Mongoloid (/ˈmɒŋ.ɡə.lɔɪd/) is a term used for all or some
peoples indigenous to East Asia, Central Asia, Southeast Asia, North
Asia, South Asia, the Arctic, the
Americas and the Pacific Islands. It
is part of the three great races introduced by
Georges Cuvier in the
18th century, the other two groups being
Caucasoid and Negroid.
Individuals within these populations often share certain associated
phenotypic traits, such as epicanthic folds, sinodonty, shovel-shaped
incisors and neoteny. The concept of
Mongoloid races is historical
referring to a grouping of human beings historically regarded as a
biological taxon. It is today not widely used by anthropologists as
its validity and usefulness in classification is considered highly
Epicanthic folds and oblique palpebral fissures are common among
Mongoloid individuals. Most exhibit the
Mongolian spot from birth to
about age four. Mongoloids in general have straight, black hair
and dark brown almond-shaped eyes, and have relatively flatter faces
in comparison to those of
The concept continues to be in use as a rough categorization of ethnic
or racial origin, even though its use even as such in forensic
anthropology has been criticized as too vague as the term covers a
very large and diverse group of phenotypes.
Mongoloid has had a second usage referencing Down syndrome,
now generally avoided as highly offensive. Those
affected were often referred to as "Mongoloids" or in terms of
"Mongolian idiocy" or "Mongolian imbecility".
1 Geographic range and populations included
3 History of the concept
4.3 Cold adaptation
4.4 Physical features of
4.5 Turkic peoples
4.6 Mongolian spot
5 Genetic research
6 Data tables
6.1 Genetic data tables
6.2 Anthropometric data tables
8 As a term for Down syndrome
9 See also
11 External links
Geographic range and populations included
Distribution Map of Modern Man (Horniman Museum)
Chinese mandarins from the city of Canton,
Qing dynasty (1902)
An Austronesian/Malay family from Indonesia. Austronesian peoples
believed to have originated from the island of
migrated to Southeast Asia,
and as far as South America.
Aboriginal Canadian children in Canada
Mongoloid peoples are the most spread out among all human populations
since they have stretched almost completely around the earth's
surface. From an Asian point of reference, populations range from as
far east as Greenland, to as far west as Kalmykia, Crimea, and
northern Europe, giving
Mongoloid peoples or their descendants a
historical presence across four continents. According to the Meyers
Konversations-Lexikon (1885–90), peoples included in the Mongoloid
race are North Mongol, Chinese & Indochinese, Japanese &
Korean, Tibetan & Burmese, Malay, Polynesian, Maori, Micronesian,
Eskimo, and Native American.
In 1856, the "Mongolian" race, using a narrow definition which did not
include either the "Malay" or the "American" races, was the second
most populous race in the world behind the Caucasian race. In
Mongoloid race, using a broad definition which included both
Malays and indigenous Americans, was the most populous race on
Earth, and it was still the most populous race on Earth in the
year 1892, using a narrow definition which did not include either the
"Malayan" or the "American" races. In 1994, the
using a broad definition which included indigenous Americans,
comprised 34% of the Earth's human population which made it the second
most populous race behind Caucasoids who comprised 56% of the Earth's
human population at that time.
The first use of the term Mongolian race was by
Christoph Meiners in
1785, who divided humanity into two races he labeled
"Tartar-Caucasians" and "Mongolians".
Johann Friedrich Blumenbach
Johann Friedrich Blumenbach said that he borrowed the term Mongolian
Christoph Meiners to describe the race he designated "second,
[which] includes that part of
Asia beyond the Ganges and below the
river Amoor, which looks toward the south, together with the islands
and the greater part of these countries which is now called
Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire
Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire added the Australian as a
secondary race (subrace) of the principal race of Mongolian. In
the nineteenth century
Georges Cuvier used the term Mongolian again as
a racial classification, but additionally included American Indians
under the term.
Arthur de Gobineau
Arthur de Gobineau defined the extent of the
Mongolian race, "by the yellow the Altaic, Mongol, Finnish and Tartar
Thomas Huxley used the term
included American Indians as well as
Arctic Native Americans.
Other terms were proposed, such as Mesochroi (middle color), but
Mongoloid was widely adopted.
In 1909, a map published based on racial classifications conceived by
Herbert Hope Risley
Herbert Hope Risley classified inhabitants of
Bengal and parts of
Odisha as Mongolo-Dravidians, people of mixed
Mongoloid and Dravidian
origin. Similarly in 1904,
Ponnambalam Arunachalam claimed the
Sinhalese people of
Sri Lanka were a people of mixed Mongolian and
Malay racial origins as well as Indo-Aryan, Dravidian and Vedda
origins. Howard S. Stoudt in The Physical Anthropology of Ceylon
Carleton S. Coon
Carleton S. Coon in The Living Races of Man (1966)
classified the Sinhalese as partly Mongoloid. In 1927, Egon
Freiherr von Eickstedt classified people from Nepal, Bhutan,
Bangladesh, East India, parts of Northeast India, western Myanmar and
Sri Lanka as East Brachid, referring to people of mixed Indid and
South Mongolid origins. East Brachid is another term for Risley's
Mongolo-Dravidian. Eickstedt also classified the people of central
Myanmar, Yunnan, southern Tibet, Thailand and parts of
Palaungid deriving from the name of the
Palaung people of Myanmar. The
Burmese, Karen, Kachin, Shan, Sri Lankans, Tai, South Chinese, Munda
and Juang, among others were classified as having "mixed" with the
Palaungid phenotype according to Eickstedt.
In 1940, anthropologist
Franz Boas included the American race as part
Mongoloid race of which he mentioned the Aztecs of
the Maya of Yucatán. Boas also said that, out of the races of the
Old World, the American native had features most similar to the east
In 1981, Elizabeth Smithgall Watts who taught anthropology at Tulane
University said that the question of American Indians being a
separate race from "Asiatic Mongoloids" is a question of how much
genetic difference a population needs from another population to be
considered a "major race". She said that even the people who consider
American Indians to be a separate race acknowledge that they are
genetically closest to "Asians".
In 1983, Douglas J. Futuyma, professor of evolutionary processes at
the University of Michigan, said that the inclusion of Native
Americans and Pacific Islanders under the
Mongoloid race was not
recognized by many anthropologists who consider them distinct
In 1984, Roger J. Lederer, Professor of Biological Sciences at
California State University at Chico, separately listed the
Mongoloid race from Pacific islanders and American Indians when he
enumerated the "geographical variants of the same species known as
races...we recognize several races, Inuit, American Indians,
In 1995, Dr.
Marta Mirazón Lahr
Marta Mirazón Lahr of the Department of Biological
Cambridge University used the term
Mongoloid to refer
to Asian populations, Indigenous Australians, Pacific Islanders,
Negritos, and Amerindians, classifying Northeast Asians as typical
Mongoloids and all other
Mongoloid groups as atypical Mongoloids.
Finns were previously considered by some scholars to be partly
Mongoloid, dating to claims by Johann Friedrich Blumenbach.
other Finno-Ugrians in Europe) are now considered typically
European. Less than 10% of Finnish genes are shared with Siberian
populations. Nevertheless, more than 80% of Finnish genes are from a
single ancient Northeastern European population.
Sami people of the Finno-Ugric branch are also included as
Mongoloid as of their genes, origin and physical appearance,
although dating perhaps to as far back as the Bronze-age many of the
indigenous people have received some Nordic genes through mixing of
the local population between the Scandinavian people and the
aboriginals in the
Distribution of the races after the
Pleistocene according to Carleton
Joseph Deniker said the "Mongol race admits two varieties or
subraces: Tunguse or Northern Mongolian... and Southern
Peter Bellwood claims that the vast majority of people
in Southeast Asia, the region he calls the "clinal
Australoid zone", are Southern Mongoloids but have a high
Professor of anthropology, Akazawa Takeru (赤沢威) at the
International Research Center for Japanese Studies, Kyoto, said that
there are Neo-Mongoloids and Paleo-Mongoloids. Akazawa said
Neo-Mongoloids have "extreme Mongoloid, cold-adapted features" and
they include the Chinese, Buryats,
Eskimo and Chukchi. In contrast,
Akazawa said Paleo-Mongoloids are less cold-adapted. He said Burmese,
Filipinos, Polynesians, Jōmon and the indigenous peoples of the
Americas were Paleo-Mongoloid.
Human skeletal remains in
Southeast Asia show the gradual replacement
of the indigenous Australo-Melanesians by Southern Mongoloids from
Southern China. No skeletal remains in
Southeast Asia dated to the
Pleistocene epoch have been unearthed that would classified as being
indisputably Mongoloid, although skeletal remains dated to this epoch
have been found with
Mongoloid traits. Skeletal remains in Southeast
Asia dated to the
Pleistocene epoch with
Mongoloid traits indicate
Mongoloid admixture from areas north of
Southeast Asia was
already taking place at this time. This trend toward an increasingly
Mongoloid skeletal character in
Southeast Asia continued during the
Holocene epoch as an increasing number of the skeletal remains
dated to the last 7,000 years are classified as having "Southern
Mongoloid skeletal material" relative to the earlier epochs. The
dental evidence that pre-historic
Southeast Asian skeletal remains are
of the sundadont dental type, and the dental evidence that Southeast
Asians, including Negritos, are of the sundadont dental type supports
the idea that it was sundadont Southern Mongoloids from Southern China
whose gene flow was making
Southeast Asia more
Mongoloid instead of
the sinodont Northeast Asian Mongoloids from farther north. Most of
the Southern Mongoloids' gradual replacement of the indigenous
Australo-Melanesians in Southeast Asia, a process done by "replacing
Melanesian hunter-gatherers or assimilating populations of
'Proto-Malays'", was done "within the historical period". After the
"gradual and complex replacement" of the indigenous
Australo-Melanesians by Southern Mongoloids in Southeast Asia, the
only remaining indigenous Australo-
Melanesian population in Southeast
Asia at the present time are the Negritos of Thailand, Malaysia, the
Philippines and the Andaman Islands. The concept which is "[t]he
important concept" here is that the gradual replacement of
Australo-Melanesians by Southern Mongoloids in
Southeast Asia was a
gradual change in the cline between these two populations.
