Monophyly
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In for a group of s, monophyly is the condition of being a —that is, a group of composed only of a (or more precisely an ancestral ) and all of its lineal descendants. Monophyletic groups are typically characterised by shared derived characteristics (), which distinguish organisms in the clade from other organisms. An equivalent term is holophyly. The word "mono-phyly" means "one-tribe" in Greek. Monophyly is contrasted with and as shown in the second diagram. A ''paraphyletic group'' consists of all of the descendants of a common ancestor minus one or more monophyletic groups. A ' is characterized by features or habits of scientific interest (for example, night-active primates, fruit trees, aquatic insects). The features by which a polyphyletic group is differentiated from others are not inherited from a common ancestor. These definitions have taken some time to be accepted. When the cladistics school of thought became mainstream in the 1960s, several alternative definitions were in use. Indeed, s sometimes used terms without defining them, leading to confusion in the early literature, a confusion which persists.Aubert, D. 2015. A formal analysis of phylogenetic terminology: Towards a reconsideration of the current paradigm in systematics. ''Phytoneuron'' 2015-66:1–54. The first diagram shows a with two monophyletic groups. The several groups and subgroups are particularly situated as branches of the tree to indicate ordered lineal relationships between all the organisms shown. Further, any group may (or may not) be considered a by modern , depending upon the selection of its members in relation to their common ancestor(s); see second and third diagrams.


Etymology

The term ''monophyly'', or ''monophyletic'', derives from the two words (), meaning "alone, only, unique", and (), meaning "genus, species", and refers to the fact that a monophyletic group includes organisms (e.g., genera, species) consisting of all the descendants of a ''unique'' common ancestor. Conversely, the term ', or ''polyphyletic'', builds on the ancient Greek prefix (), meaning "many, a lot of", and refers to the fact that a polyphyletic group includes organisms arising from ''multiple'' ancestral sources. By comparison, the term ', or ''paraphyletic'', uses the ancient Greek prefix (), meaning "beside, near", and refers to the situation in which one or several monophyletic subgroups are ''left apart'' from all other descendants of a unique common ancestor. That is, a paraphyletic group is ''nearly'' monophyletic, hence the prefix '.


Definitions

On the broadest scale, definitions fall into two groups. * (1966:148) defined monophyly as groups based on (in contrast to paraphyletic groups, based on , and polyphyletic groups, based on ). Some authors have sought to define monophyly to include paraphyly as any two or more groups sharing a common ancestor. However, this broader definition encompasses both monophyletic and paraphyletic groups as defined above. Therefore, most scientists today restrict the term "monophyletic" to refer to groups consisting of all the descendants of one (hypothetical) common ancestor. However, when considering taxonomic groups such as genera and species, the most appropriate nature of their common ancestor is unclear. Assuming that it would be one individual or mating pair is unrealistic for sexually reproducing species, which are by definition interbreeding populations. * Monophyly (also, holophyly) and associated terms are restricted to discussions of taxa, and are not necessarily accurate when used to describe what Hennig called tokogenetic relationships—now referred to as genealogies. Some argue that using a broader definition, such as a species and all its descendants, does not really work to define a genus. The loose definition also fails to recognize the relations of all organisms. According to D. M. Stamos, a satisfactory cladistic definition of a species or genus is impossible because many species (and even genera) may form by "budding" from an existing species, leaving the parent species paraphyletic; or the species or genera may be the result of . * Moreover, the concepts of monophyly, , and have been used in deducing key genes for of diverse group of species.


See also

* * * * * *


References


External links

* * * * {{Phylogenetics de:Kladistik#Verwandtschaftsverhältnisse