishing. p. 325. ISBN 9781849460194.  ^ "Sir George Martin
George Martin
CBE (1926 – 2016)". George Martin
George Martin
Music. 2017.  ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/print_mh.html ^ Rico, prepared by: Puerto; al.], the Virgin Islands: Joseph H. Golden ... [et al.] ; South Carolina: Earl J. Baker ... [et al.] ; for Committee on Natural Disasters ... [et (1994). Hurricane Hugo : Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and South Carolina, September 17-22, 1989. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. ISBN 978-0-309-04475-2.  ^ https://www.inta.org/INTABulletin/Pages/Latin_America_Update_7218.aspx ^ https://www.indexmundi.com/montserrat/government_profile.html ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/print_mh.html ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/print_mh.html ^ http://www.raffa.org.uk/raffa-in-the-caribbean/montserrat/peoples-tv/ ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/print_mh.html ^ Leonard, T. M. (2005). Encyclopedia of the Developing World. Routledge. p. 1083. ISBN 978-1-57958-388-0.  ^ " Montserrat
Montserrat
(British Overseas Territory) travel advice". Travel & living abroad. Foreign and Commonwealth Office. 19 December 2012. Retrieved 31 December 2012.  ^ "Types of British nationality: British overseas territories citizen". British Government. Retrieved 8 July 2017.  ^ Johnson, Nick (22 October 2010). "The ' Montserrat
Montserrat
pribby' (part one)". kew.org. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 30 November 2010.  ^ "Saving the Mountain Chicken:A Long-Term Recovery Strategy for the Critically Endangered mountain chicken 2014-2034" (PDF).  ^ " Montserrat oriole
Montserrat oriole
photo - Icterus oberi - G55454". Arkive. Retrieved 8 July 2017.  ^ "Icterus oberi ( Montserrat
Montserrat
Oriole)". The IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Endangered Species. Retrieved 8 July 2017.  ^ "Diploglossus montisserrati ( Montserrat
Montserrat
Galliwasp)". The IUCN Red List of Endangered Species. Retrieved 8 July 2017.  ^ " Montserrat galliwasp
Montserrat galliwasp
videos, photos and facts - Diploglossus montisserrati". Arkive. Retrieved 8 July 2017.  ^ Corry, E.; et al. (2010). A Species Action Plan for the Montserrat galliwasp: Diploglossus montisserrati (PDF). Department of Environment, Montserrat. ISBN 978-0-9559034-5-8. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 February 2017.  ^ a b Young, Richard P., ed. (2008). "A biodiversity assessment of the Centre Hills, Montserrat" (PDF). Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust. Durrell Conservation Monograph No. 1.  ^ "Bats". Sustainable Ecosystems Institute. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014.  ^ Pedersen, Scott C.; Kwiecinski, Gary G.; Larsen, Peter A.; Morton, Matthew N.; Adams, Rick A.; Genoways, Hugh H. & Swier, Vicki J. (1 January 2009). "Bats of Montserrat: Population Fluctuation and Response to Hurricanes and Volcanoes, 1978–2005". ResearchGate. Retrieved 31 July 2011.  ^ " Montserrat
Montserrat
tarantulas hatch in 'world first'". Chester Zoo. 12 August 2016.  ^ a b c d "AIR Montserrat". AIR Studios. Archived from the original on 18 October 2014. Retrieved 5 January 2013.  ^ Richter, Alexander (2 September 2016). "Well pad ready for drilling of third geothermal well in Montserrat". Think Geoenergy.  ^ Handy, Gemma (8 November 2015). "Does Montserrat's volcano hold the key to its future?". BBC News Online.  ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/print_mh.html ^ "Census 2011 At a Glance" (PDF). Government
Government
of Montserrat. Statistics Department, Montserrat. 2011. Retrieved 23 November 2016.  ^ http://www.worldometers.info/world-population/montserrat-population/ ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/print_mh.html ^ McGinn, Brian. "How Irish is Montserrat? (The Black Irish)". RootsWeb.com.  ^ "Barbadosed: Africans and Irish in Barbados". Tangled Roots. Archived from the original on 8 December 2014.  ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/print_mh.html ^ "Territories and Non-Independent Countries". 2001 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor. Bureau of International Labor Affairs, US Department of Labor. 2002. Archived from the original on 28 March 2005.  ^ Home page. Montserrat
Montserrat
Community College. Retrieved on November 24, 2017. "Salem , Montserrat
Montserrat
W. I." ^ "The Open Campus in Montserrat." University of the West Indies
University of the West Indies
Open Campus. Retrieved on November 24, 2017. ^ "Contact USAT." University of Science, Arts and Technology. Retrieved on November 24, 2017. "Main Campus: South Mayfield Estate Drive, Olveston, Montserrat" ^ AlMirSoft. "Yacht registration, training and certification of yachtsmen". Montserrat
Montserrat
Yachting Association. Retrieved 23 September 2016.  ^ " Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
Countries: Montserrat". Commonwealth Games Federation. Retrieved 24 July 2014.  ^ " Montserrat
Montserrat
Volcanos". Montserrat
Montserrat
Amateur Basketball Association. Retrieved 8 July 2017.  ^ "Village basketball league makes a comeback". The Montserrat Reporter. 11 July 2012. Retrieved 8 July 2017.  ^ Cassell, Warren (18 July 2015). " Montserrat
Montserrat
2015 basketball Championship game Salem Jammers vs. Lookout Shooters". YouTube. Retrieved 8 July 2017.  ^ "Late Show Wins It For Pakistan
Pakistan
In Abu Dhabi". CricketWorld.com. 12 November 2008.  ^ "Other Matches played by Montserrat". CricketArchive. Retrieved 12 October 2012.  ^ " Twenty20
Twenty20
Matches played by Montserrat". CricketArchive. Retrieved 7 October 2012.  ^ "Island of Montserrat". Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Retrieved 13 October 2012.  ^ Kowalski, Jeff (11 September 2009). "Central America and Caribbean: Monserrat". Retrieved 26 October 2009.  ^ Wittebol, Hans. "The Parishes of Montserrat". Statoids. Retrieved 26 October 2009.  ^ "Little Bay Development". DFID. 2010. Archived from the original on 25 April 2013.  ^ Mott, Nicola (17 February 2006). "Stamp of approval!". Lancashire Telegraph. Blackburn, Lancashire, England. Archived from the original on 30 November 2016. Retrieved 4 December 2016. 