Asiatic types in a book from 1914
North America in a book from 1914
South America in a book from 1914
Dayak man from Borneo,
Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies in 1900s
Young Māori woman with traditional tattoos from New Zealand
Sea Sami man from the
Sápmi region of Northern Norway^
Kalmyks, 19th century Salsky District, Russian Empire
History of the concept
The earliest systematic use of the term was by Blumenbach in De
generis humani varietate nativa (On the Natural Variety of Mankind,
University of Göttingen, first published in 1775, re-issued with
alteration of the title-page in 1776). Blumenbach included East and
Southeast Asians, but not Native Americans or Malays, who were each
assigned separate categories.
In 1865, biologist
Thomas Huxley presented the views of polygenesists
(Huxley was not one of them) as "some imagine their assumed species of
mankind were created where we find them... the Mongolians from the
Oscar Peschel said that Native Americans were Mongoloids, and
Peschel said that the
Mongoloid features of Native Americans was
evidence that Native Americans populated the
Asia by way
of the Bering Strait. Peschel said that some Native American tribes
Mongols in having a high nose bridge rather than a snub
nose, but Peschel said that this different type of nose is not
something shared by all Native Americans, so it cannot be considered a
racial characteristic. Peschel said that Malays and
Mongoloids due to their physical traits. Peschel said that the race of
Ainu people was not clear.
Aleš Hrdlička went on a journey that focused on
"anthropological and archaeological matters" wherein Hrdlička
traveled to the
Bering Sea and places in Alaska. Hrdlička saw the
conditions related to "the possibilities of the
through the Bering Sea", and Hrdlička concluded that these Mongoloid
migrations were "so easy as to have been inevitable". Hrdlička
Eskimos and American Indians come from a "common
Mongoloid stem" which populated the
Americas from the Alaska
In 1964, archaeologist
Kwang-chih Chang said that it seemed like the
Mongoloid race originated in South China, and he said that it seemed
Mongoloid race was differentiating itself from other races in
the Late Pleistocene. Chang based these thoughts on a skull found in
Sichuan and a skull found in Guangxi.
In 1972, physical anthropologist Carleton Coon said, "From a hyborean
[sic] group there evolved, in northern Asia, the ancestral strain of
the entire specialized
Mongoloid family". In 1962, Coon believed
Mongoloid "subspecies" existed "during most of the
Pleistocene, from 500,000 to 10,000 years ago". According to Coon,
Mongoloid race had not completed its "invasions and expansions"
into Southeast Asia, the Americas, and the
Pacific Islands until
"[t]oward the end of the Pleistocene". By this time Coon
hypothesis that the
Mongoloid race had become
Huxley's map of racial categories from On the Geographical
Distribution of the Chief Modifications of Mankind (1870)
Melanochroi (including Hamites and Moors)
8: Mongoloids A
8: Mongoloids B
8: Mongoloids C
Mahinder Kumar Bhasin (Hindi: महेंद्र कुमार
भसीन) of the Department of Anthropology at the University of
Delhi suggested in a review of an article referencing Mourant 1983
that "The Caucasoids and the
Mongoloid almost certainly became
differentiated from one another somewhere in Asia" and that "Another
differentiation, which probably took place in Asia, is that of the
Australoids, perhaps from a common type before the separation of the
Milford Wolpoff and Rachel Caspari characterize
"his [Carleton Coon's] contention [as being] that the
crossed the 'sapiens threshold' first and thereby evolved the
Douglas J. Futuyma, professor of evolutionary processes at the
University of Michigan, said the
Mongoloid race "diverged 41,000 years
ago" from a
Caucasoid group which diverged from Negroids
"110,000 years ago".
In 1996, professor of anthropology, Akazawa Takeru of the
International Research Center for Japanese Studies, Kyoto, said
Mongoloids originated in
Xinjiang during the "Ice Age".
Navajo, North American Indian. Amerindians are New World Mongoloids,
which diverged from the Northern Mongoloids in Northeast
they entered the Americas.
In 1999, Peter Brown of the Department of Anthropology and
Paleoanthropology at the University of New England evaluated three
sites with early
East Asian modern human skeletal remains (Liujiang,
Liuzhou, Guangxi, China; Shandingdong Man of (but not Peking Man)
Zhoukoudian's Upper Cave; and Minatogawa in Okinawa) dated to between
10,175 and 33,200 years ago, and finds lack of support for the
conventional designation of skeletons from this period as
"Proto-Mongoloid". He stated that "The colonisation of the
11 kyr indicates an earlier date for the appearance of distinctively
East Asian features, however, the earliest unequivocal evidence for
Asian people on the Asian mainland remains at 7000
years BP." He saw this as "possibility that migration across the
Bering Strait went in two directions and the first morphological
Mongoloids evolved in the Americas."
In 2006, Yali
Xue (Chinese: 薛雅丽) et al. of the genome research
Sanger Institute conducted a study of linkage disequilibrium that said
that northern populations in
East Asia started to expand in number
between 34 and 22 thousand years ago, before the last glacial maximum
at 21–18 KYA, while southern populations started to expand between
18 and 12 KYA, but then grew faster, and suggests that the northern
populations expanded earlier because they could exploit the abundant
megafauna of the "Mammoth Steppe", while the southern populations
could increase in number only when a warmer and more stable climate
led to more plentiful plant resources such as tubers.
See also: Epicanthal fold
A drawing of a "Mongoloid" eye according to French anthropologist
Joseph Deniker showing a Russian Kalmyk
An Andean Native American Indian. Arthur Posnansky, Director of the
Tihuanacu Institute of Anthropology, Ethnology and Prehistory,
Bolivia, in a writing entitled "
Mongoloid Signs in Some Ethnic Types
of the Andean Plateau" said that this indigenous boy had epicanthic
folds that almost completely covered his eyelashes and the lacrimal
parts of his eyes.
Louis R. Sullivan, Curator of Physical Anthropology, American Museum
of Natural History has identified these three men as "full-blood
This is a Miwok, American Indian, woman from a publication by Czech
Aleš Hrdlička in 1906.
Sinodonty and Sundadonty
A face of a Malay man from Malaysia
Mongoloid skull shows a round head shape with a medium-width nasal
aperture, rounded orbital margins, massive cheekbones, weak or absent
canine fossae, moderate prognathism, absent brow ridges, simple
cranial sutures, prominent zygomatic bones, broad, flat, tented nasal
root, short nasal spine, shovel-shaped upper incisor teeth (scooped
out behind), straight nasal profile, moderately wide palate shape,
arched sagittal contour, wide facial breadth and a flatter face.
— Caroline Wilkinson, Forensic Facial Reconstruction. (2004). page
For example, an eastern Asian (or Mongoloid) skull, in general terms,
can be described as round rather than long, with wide breadth, a high
face and nose, frontal and lateral projection of the malars, broad
palate, and a general facial flatness, especially in the upper face
and interorbital region (Bowles 1977:343; Howells 1989:77; El-Najjar
and McWilliams 1978:75; Krogman and İşcan 1986:271).
— Michael Pietrusewsky & Michele Toomay Douglas of the
Department of Anthropology at the University of Hawaii at
The vertical distances of the openings of the eye sockets of
Mongoloids are the longest, the vertical distances of the openings of
the eye sockets of Europeans are intermediate, and the vertical
distances of the openings of the eye sockets of aboriginal Australians
and Melanesians are the shortest.
The stratum corneum of
Mongoloid skin contains lots of keratin,
Melanesian skin has low amounts of keratin, and European
skin lacks keratin.
Mongoloids have "yellowish skin", because the stratum corneum of
Mongoloid skin contains lots of "disks of keratin".
There are "many
Mongoloid groups" that characteristically have
"enormously broad ascending ramus".
Palatine tori and mandibular tori are more commonly present in
Mongoloids than in Caucasians and Negroids.
A "mandibular torus" is a trait that commonly occurs in "Mongoloid
In "Whites" and in "
Mongoloid populations", the shafts of the femurs
curve toward the front of the person relative to how the femurs are in
"Mongoloids" have femurs with more curvature and more twisting at the
neck than the femurs of both "whites" and "blacks". Whites have femurs
that are "intermediate in both curvature and twisting" between
Mongoloids and blacks. Blacks have femurs with less curvature and less
twisting at the head or neck than the femurs of both whites and
Carleton S. Coon
Carleton S. Coon said that one of the reasons that Mongoloids
have flatter faces than Caucasoids is due to the masseter and
temporalis jaw muscles in the faces of Mongoloids being positioned
more toward the front of the faces of Mongoloids relative to where
these jaw muscles are positioned in the faces of Caucasoids.
A 1992 study compared the features of North African skull samples
dated to the Late
Pleistocene against purported "mongoloid" and
"australoid" features. The study found that the skull samples had at
"moderate to high frequencies" the "Chinese features" of shovel-shaped
incisors and a horizontally flat face, and the study found that the
skull samples had at "moderate to high frequencies" the "southeast
Asian traits" of a high degree of prognathism, strong brow ridges,
projecting cheekbones and "malar tuberosities".
George W. Gill and other modern forensic anthropologists,
physical traits of
Mongoloid crania are generally distinct from those
Negroid races. They assert that they can identify
Mongoloid skull with an accuracy of up to 95%. However, Alan H.
Goodman cautions that this precision estimate is often based on
methodologies using subsets of samples. He also argues that scientists
have a professional and ethical duty to avoid such biological analyses
since they could potentially have sociopolitical effects.
Variation in craniofacial form between humans has been found to be
largely due to differing patterns of biological inheritance. Modern
cross-analysis of osteological variables and genome-wide SNPs has
identified specific genes, which control this craniofacial
development. Of these genes, DCHS2, RUNX2, GLI3,
found to determine nasal morphology, whereas
EDAR impacts chin
Mongoloid teeth are larger than
Mongoloids have mandibles that are "robust", and Mongoloids have
mandibles that are "similar" to the mandibles of Negroids in respect
to the chins of Mongoloids and Negroids not being as prominent as the
chins of Caucasoids and in respect to the chins of Mongoloids and
Negroids being "median" while the
Caucasoid chin is "bilateral".
Mongoloids generally have big incisors, big canines, big molars and
The East Polynesian, the Paleoindian/North American Archaic, and the
Amerindian are characterized by a "Square, heavy jaw".
The East Polynesian and the Mongoloid/Late
characterized by a "Median chin". The European is characterized by a
"sharp, thin jaw" that has a "strong, prominent chin". Mongoloid
peoples, meaning modern East Asians and Amerindians of the later time
periods, are characterized by "robust" cheekbones that project forward
and to either side of the face.
The nasal sill bones of American Indians are of medium development and
"sometimes even sharp", and, in this respect, they are like the nasal
sill bones of "Whites" whose nasal sill bones are almost without
exception sharp. The nasal bones of East Asians are "small" and "often
flat". American Indians and East Asians almost never have a nasion
depression which is the depression between the brow ridge and the
bridge of the nose. The nasal sill bones of East
"rounded", smooth and "dull" and, in this respect, they are like the
nasal sill bones of sub-Saharan Africans and Australians/Melanesians.
The nasal bones of East
Polynesians are "large and prominent" and
there is often a nasion depression in East
Polynesians which is a
trait that is also present in "Whites". East
Polynesians have a lower
nasal root than "Europeans". The nasal bridge of East
not as straight in profile as the "European" nasal bridge, and the
nasal bridge of East
Polynesians does not have the "steeple shape" of
the "Caucasoid" nasal bridge.
Mongoloids have the smallest eyeballs, Negroids have eyeballs of
medium size, and Caucasoids have the largest eyeballs. This eyeball
size pattern is different for the size of the eye sockets in which the
eyeballs reside, however, since Negroids have the smallest eye
sockets, Caucasoids have eye sockets of medium size, and Mongoloids
have the largest eye sockets.
A study took panoramic radiographs of two sites at the angle of the
mandible of 79 dental students, consisting of 20 male Caucasoids, 20
female Caucasoids, 17 male Mongoloids and 22 female Mongoloids. The
abstract for the study said that the Mongoloids in the study had about
"20% higher bone density at the angle of the mandible" than the
Caucasoids in the study with a p-value of 0.0094 for the males and a
p-value of 0.0004 for females.
Samoans are of the
Mongoloid race but their features represent a
"slightly different evolution since the time of their separation and
isolation from their parental stock" or a retention of features that
have been lost in other
Mongoloid types. The "straight" or "low waves"
hair of the Samoan is one such retention compared to the stiff, coarse
hair that typifies the Mongoloid. Most of the characteristics of the
Mongoloid affinities such as: skin color, hair color, eye
color, conjuctiva, amount of beard, hair on chest, nasal bridge,
nostrils, lips, face width, biogonial width, cephalo-facial index,
nasal height, ear height and chin.
Polynesians lack characteristic
Mongoloid shovel-shaped incisors, because this characteristic
Mongoloid trait disappeared in the Polynesian population as the teeth
Polynesians reduced in size over the course of their evolutionary
Mongoloid features are a mesocranic skull, fairly large and protruding
cheekbones, nasal bones that are flat and broad, a nasal bridge that
is slightly concave without depression in the nasion, "the lower
borders of the piriform aperture are not sharp but guttered", shallow
prenasal fossae, small anterior nasal spine, trace amounts of canine
fossae and moderate alveolar prognathism.
Paleoindian has proto-
Mongoloid morphology such as pronounced
development of supraorbital ridges low frontals, marked post-orbital
constriction, prominent and protruding occipitals, small mastoids,
long crania and a relatively narrow bizygomatic breadth.
Mongoloid eyelid is characterized by puffiness of the upper
eyelid, "superficial expansion of the levator aponeurosis" that are
"turned up around this transverse ligament to become the orbital
septum", "low position of the preaponeurotic fat" and narrowness of
the palpebral fissure.
Mongoloid racial type is distinguished by forward-projecting malar
(cheek) bones, comparatively flat faces, large circular orbits,
"moderate nasal aperture with a slightly pointed lower margin",
larger, more gracile braincase, broader skull, broader face and
flatter roof of the nose.
Mongoloid skin has thick skin cuticle and an abundance of carotene
Mongoloid males have "little or no facial or
Mongoloid hair is coarse, straight, blue-black and
weighs the most out of the races. The size of the average
Mongoloid hair is 0.0051 square millimetres
(7.9×10−6 sq in) based on samples from Chinese, North and
South American Indians,
Eskimos and Thais.
Mongoloid hair whether
it be Sioux,
Ifugao or Japanese has the thickest diameter out of all
human hair. Mongoloids evolved hairlessness to keep clean while
wearing heavy garments for months without bathing during the Ice
In 1996, Rebecca Haydenblit of the Hominid Evolutionary Biology
Research Group at
Cambridge University did a study on the dentition of
four pre-Columbian Mesoamerican populations and compared their data to
Mongoloid populations. She said that Tlatilco, Cuicuilco,
Monte Albán and Cholula populations followed an overall Sundadont
dental pattern characteristic of
Southeast Asia rather than a Sinodont
dental pattern characteristic of Northeast Asia.
The traits of the
Mongoloid skull are: long and broad skulls of
intermediate height, arched sagittal contour, very wide facial
contour, high face height, rounded orbital opening, narrow nasal
opening, wide, flat nasal bones, sharp lower nasal margin, straight
facial profile, moderate and white palate shape, 90%+ shovel-shaped
incisors and large, smooth general form.
Miquel Hernández of the Department of Animal Biology at the
University of Barcelona
University of Barcelona said East Asians (Kyushu, Atayal, Philippines,
Hokkaido and Anyang) and Amerinds (Yaujos, Santa Cruz and
Arikara) have the typical
Mongoloid cranial pattern, but other
Mongoloids such as Pacific groups (Easter Island, Mokapu, Guam and
Moriori people), arctic groups (
Eskimos and Buriats), Fuegians
(Selk’nam, Ya´mana, Kawe´skar) and the Ainu differ from this by
having "larger cranial dimensions over many variables".
Commenting on the lack of body hair (glabrousness) of Negroids and
Carleton S. Coon
Carleton S. Coon wrote that "[b]oth negroid and mongoloid
skin conditions are inimical to excessive hair development except upon
The theoretical index of hair bending stiffness is calculated using
the thickest and thinnest axial diameters of human hair, and this
index differs by race. The hair stiffness indexes of Mongoloids,
Africans and Europeans are: 4.23, 2.75 and 1.59, respectively. This
means that Mongoloids with the highest hair stiffness index value of
4.23 have the most rigid hair and Europeans with the lowest hair
stiffness index value of 1.59 have the least rigid hair. The
eccentricity of hair cross-sectional shape index is also calculated
using the thickest and thinnest axial diameters of human hair, and
this index also differs by race. The hair eccentricity indexes of
Africans, Europeans and Mongoloids are: 1.74, 1.49 and 1.30,
respectively. This means that Africans with the highest hair
eccentricity index value of 1.74 have the curliest hair and Mongoloids
with the lowest hair eccentricity index value of 1.30 have the least
See also: proto-
This is a Maidu, American Indian man from a publication by
Franz Boas in 1905.
Tsunehiko Hanihara of the Department of Anatomy at Jichi Medical
School said that the inhabitants of
Aogashima and Okinawa, Minatogawa
Man, the Jomon and the modern Ainu are most likely directly descended
from Proto-Mongoloids of Late
Mark J. Hudson, Professor of Anthropology at Nishikyushu University,
Japan was settled by a
Proto-Mongoloid population in the
Pleistocene who became the Jōmon and their features can be seen in
the Ainu, Okinawan and as well in Yamato people. Hudson said that,
later, during the Yayoi period, the
Neo-Mongoloid type entered Japan.
Hudson said that genetically
Japanese people are primarily
This is a Yurok, American Indian, woman from a publication by Czech
Aleš Hrdlička in 1906.
Theodore G. Schurr of the Department of Anthropology at the University
of Pennsylvania said that
Mongoloid traits emerged from Transbaikalia,
central and eastern regions of Mongolia, and several regions of
Northern China. Schurr said that studies of cranio-facial variation in
Mongolia suggest that the region of modern-day Mongolians is the
origin of the
Mongoloid racial type".