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Health reports

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Montserrat
by RT Cullen, AD Jones, BG Miller, CL Tran, JMG Davis, K Donaldson, M Wilson, V Stone, and A Morgan. Institute of Occupational Medicine Research Report TM/02/01. A Health Survey of Workers on the Island of Montserrat
Montserrat
by HA Cowie, MK Graham, A Searl, BG Miller, PA Hutchison, C Swales, S Dempsey, and M Russell. Institute of Occupational Medicine Research Report TM/02/02. A Health Survey of Montserratians Relocated to the UK by HA Cowie, A Searl, PJ Ritchie, MK Graham, PA Hutchison, and A Pilkington. Institute of Occupational Medicine Research Report TM/01/07.

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1. Occupied jointly with the United States. 2. In 1931, Canada
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1631–1641 Providence Island 1651–1667 Willoughbyland 1670–1688 Saint Andrew and Providence Islands4 1831–1966 Guiana Since 1833 Falkland Islands5 Since 1908 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands5

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Since 1658 Saint Helena14 1792–1961 Sierra Leone 1795–1803 Cape Colony

Since 1815 Ascension Island14 Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha14 1806–1910 Cape of Good Hope 1807–1808 Madeira 1810–1968 Mauritius 1816–1965 The Gambia 1856–1910 Natal 1862–1906 Lagos 1868–1966 Basutoland 1874–1957 Gold Coast 1882–1922 Egypt

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6. League of Nations mandate. 7. Self-governing Southern Rhodesia
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1685–1824 Bencoolen 1702–1705 Pulo Condore 1757–1947 Bengal 1762–1764 Manila and Cavite 1781–1784 and 1795–1819 Padang 1786–1946 Penang 1795–1948 Ceylon 1796–1965 Maldives