Dr. Rukang Wu (Chinese: 吴汝康) of the Institute of Vertebrate
Palaeontology and Palaeoanthropology, Academia Sinica, China, said
that the remains of Liukiang human fossils were an early type of
Mongoloid that indicated South
China was the birthplace where
Mongoloid race originated.
Marta Mirazón Lahr
Marta Mirazón Lahr of the Department of Biological Anthropology
Cambridge University said there are two hypotheses on the origin of
Mongoloids. Lahr said that one hypothesis is that Mongoloids
originated in north
Asia due to the regional continuity in this region
and this population conforming best to the standard Mongoloid
features. Lahr said that the other hypothesis is that Mongoloids
Southeast Asian populations that expanded from Africa
Southeast Asia during the first half of the Upper
then traveled to Australia-Melanesia and East Asia. Lahr said that the
morphology of the
Paleoindian is consistent with the proto-Mongoloid
Hisao Baba and Shuichiro Narasaki of the Department of Anthropology at
the National Science Museum, in Tokyo, Japan, said that it is broadly
Zhoukoudian Upper Cave Man and maybe Liujian Man were
"so-called proto-Mongoloids" who did not have a completely developed
Main article: Neoteny in humans
Yanomami woman and child from the Amazon rainforest
Ashley Montagu claimed "the skeleton of the classic
Mongoloid type is
very delicately made, even down to the character of the sutures of the
skull which, like those of the infant skull, are relatively smooth and
untortuous. In fact the
Mongoloid presents so many physical traits
which are associated with the late fetus or young infant that he has
been called a fetalized, infantilized or pedomorphic type. Those who
have carefully observed young babies may recall that the root of the
nose is frequently flat or low as in Mongoloids, and that an internal
epicanthic fold in such instances is usually present. The smaller
number of individual head hairs and the marked hairlessness of the
remainder of the body are infantile traits, as are likewise the small
mastoid processes, the shallow fossa into which the jawbone fits (the
mandibular fossa), the rather stocky build, the large brain-pan and
brain, lack of brow ridges, and quite a number of other
Stephen Oppenheimer of the Institute of Cognitive & Evolutionary
Anthropology at Oxford University said, "An interesting hypothesis put
forward by paleontologist
Stephen Jay Gould
Stephen Jay Gould many years ago was that
the package of the
Mongoloid anatomical changes could be explained by
the phenomenon of neoteny, whereby an infantile or childlike body form
is preserved in adult life. Neoteny in hominids is still one of the
simplest explanations of how we developed a disproportionately large
brain so rapidly over the past few million years. The relatively large
brain and the forward rotation of the skull on the spinal column, and
body hair loss, both characteristic of humans, are found in foetal
chimps. Gould suggested a mild intensification of neoteny in
Mongoloids, in whom it has been given the name pedomorphy. Such a
mechanism is likely to involve only a few controller genes and could
therefore happen over a relatively short evolutionary period. It would
also explain how the counterintuitive retrousse [turned up at the end]
nose and relative loss of facial hair got into the package".
"[D]ecrease unnecessary muscle bulk, less tooth mass, thinner bones
and smaller physical size; ...this follows the selective adaptive
Two Japanese girls
Paul Storm of the Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Netherlands, said
Australasia there are two types of cranial morphologies—the
"Sunda" (Mongoloid) and "Sahul" (Australoid) types. Storm said that
the "Sunda" (Mongoloid) type includes Chinese and Javanese people, and
he said that the "Sahul" (Australoid) type includes Papuans and
Australian aborigines. Storm said that the "Sunda" (Mongoloid) type
has a flat face with high cheek bones, and Storm said that this "flat
face" of the Chinese and Javanese is known as the "mongoloid face".
Storm further said that the "Sunda" (Mongoloid) type has a more
rounded skull, "feminine (juvenile) characters", a "retention of
juvenile characters" and a limited outgrowth of superstructures such
as the supraorbital region. Storm said that "Sunda" (Mongoloid) skulls
resemble female skulls more than "Sahul" (Australoid) skulls resemble
female skulls. Storm said that the skulls of "Asian" males ("Chinese
and Javanese") have "more feminine characteristics", and he said that
they have "many feminine characters in contrast with
Indochinese kids with their parents
Paul Storm said that
Asia contained humans with "generalized" cranial
morphology, but between 20,000 BP and 12,000 BP this generalized type
disappeared as a new type emerged. This new type had a flatter face
with more pronounced cheekbones, a more rounded head, reduced sexual
dimorphism (male skulls started to resemble female skulls), a
reduction of superstructures such as the supraorbital region and an
increased "retention of juvenile characters". Storm said that this new
type of skull that emerged is called the "Proto-Sunda"
(Proto-Mongoloid) type, and it is distinguished from the "Sunda"
(Mongoloid) type by being more "robust". Storm said that the
"Mongoloid" or "Asian" type of skull developed relatively fast during
a population bottleneck in
Asia that happened during the Late
Pleistocene or Early
Holocene through a microevolutionary trend that
involved a "continuation of neoteny and gracilisation trends". Due to
different courses of evolution, Storm said that these two types of
skulls, the "Sunda" (Mongoloid) type and the "Sahul" (Australoid)
type, are now clearly recognizable at the present time.
Andrew Arthur Abbie who was an anatomist and anthropologist at the
University of Adelaide talked about leg-to-torso length being
related to neoteny. Abbie said that women normally have shorter legs
than men, and he said that shorter legs are the normal condition in
some ethnic groups such as Mongoloids. Abbie said that Mongoloids of
whom he listed the people of "China,
Japan and the Americas" have
proportionately larger heads and shorter legs than Europeans, and he
said that this is a case of "paedomorphism". Abbie said that
aboriginal Australians and some African ethnic groups such as the
"Negro", the "Hottentot" and the "Nubian" peoples have proportionately
longer legs than Europeans, and he said that this is a case of
"gerontomorphism". Abbie said that ethnic groups with proportionately
shorter legs than Europeans are relatively "paedomorphic" in terms of
leg-to-torso ratios when compared to Europeans, and he said that
ethnic groups with proportionately longer legs than Europeans are
relatively "gerontomorphic" in terms of leg-to-torso ratios when
compared to Europeans.
See also: Allen's rule
Inuit people on a traditional qamutik (dog sled) in Cape Dorset,
Japanese schoolgirls at a city park
Professor of anthropology, Akazawa Takeru of the International
Research Center for Japanese Studies in
Kyoto Japan, said that
Mongoloid features are an adaptation to the cold of the Mammoth
steppe. He mentions the Lewis waves of warm blood cyclical
vasodilation and vasoconstriction of the peripheral capillaries in
Mongoloids as an adaption to the cold. He lists the short limbs,
short noses, flat faces, epicanthic fold and lower surface-to-mass
ratio as further
Mongoloid adaptations to cold.
Nicholas Wade said that biologists have speculated that the Mongoloid
skull type was the result of natural selection in response to a cold
climate, and Wade said that the
Mongoloid skull type first started to
indisputably appear in the archaeological record 10,000 years ago.
Wade said that biologists have speculated that the fat in the eyelids
of Mongoloids and the stocky builds of Mongoloids were selected for as
adaptations to the cold.
Takasaki Yuji (高崎裕治) of Akita University, Japan, in the
Journal of Physiological Anthropology and Applied Human Science said
Mongoloid ancestors had evolved over time in cold environments"
and the short limbs of the
Mongoloid was due to Allen's ecological
Professor of anthropology at Trent University Ontario, Canada, Joseph
K. So (1980) cited a study by J. T. Steegman (1965) that the so-called
Mongoloid face has been shown in an experiment, using
Japanese and European subjects, to not offer greater protection to
frostbite. In explaining
Mongoloid cold-adaptiveness, So cites
the work of W. L. Hylander (1977) where Hylander said that in the
Eskimo (Inuit), for example, the reduction of the brow ridge and
flatness of the face is due to internal structural configurations that
are cold adapted in the sense that they produce a large vertical bite
force necessary to chew frozen seal meat.
Inupiat family from Noatak, Alaska, 1929
Miquel Hernández of the Department of Animal Biology at the
University of Barcelona
University of Barcelona said that the high and narrow nose of Eskimos
(Inuit) and the Neanderthals is an adaptation to a cold and dry
environment, since it contributes to warming and moisturizing the air
and the "recovery of heat and moisture from expired air".
A. T. Steegman of the Department of Anthropology at State University
of New York investigated the assumption that
Allen's rule caused the
structural configuration of the
Mongoloid face. Steegman
did an experiment that involved the survival of rats in the cold.
Steegman said that the rats with narrow nasal passages, broader faces,
shorter tails and shorter legs survived the best in the cold.
Steegman paralleled his findings with the
Eskimo and Aleut, by claiming these
have similar features in accordance with Allen's rule: a narrow nasal
passage, relatively large heads, long to round heads, large jaws,
relatively large bodies, and short limbs.
Kenneth L. Beals of the Department of Anthropology at Oregon State
University said that the indigenous people of the
cephalic indexes that are an exception to Allen's rule, since the
indigenous people of the hot climates of North and
South America have
cold-adapted, high cephalic indexes. Beals said that these
peoples have not yet evolved the appropriate cephalic index for their
climate, being, comparatively, only recently descended from the
Carleton S. Coon
Carleton S. Coon et al. said that Mongoloids have faces that
are adapted to the extreme cold of subarctic and arctic conditions.
Coon et al. said that Mongoloids have eye sockets that have been
extended vertically to make room for the "heavy fat padding" that
Mongoloids have around their eyeballs. Coon et al. said that
Mongoloids have "reduced" brow ridges to decrease the size of the air
spaces inside of their brow ridges known as the frontal sinuses which
are "vulnerable" to the cold. Coon et al. said that
features reduce the surface area of the nose by having nasal bones
that are flat against the face and having enlarged cheekbones that
project forward which effectively reduce the external projection of
Carleton S. Coon
Carleton S. Coon also has a hypothesis for why noses on Mongoloids are
very distinct. Typically, the nose is not very prominent on the face
of a Mongoloid. Their frontal sinus is also reduced in order to allow
more room for padding to protect from their cold environment.
Regardless of the environment that the mongoloid is in, his nose helps
reduce the stress of the environment on their body by moistening the
air inspired to cool the body off instead of doing a straight up heat
Physical features of
The skin of Asians turns darker and yellower with age relative to the
skin of Caucasians.
Willett Enos Rotzell professor of Botany and Zoology at the Hahnemann
Medical College said the Asian race has skin color ranging from a
yellowish tint to an olive shade, with black and coarse hair with a
circular cross section, an absent or scanty beard, a brachycephalic
skull, prominent cheek bones and a broad face. Rotzell said that the
Asian race has its original home in Asia.
Dennis C. Dirkmaat professor of paleoanthropology and archaeology at
Mercyhurst University said that
Southeast Asian skulls can be
distinguished from Asian and Native American skulls in that they are
"smaller and less robust" with noses exhibiting a medium width without
nasal overgrowth, and can "exhibit gracile features common to female
Dr. Ann H. Ross, Co-Director of the Forensic Sciences Institute at
North Carolina State University, in a presentation on the concept
of "race" (written in scare quotes) from the perspective of forensic
anthropology, said individuals of "Asian ancestry" have an
"intermediate profile", meaning the part of the maxilla is "moderate"
compared to individuals of "African ancestry" who have a "projecting
maxilla", and compared to individuals who are "White/Hispanic" who
generally have a "straight profile" or "lack of prognathism". She
qualified her statement about Hispanics by adding that their lack of
prognathism would not hold true for Hispanic populations with "African
Qing He et al. of the Obesity Research Center at Columbia University
did a study on "fat distribution" of 358 prepubertal children and the
study said that Asians have less gynoid fat than African Americans and
more relative trunk fat than Caucasians, but less relative extremity
fat than Caucasians.
Douglas W. Deedrick, Unit Chief of the Trace Evidence Unit for the
Federal Bureau of Investigation, said that hairs of "
Asian origin" are characterized as being straight and coarse with a
circular cross section and a wider diameter than those of other
"racial groups". He said that the cuticle is thicker than those of
Negroid or Caucasian hairs while the medulla is "continuous and wide".
He said that the pigment granules are smaller than the larger pigment
Negroid hair, and the pigment granules in the cortex are
"generally larger" than those of Caucasian hair. Unlike the "evenly
distributed" pigment granules of Caucasian hair, Asian hair frequently
has clusters of pigment granules that form "patchy areas".
Jeong Sang-ki (Korean: 정상기) et al. of Chonnam University,
Kwangju, Korea, using both Asian and Caucasian cadavers as well as
four healthy young Korean men said that "Asian eyelids" whether "Asian
single eyelids" or "Asian double eyelids" had more fat in them than in
Caucasians. Jeong et al. said that the cause of the "Asian single
eyelid" was that "the orbital septum fuses to the levator aponeurosis
at variable distances below the superior tarsal border; (2)
preaponeurotic fat pad protusion and a thick subcutaneous fat layer
prevent levator fibers from extending toward the skin near the
superior tarsal border; and (3) the primary insertion of the levator
aponeurosis into the orbicularis muscle and into the upper eyelid skin
occurs closer to the eyelid margin in Asians."
Kalmyk people of Kalmykia, North Caucasus, European Russia
The average size of random melanosomes of "Asian skin" for Chinese
individuals of Fitzpatrick phototype IV through V was measured to be
1.36 ± 0.15 μm2 x 10−2 which was between the higher value of 1.44
± 0.67 μm2 x 10−2 measured for "African/American skin" of
Fitzpatrick phototype VI and the lower value of 0.94 ± 0.48 μm2 x
10−2 measured for "Caucasian skin" of Fitzpatrick phototype II. The
ratio of clustered to distributed melanosomes was 37.4% clustered vs.
62.6% distributed in Asian skin, 84.5%. clustered vs. 15.5%
distributed in Caucasian skin and 11.1% clustered vs. 88.9%
distributed in African/American skin.
George Richard Scott, physical anthropologist at the University of
Nevada, said that some East Asians (in particular, Koreans, Han
Chinese and some Japanese), as well as Native Americans, have a
distinctive dental pattern known as Sinodonty, where, among other
features, the upper first two incisors are not aligned with the other
teeth, but are rotated a few degrees inward and are
Both darker-skinned and lighter-skinned Asians have a thicker dermis
than Caucasians of comparable skin pigment which may be the reason for
a "substantially lower incidence of fine wrinkles" in Asians when
compared to Caucasians, and this lower incidence of fine wrinkles may
be the reason for the "myth" that Asian faces age slower than
Asian people and black people have a thicker dermis than white people.
The skin of
Asian people and black people also has more sun protection
than the skin of white people due to
Asian people and black people
having larger and more numerous melanosomes in their skin than white
people. The thicker dermis and the more numerous melanosomes of larger
size might be the reasons that
Asian people and black people have a
lower incidence facial wrinkles than white people.
Global hair texture distribution
Merina children of Madagascar
Main article: Turkic peoples
Uyghurs with epicanthic fold in Xinjiang, China
Turkic peoples native to
Central Asia are of mixed Caucasoid
Mongoloid origin. Turkic people display a great variety of ethnic
types. They possess physical features ranging from
Caucasoid facial structure is common
among many Turkic groups, such as Chuvash people, Tatars, Kazakhs,
Uzbeks, Bashkirs, also such
Caucasoid features are
present in some
Russians in different proportions, less or more.
Historically, the racial classification of the
Turkic peoples was
sometimes given as "Turanid".
Turanid racial type or "minor race",
situated at the boundary of the distribution of the
Europid "great races".
The Turkic people live in central, eastern, northern, and western Asia
as well as parts of eastern Europe. The term "Turkic" represents
a broad ethnic group of peoples including existing societies such as
Altai, Azerbaijanis, Balkars, Bashkirs, Chuvashes, Crimean Karaites,
Gagauz, Karachays, Karakalpaks, Kazakhs, Khakas, Krymchaks, Kyrgyz
people, Nogais, Qashqai, Tatars, Turkmens, Turkish people, Tuvans,
Uyghurs, Uzbeks, and
Yakuts and as well as past civilizations such as
Dingling, Bulgars, Chuban, Göktürks, Oghuz Turks, Khazars, Khaljis,
Kipchaks, Kumans, Karluks, Tiele, Turgeshes, Yenisei Kirghiz, and
Tuoba and the Xiongnu.
See also: Mongolian spot
A Mongolian spot, also known as Mongolian blue spot, congenital dermal
melanocytosis, and dermal melanocytosis is a benign, flat,
congenital birthmark with wavy borders and irregular shape. In 1883 it
was described and named after Mongolians by Erwin Bälz, a German
anthropologist based in Japan. It normally
disappears three to five years after birth and almost always by
puberty. The most common color is blue, although they can be
blue-gray, blue-black or deep brown.
The spot is prevalent among East, South, Southeast, North and Central
Asian peoples, Indigenous Oceanians (chiefly Micronesians and
Polynesians), Sub-Saharan Africans, Amerindians,
non-European Latin Americans, Caribbeans of mixed-race descent, and
Turkish people. They occur in about 90-95% of
Asian and 80-85% Native American infants. Approximately 90% of
Polynesians and Micronesians are born with Mongolian spots, as are
about 46% of children in Latin America, where they are associated
with non-European descent. These spots also appear on 5-10% of babies
of full Caucasian descent;
Coria del Río
Coria del Río in Spain has a high
incidence due to the presence of descendants of Hasekura Tsunenaga,
the first Japanese official envoy to Spain in the early 17th
century. Black babies have Mongolian spots at a frequency of
Asian people and Race and genetics
This genetic distance from Naruya (2002) is an estimate of 18 world
human groups by a neighbor-joining method based on 23 kinds of genetic
information. Saitou et al. considered a "pan-
which included the Australoid,
Amerindian and Asian Mongoloid
Genetic distance map by Cavalli-Sforza et al. (1994)
Map of early human migrations out of
Africa from Naruya
Genetic research into the separation time between the major racial
groups was presented as early as 1985 by Masatoshi Nei. Nei (1985)
found a separation time between
Negroid and Eurasian (
Mongoloid taken together) of roughly 110,000 years, and a separation
time between the
Mongoloid groups of roughly 40,000
Gravel et al. (2010) gave a lower estimate for Caucasoid-Mongoloid
divergece, between 28,000 and 21,000 years ago.