1811–1816 Java 1812–1824 Banka and Billiton 1819–1826 Malaya 1824–1948 Burma 1826–1946 Straits Settlements 1839–1967 Aden 1839–1842 Afghanistan 1841–1997 Hong Kong 1841–1946 Sarawak 1848–1946 Labuan 1858–1947 India 1874–1963 Borneo

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1907–1949 Bhutan (protectorate) 1918–1961 Kuwait 1920–1932 Mesopotamia8 1921–1946 Transjordan8 1923–1948 Palestine8 1945–1946 South Vietnam 1946–1963 North Borneo 1946–1963 Sarawak 1946–1963 Singapore 1946–1948 Malayan Union 1948–1957 Federation of Malaya Since 1960 Akrotiri and Dhekelia
Akrotiri and Dhekelia
(before as part of Cyprus) Since 1965 British Indian Ocean Territory
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8 League of Nations mandate. Iraq's mandate was not enacted and replaced by the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty

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1788–1901 New South Wales 1803–1901 Van Diemen's Land/Tasmania 1807–1863 Auckland Islands9 1824–1980 New Hebrides 1824–1901 Queensland 1829–1901 Swan River/Western Australia 1836–1901 South Australia since 1838 Pitcairn Islands

1841–1907 New Zealand 1851–1901 Victoria 1874–1970 Fiji10 1877–1976 Western Pacific Territories 1884–1949 Papua 1888–1901 Rarotonga/Cook Islands9 1889–1948 Union Islands9 1892–1979 Gilbert and Ellice Islands11 1893–1978 Solomon Islands12

1900–1970 Tonga 1900–1974 Niue9 1901–1942 *Australia 1907–1947 *New Zealand 1919–1942 and 1945–1968 Nauru 1919–1949 New Guinea 1949–1975 Papua and New Guinea13

9. Now part of the *Realm of New Zealand. 10. Suspended member. 11. Now Kiribati
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and *Tuvalu. 12. Now the *Solomon Islands. 13. Now *Papua New Guinea.

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Since 1658 Saint Helena14 Since 1815 Ascension Island14 Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha14 Since 1908 British Antarctic Territory15 1841–1933 Australian Antarctic Territory
Australian Antarctic Territory
(transferred to the Commonwealth of Australia) 1841–1947 Ross Dependency
Ross Dependency
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14. Since 2009 part of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; Ascension Island
Ascension Island
(1922–) and Tristan da Cunha
Tristan da Cunha
(1938–) were previously dependencies of Saint Helena. 15. Both claimed in 1908; territories formed in 1962 (British Antarctic Territory) and 1985 (South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands).

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Articles

English-speaking world History of the English language British Empire English in the Commonwealth of Nations Anglosphere

Lists

List of countries by English-speaking population List of countries where English is an official language

 

Countries and territories where English is the national language or the native language of the majority

Africa

Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha

Americas

Anguilla Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda The Bahamas Barbados Belize Bermuda British Virgin Islands Canada Cayman Islands Dominica Falkland Islands Grenada Guyana Jamaica Montserrat Saba Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Sint Eustatius Sint Maarten South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Trinidad and Tobago Turks and Caicos Islands United States United States
United States
Virgin Islands

Europe

Guernsey Ireland Isle of Man Jersey United Kingdom

Oceania

Australia New Zealand Norfolk Island Pitcairn Islands

 

Countries and territories where English is an official language, but not the majority first language

Africa

Botswana Cameroon The Gambia Ghana Kenya Lesotho Liberia Malawi Mauritius Namibia Nigeria Rwanda Sierra Leone Somaliland South Africa South Sudan Sudan Swaziland Tanzania Uganda Zambia Zimbabwe

Americas

Puerto Rico

Asia

Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Hong Kong Special
Special
Administrative Region India Pakistan Philippines Singapore

Europe

Gibraltar Malta

Oceania

American Samoa Cook Islands Fiji Guam Kiribati Marshall Islands Micronesia Nauru Niue Northern Mariana Islands Palau Papua New Guinea Samoa Solomon Islands Tokelau Tuvalu Vanuatu

Dependencies shown in italics.

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 139560809 LCCN: n81008534 GND: 4274693-0 BNF: cb12823089j (data)

Coordinates: 16°45′N 62°12′W / 16.750°N 62.200°W / 16.

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