A 2016 study presented an analysis of the population genetics of the
Ainu people of northern
Japan as key to the reconstruction of the
early peopling of East Asia. The Ainu were found to represent a more
basal branch than the modern farming populations of East Asia,
suggesting an ancient (pre-Neolithic) connection with northeast
East Asian genetics shows a number of concentrated alleles suggestive
of selection pressures since their separation from Caucasoids. This
concerns the genes EDAR, ADH1B, ABCC1, and
ALDH2 in particular. The
East Asian types of
ADH1B are associated with rice domestication and
would thus have arisen after the c. 11,000 years ago. A 2013
study associated several phenotypical traits associated with
Mongoloids with a single mutation of the
EDAR gene, dated to c. 35,000
years ago. 
A 2013 study found
Neanderthal introgression of 18 genes—several of
which are related to UV-light adaptation—within the chromosome
3p21.31 region (HYAL region) of East Asians. The introgressive
haplotypes were positively selected in only
East Asian populations,
rising steadily from 45,000 years ago until a sudden increase of
growth rate around 5,000 to 3,500 years ago. They occur at very high
East Asian populations in contrast to other Eurasian
populations (e.g. European and South Asian populations). The findings
also suggests that this
Neanderthal introgression occurred within the
ancestral population shared by East Asians and Native Americans.
"Tianyuan Man", an individual who lived in
China c. 40,000 years ago,
Neanderthal admixture. A 2017 study of the ancient
Tianyuan Man found that the individual is closely related to
East Asian popularions, but not a direct ancestor.
In a 1994 study led by Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza, 42 Asian
populations were divided into three groupings, 1. Asian Caucasoids, 2.
Northeast and East Asian, 3. Southeast Asian, with substantial
Mongoloid hybridization along an approximate boundary
running from the Urals to the eastern part of India.
Other studies also show that S. Chinese, Vietnamese and Tai peoples
were found intermediate between the N. Chinese or other Northeast
Asians and Southeast Asian. "Reference populations".
Atsushi Tajima (田嶋敦) et al. of Graduate University for Advanced
Studies, Hayama, Kanagawa, Japan, said that there is evidence for four
separate populations, carrying distinct sets of non-recombining Y
chromosome lineages, within the traditional
Mongoloid category: North
Asians, Han Chinese, Southeast Asians, and Japanese/Koreans.
Satoshi Horai (宝来聡) of the Japanese National Institute of
Genetics, said that phylogenetic analysis indicated that there are two
distinct groups of Mongoloids – one which early on diverged from
Negroids and another that diverged from Caucasoids later. Horai said
Mongoloid distribution corresponds to North and South America,
Oceania, Southeast Asia, east Asia, and Siberia.
A study conducted by the HUGO Pan-Asian SNP Consortium in 2009 used
principal components analysis, which makes no prior population
assumptions, on genetic data sampled from a large number of points
across Asia. They said that
East Asian and South-East Asian
populations clustered together, and suggested a common origin for
these populations. At the same time they observed a broad
discontinuity between this cluster and South Asia, commenting most of
the Indian populations showed evidence of shared ancestry with
European populations. The study said that genetic ancestry is strongly
correlated with linguistic affiliations as well as geography.
Scott W. Ballinger et al. of the Department of Biochemistry at Emory
University said "Asian mtDNA lineages" originated in Southern China
with the "Southern Mongoloid".
Hiroki Oota (太田博樹) et al. of the Max Planck Institute for
Evolutionary Anthropology, Germany, said that "Asian populations" have
high mtDNA variation with Vietnamese having the highest mtDNA
diversity, but, overall, the genetic distance between "Asian
populations" is small.
Melissa L. Cann et al. of the Department of Biochemistry at the
University of California, Berkeley, said that early Asians did not mix
Homo and that the features of "ancient Asian forms"
indicate that "Asian erectus" was not ancestral to "
Since modern-day "Asians" do not show the amount of mtDNA divergence
expected had they mixed with
Homo erectus, Cann believes the expanding
Homo sapiens from
Africa replaced the Asian
Douglas C. Wallace of the Department of Biochemistry at Emory
University said that the mtDNA of the indigenous peoples of the
Americas is "clearly Asian in character", but the few founding females
carried "rare Asian mtDNAs", causing a different frequency of mtDNA
and a "dramatic founder effect". The Austro-Asiatic groups of
India are proto Asiatic groups, like the Munda people.
Shama Barnabas, B. Joshi and C.G. Suresh of the Division of
Biochemical Sciences, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune, India, said
that evidence for the original people of
India who they refer to as
the "proto-Asiatic element" spreading into
Southeast Asia to become
Southeast Asians is shown by the mtDNA affinities between Indians and
East Asians and Southeast Asians in DdeI 10394 site along with the
associated Asian-specific AluI 10397 site.
Genetic data tables
Genetic Distances and Effective Divergence Times Between the Three
Major Races of Man (3)
Effective divergence time (years)
Caucasoid / Mongoloid
41,000 ± 15,000
Caucasoid / Negroid
113,000 ± 34,000
Negroid / Mongoloid
116,000 ± 34,000
Source: Table 1, Page 42,
Masatoshi Nei (1985)
mtDNA divergence within and between 5 human populations
% sequence divergence
5. New Guinean
The divergence is calculated by method published within an article by
Masatoshi Nei & Fumio Tajima. The values of the mean pairwise
divergence between individuals within populations (δx)
appear on the diagonal. The values below the diagonal (δxy)
are the mean pairwise divergences between individuals
belonging to two different populations, X and Y. The values above the
diagonal (δ) are interpopulation divergences that
corrected for variation within those populations with the equation δ
= δxy – 0.5(δx + δy).
Source: Table 1, Page 32, Rebecca L. Cann, Mark Stoneking & Allan
C. Wilson (1987)
Distances Between Races and Heterozygosity Based on Blood, Blood
Caucasoid vs. Mongoloid
Mongoloid vs. Negroid
Negroid vs. Caucasoid
Blood Group Loci
Number of Loci
Average Genetic Distance Between Races
Number of Loci
Average Genetic Distance Between Races
Source: Table 3.2, Page 36, Anthony P. Polednak (1989)
Estimates of the Number of
Nucleotide Differences per Site
Both Among (dxy) and within (dx or dy) Each
of the Three Races,
Nucleotide Differences (d) among the Races
(N = 20)
(N = 71)
(N = 10)
Source: Table 3, Page 833, Satoshi Horai & Kenji Hayasaka
Genetic diversity within / between continental populations
Within Populations average
mean pairwise differences
7.99 ± 2.72
4.63 ± 0.94
7.12 ± 0.91
5.95 ± 1.51
Source: Table 2, Page 149, Hiroki Oota et al. (2002)
Anthropometric data tables
Craniofacial trait variations
Nasal bone size
Source: Table 1, Page 22, Blumenfeld (2000)
Racial Characteristics of the Skull
Lower nasal margin
Rounded large, rounded
Modified with permission from Krogman, M. M. The Human Skeleton in
2nd ed., Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas, 1973, 190.
Source: Table 1, Page 83, Robert B. Pickering & David C. Bachman
Mechanical properties of ethnic hair
Strain at breakage
The values presented here are based on 15 measurements.
Values show up to 15% variation from sample to sample.
Source: Table 34.14, Page 1106, Bhushan (2010)
Presentation of some of the common skeletal traits of the skull and
face that they vary significantly between different racial group
Short and medium
Long and medium
Long and narrow
Short and broad
Large and high
Medium and low
Small and flat
High and prominent
Lower nasal margin
Sharp and long spine
Dull and reduced spine
Prominent and angled suture
Reduced and curved suture
Reduced and angled suture
Prominent and angled suture
Source: Table 1, Page 161, Stavrianos et al. (2012)
Amber N. Heard from the Department of Anthropology, University of
Texas at Austin has argued "Mongoloid" should be discontinued from
forensic literature because Southeast Asians and Northeast Asians
differ significantly in their frequency of combined non-metric cranial
traits; Southeast Asians and Northeast Asians therefore should not be
considered "Mongoloid", but separate ancestry categories.
The terminology of "Caucasoid", "Mongoloid", "Negroid" have also been
criticized more generally as harking back to anthropological
classifications unduly based on typology alone.
As a term for Down syndrome
Main article: Mongolian idiocy
"Mongoloid" has had a second usage, now generally avoided as highly
offensive: until the late 20th century, people with Down
syndrome. were often referred to as "Mongoloids", or in
terms of "Mongolian idiocy" or "Mongolian imbecility". The term was
motivated by the observation that people with
Down syndrome often have
epicanthic folds. Coined in 1908, the term remained in medical
usage until the 1950s. In 1961, its use was deprecated by a group of
genetic experts in an article in
The Lancet due to its "misleading
connotations".  The term continued to be used as a pejorative in
the second half of the 20th century, with shortened versions such as
Mong in slang usage.
By the end of the 20th-century, the pejorative connotations of the
obsolete term for
Down syndrome had in turn rubbed off on the term for
the racial category. Thus, Chong Yah Lim in 2004 expressed his dislike
for the term "Mongoloid" for the broad racial category due to its
connotations of "demented physical and mental developments",
suggesting the term "
East Asian race" as a more "appropriately
neutral, modern term".
Afro-Asian (mixed ancestry)
Eurasian (mixed ancestry)
Mestizo (mixed ancestry)
^ Mongoloid. (2012). Dictionary.com. Retrieved September 3, 2012, from
^ For a contrast with the "Europoid" or
Caucasian race see footnote #4
of page 58-59 in Beckwith, Christopher. (2009). Empires of the Silk
Road: a History of Central
Eurasia from the Bronze Age to the Present.
Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press.
^ a b Mongolian Spot DrGreen.com
^ Mongolian Spot - English information of Mongolian spot, written by
Hironao NUMABE, M.D., Tokyo Medical University.
^ a b Montagu, A. (1951). An introduction to physical anthropology: A
revised second edition. Charles C. Thomas Publisher: Springfield,
^ Forensic Anthropology. (2017). Infobase Publishing. Retrieved June
12, 2017, from link.
^ Adams, Bradley J. (2007). Forensic Anthropology. USA: Chelsea House.
Page 44. ISBN 978-0-7910-9198-2 Retrieved June 12, 2017, from
^ a b Smay, Diana; Armelagos, George. "Galileo Wept: A Critical
Assessment of the Use of Race in Forensic Anthropology" (PDF). Emory
^ a b Lieberman, Leonard. "Out of Our Skulls: Caucasoid, Mongoloid,
Negroid?". Anthropology News. 38: 56.
^ a b Templeton, Alan R. "Human Races: A Genetic and Evolutionary
Perspective" (PDF). Washington University. Realfuture.org.
^ a b Keevak, Michael. "Becoming Yellow: A Short History of Racial
Thinking". Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2011.
^ Diamond, JM (2000). "Taiwan's gift to the world". Nature. 403
(6771): 709–710. doi:10.1038/35001685. PMID 10693781.
^ Gunn, Bee; Luc Baudouin; Kenneth M. Olsen (2011). "Independent
Origins of Cultivated Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) in the Old World
Tropics". PLoS ONE. 6 (6): e21143. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0021143.
PMC 3120816 . PMID 21731660.
^ Van Tilburg, Jo Anne. 1994. Easter Island: Archaeology, Ecology and
Culture. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press
^ Langdon, Robert. The Bamboo Raft as a Key to the Introduction of the
Sweet Potato in Prehistoric Polynesia, The Journal of Pacific
History', Vol. 36, No. 1, 2001
^ a b L.E. Beckman; K. Sjoberg; S. Eriksson; L. Beckman (2001).
"Haemochromatosis gene mutations in Finns, Swedes and Swedish Saamis".
Human Heredity. 52 (2): 110–112. doi:10.1159/000053362.
^ Meyers Konversations-Lexikon, 4th edition, 1885-90.
^ Warren, D.M. (1856). A System of Physical Geography. Philadelphia:
H. Cowperthwait & Co. pp. 77.
^ Winchell, A. (1881). Preadamites; or A Demonstration of the
Existence of Men Before Adam; (3rd ed.). Chicago: S.C. Griggs and
Company; London: Trubner & Co. pp. 57.
^ Berg, M. & Wendt, S. (2014). Racism in the Modern World:
Historical Perspectives on Cultural Transfer and Adaptation. Berghahn
Books. pp. 239. ISBN 978-1-78238-086-3
^ Robbins, C.R. (1994). Chemical and Physical Behavior of Human Hair
(3rd ed.). New York: Springer Science. pp. 328.
^ Painter, Nell Irvin (2003). "Why White People are Called Caucasian?"
(PDF). Yale University. Retrieved September 27, 2007. Keevak.
Becoming Yellow, pp. 74–77
^ Blumenbach, Johann. "The Anthropological Treatise of Johann
Friedrich Blumenbach". London: Longman Green, 1865.
^ a b Deniker, Joseph. The Races of Man: An Outline of Anthropology
Ethnography C. Scribner's Sons: New York, 1900.
^ [The End of Racism by Dinesh D'Souza, pg 124]
^ Gobineau, Arthur (1915). The Inequality of Human Races. Putnam.
ISBN 0-86527-430-4. Retrieved 2007-10-18.
^ DiPiero, Thomas. White Men Aren't gid/s work Duke University Press,
2002. ISBN 0-8223-2961-1
^ "Huxley, Thomas, On the Geographical Distribution of the Chief
Modifications of Mankind. 1870. August 14, 2006". Aleph0.clarku.edu.
^ James Dallas, "On the Primary Divisions and Geographical
Distributions of Mankind", 1886 Royal Anthropological Institute of
Great Britain and Ireland, p.304-30. James describes this as
"equivalent to Professor Huxley's
Mongoloid division" and as
Mongols and American Indians"
^ ": The Physical Anthropology of Ceylon. Howard W. Stoudt". American
Anthropologist. 65: 694–695.
^ a b Boas, F. (1940). Race, language, and culture. New York:
^ Anemone, R. L. (1996). Obituary: Elizabeth Smithgall Watts
(1941-1994). In American Journal of Physical Anthropology.
^ Watts, E.S. (1981). "The Biological Race Concept and Diseases of
Modern Man." In Biocultural Aspects of Disease. New York: Academic
^ a b Futuyma, Douglas A. Evolutionary Biology. Massachusetts: Sinauer
Associates, 1983. p. 520
^ "University Catalog". California State University, Chico. 2003.
Retrieved September 28, 2007.
^ Lederer Roger J. Ecology and Field Biology. Cummings Publishing
Company: California, 1984. ISBN 0-8053-5718-1 p.129
^ a b c Lahr M. M. (1995). "Patterns of modern human diversification:
Amerindian origins". American Journal of Physical
Anthropology. 38: 163–198. doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330380609.
^ Niskanen, M. (2002). The Origin of the Baltic-
Finns from the
Physical Anthropological Point of View. Mankind Quarterly Volume XLIII
Number 2, Winter. p. 125
^ a b Bellwood, Peter. (2007). Pre-History of the Indo-Malaysian
Archipelago. Australian National University Press. Pages 75, 76, 89
& 92. ISBN 978-1-921313-11-0 Retrieved February 12, 2017,
^ a b c d e f g Takeru Akazawa and Emóke J.E. Sathmåry. Prehistoric
Mongoloid dispersals. New York, Oxford University Press, 1996.
^ Tarling, N. (1992). The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia: From
Early Times to c. 1800 (Vol. 1). United Kingdom: Cambridge University
^ Huxley, Thomas. Collected Essays of Thomas Huxley: Man's Place in
Nature and Other Kessinger Publishing: Montana, 2005.
^ Peschel, O. (1876). The Races of Man and Their Geographical
Distribution. London: Henry S. King & Co. Pages 347, 348, 354,
369, 387, 388, 401, 402 & 405. Retrieved January 15, 2017, from
^ Abbot, C.G. (1927). Report of the Acting Secretary of the
Smithsonian Institution: For the Year Ending June 30, 1927.
Washington: Government Printing Office. Page 12. Retrieved January 13,
2017, from link.
^ Sangvichien, S. (1964). A Preliminary Report on Non-Metrical
Characteristics of Neolithic Skeletons Found at Ban Kao, Kanchanaburi.
page 8. Retrieved November 11, 2016, from link
^ Coon, Carleton S. The Races of Europe. Greenwood: USA, 1972
ISBN 0-8371-6328-5 p.2
^ a b c Coon, Carleton S. The Origin of the Races. Knopf: Michigan,
1962. ISBN 0-394-30142-0
^ Huxley, T. H. On the Geographical Distribution of the Chief
Modifications of Mankind (1870) Journal of the Ethnological Society of
London. Huxley indicates that he has omitted certain areas with
complex ethnic compositions that do not fit into his racial paradigm,
including much of the Indian subcontinent and Horn of Africa. (Huxley,
Thomas (1873). Critiques and Addresses by Thomas Henry Huxley, LL.D.,
F.R.S. Macmillan and Company. p. 153.) By the late nineteenth century,
Xanthochroi group had been redefined as the Nordic race, whereas
Melanochroi became the Mediterranean race. As such, Huxley's
Melanochroi eventually also comprised various other dark Caucasoid
populations, including the Hamites and Moors. (Gregory, John Walter
(1931). Race as a Political Factor. Watts & Company. p. 19.
Retrieved 8 May 2016.)
^ Bhasin, M.K. (2006). "Genetics of Caste and Tribes of India: Indian
Population Milieu" (PDF). Int J Hum Genet. Kamla Raj. 6 (3): 244.
Milford Wolpoff & Rachel Caspari (1998). Race and Human
Evolution: A Fatal Attraction. Westview Press.
^ Peter Brown (1999). "The First Modern East Asians? another Look at
Upper Cave 101, Liujiang, and Minatogawa" (PDF). K. Omoto (ed.)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on the Origins of the Japanese,
International Research Center for Japanese Studies: Kyoto. Department
of Anthropology and Paleoanthropology, University of New England.
pp. 105–130. Retrieved 2007-09-23.
^ Yali Xue,*,†,‡ Tatiana Zerjal,*,‡ Weidong Bao,‡,§ Suling
Zhu,‡,§ Qunfang Shu,§ Jiujin Xu,§ Ruofu Du,§ Songbin Fu,† Pu
Li,† Matthew E. Hurles,* Huanming Yang** and Chris
Tyler-Smith*,‡,1 (2006). "Male Demography in East Asia: A
North–South Contrast in Human Population Expansion Times" (PDF).
Genetics Society of America. doi:10.1534/genetics.105.054270.
Retrieved 2007-09-29. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list
^ Posnansky, A. (1917). Signos Mongoloides en Algunos Tipos Étnicos
Altiplano Andino. In Proceedings of the Second Pan American
Scientific Congress:(section I) Anthropology. WH Holmes, chairman
(Vol. 1, p. 112). US Government Printing Office.
^ a b Aleš Hrdlička. 1906. Contribution to the Physical Anthropology
of California. Berkeley University Press.
^ a b Wilkinson, C. (2004). Forensic Facial Reconstruction. Cambridge
University Press. ISBN 0-521-82003-0
^ Pietrusewsky, Michael & Douglas, Michele Toomay. (2002). Ban
Chiang, a Prehistoric Village Site in Northeast Thailand, Volume 1:
The Human Skeletal Remains. Philadelphia, PA: University of
Pennsylvania Museum of
Archaeology and Anthropology. Page 27.
Retrieved January 25, 2018, from link.
^ College of Social Sciences Department of Anthropology University of
Hawaiʻi at Mānoa. (2016). Michael Pietrusewsky. Retrieved January
25, 2018, from link.
^ A. (2018). Michele Toomay Douglas. Retrieved January 25, 2018, from
^ Cameron, J. (1919). Two Remarkable Skulls from the New Hebrides: An
Anthropological and Ethnological Study. In Proceedings and
Transactions of the Nova Scotian Institute of Science. 14(26). Page
412. Retrieved January 18, 2017, from link.
^ Loomis, W.F. (1967). "Skin-Pigment Regulation of Vitamin-D
Biosynthesis in Man" (PDF). Science. 157 (3788): 501–506.
doi:10.1126/science.157.3788.501. PMID 6028915.
^ Laughlin, W.S. (1963). "
Eskimos and Aleuts: Their Origins and
Evolution". Science. 142 (3593): 639.
^ Kolas, S.; et al. (1953). "The occurrence of torus palatinus and
torus mandibularis in 2,478 dental patients". Oral Surgery, Oral
Medicine, Oral Pathology, and Oral Radiology. 6 (9): 1134–1141.
^ Wu, R. & Olsen, J.W. (2009).
Paleoanthropology and Paleolithic
Archaeology in the People's Republic of China. USA: Left Coast Press,
Inc. Page 116.
^ Thali, M.J., Viner, M.D. & Brogdon, B.G. (2011). Brogdon's
Forensic Radiology, Second Edition. USA: CRC Press. Page 101.
^ Ubelaker, D.H. & Scammell, H. (1992). Bones: A Forensic
Detective's Casebook. New York: M. Evans and Company, Inc. Page 93.
^ a b Dahlberg, A.A. & Graber, T.M. (1977). Orofacial Growth and
Development. USA & Canada: Mouton Publishers. Pages 132, 147 &
^ Clark, G.A. & Willermet, C.M. (1997). Conceptual Issues in
Modern Human Origins Research. New York: Aldine de Gruyter. page 195.
^ Gill, George W. 1998. "
Craniofacial Criteria in the Skeletal
Attribution of Race. " In Forensic Osteology: Advances in the
Identification of Human Remains. (2nd edition) Reichs, Kathleen
l(ed.), pp. 293–315.
^ Diana Smay, George Armelagos (2000). "Galileo wept: A critical
assessment of the use of race of forensic anthropolopy" (PDF).
Transforming Anthropology. 9 (2): 22–24.
doi:10.1525/tran.2000.9.2.19. Retrieved 13 July 2016.
^ Adhikari, K., Fuentes-Guajardo, M., Quinto-Sánchez, M.,
Mendoza-Revilla, J., Chacón-Duque, J. C., Acuña-Alonzo, V.,
Gómez-Valdés, J. (2016). "A genome-wide association scan implicates
DCHS2, RUNX2, GLI3,
EDAR in human facial variation". Nature
Communications. 7: 11616. doi:10.1038/ncomms11616. Retrieved 12
November 2016. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
^ Blumenfield J (2000). "Racial Identification in the
Teeth". Totem: The University of Western Ontario Journal of
Anthropology. 8 (1): 21–33. Retrieved December 10, 2016, from
^ Yaacob, H.; Narnbiar, P.; Naidu, M.D.K. (1996). "Racial
characteristics of human teeth with special emphasis on the Mongoloid
dentition". Malaysian Journal of Pathology. 18 (1): 5.
^ a b Stefan, V.H. & Gill, G.W. (2016). Skeletal Biology of the
Ancient Rapanui (Easter Islanders). United Kingdom: Cambridge
University Press. 275-277.
^ Ong RG, Stevenson MR (January 1999). "Evaluation of bone density in
the mandibles of young Australian adults of
Mongoloid and Caucasoid
descent". Dentomaxillofacial Radiology. 28 (1): 20–5.
doi:10.1038/sj.dmfr.4600399. PMID 10202474. Retrieved
December 11, 2016, from link.
^ Sullivan, L.R., Gifford, E.W. & McKern, W.C. (1921). A
Contribution to Samoan Somatology. Bishop Museum Press: Hawaii. Pages
94, 97 & 98.
^ a b Wu, Ju-kang (1959). "Human Fossils Found in Liukiang, Kwangsi,
China" (PDF). Paleovertebrata et Paleoanthropologia. 1 (3):
^ Yuzurihaa Shunsuke; Matsuo Kiyoshi; Kushimaa Hideo (2000). "An
anatomical structure which results in puffiness of the upper eyelid
and a narrow palpebral fissure in the
Mongoloid eye". British Journal
of Plastic Surgery. 53 (6): 466–472.
^ a b Schurr, Theodore G. (2011). Mapping Mongolia: Situating Mongolia
in the World from Geologic Time to the Present. University of
Pennsylvania Museum of
Archaeology and Anthropology. Pennsylvania.
ISBN 1-934536-18-0[page needed]
^ Dawber R.P.R. (1997). Diseases of the head and scalp (3rd ed.).
Virginia:Blackwell Science Ltd.
^ Trotter M (1938). "A review of the classifications of hair".
American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 24: 105–126.
^ Duggins O. H.; Trotter M.; Coon C. S. (1959). "
Hair from a Kadar
woman of India". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 17:
^ Hrdy D (1973). "Quantitative hair form variation in seven
populations". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 39: 7–17.
doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330390103. PMID 4713565.
^ a b Haydenblit R (1996). "Dental variation among four prehispanic
Mexican populations". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 100:
^ Robert B. Pickering, David Bachman. (2009). The Use of Forensic
Anthropology (2nd ed.). CRC Press. ISBN 9781420068771. pp. 83
^ a b Hernández M.; Fox C. L.; Garcia-Moro C. (1997). "Fueguian
cranial morphology: The adaptation to a cold, harsh environment".
American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 103: 103–117.
^ Coon, C.S. (1939). The Races of Europe. USA: The Macmillan Company.
^ Berardesca, E., Lévêque, J. & Maibach H.I. (2007). Ethnic Skin
Hair (Dermatology: Clinical & Basic Science). USA: Informa
Healthcare, Inc. 82, 88 & 89.
^ Franz Boas. (1905). Anthropometry of Central California. Harvard
^ Hanihara, Tsunehiko. (1990). Dental Anthropological Evidence of
Affinities among the
Oceania and the Pan-Pacific Populations: The
Basic Populations in East Asia, II. Journal of the Anthropological
Society of Nippon, 98(3). Page 242. Retrieved January 12, 2018, from
^ Hudson, Mark J. (1999). Ruins of identity: ethnogenesis in the
^ Baba, H. & Narasaki, S. (1991). Minatogawa Man, the Oldest Type
Homo sapiens in East Asia. In Quaternary Research. 30(3).
Pages 221 & 227. Retrieved January 19, 2017, from link.
^ Oppenheimer, Stephen. The Real Eve. Published by Carroll & Graf
Publishers, 2003 ISBN 0-7867-1192-2
^ a b Storm, P. The evolutionary significance of the Wajak skulls. —
Scripta Geol., 110: 1-247, figs. 1-30, tabs. 1-121, Leiden, September
^ Ronald Elmslie and Susan Nance, 'Abbie, Andrew Arthur
(1905–1976)', Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of
Biography, Australian National University, link, published first in
hardcopy 1993, accessed online 18 November 2014.
^ Abbie A.A. (1964). "THE FACTOR TIMING IN EMERGENCE DISTINCTIVELY
HUMAN CHARACTERS". Papers and proceedings of the Royal Society of
Tasmania. 98: 63–71.
^ Nicholas, Wade. Before the Dawn. Published by Penguin Publishing,
2006 ISBN 978-1594200793
^ "秋田大学: Comparison between Triceps and Subscapular Skinfold
Thickness of Japanese Children with respect to Environmental Effects".
Air.lib.akita-u.ac.jp. Retrieved 2013-12-15.
^ Takasaki Yuji; Loy Steven F.; Juergens Hans W. (2003). "Ethnic
Differences in the Relationship between Bioelectrical Impedance and
Body Size". Journal of Physiological Anthropology and Applied Human
Science. 22: 233–235. doi:10.2114/jpa.22.233.
^ a b Joseph K. So. "Human Biological Adaptation to
Subarctic Zones". Annual Review of Anthropology; Vol. 9, (1980), pp.
^ a b c d Steegmann A. T.; Platner W. S. (1968). "Experimental cold
modification of cranio-facial morphology". American Journal of
Physical Anthropology. 28: 17–30. doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330280111.
^ a b Beals K. L. (1972). "Head form and climatic stress". American
Journal of Physical Anthropology. 37: 85–92.
^ Harrison, Weiner, Tanner, Barnicot (1977). Human Biology. Oxford:
Oxford University Press. p. 437. CS1 maint: Multiple names:
authors list (link)
^ Vashi, N.A., Maymone, M.B. & Kundu, R.V. (2016). Aging
Differences in Ethnic Skin. In The Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic
Dermatology, 9(1). Page 36. Retrieved December 22, 2016, from link.
^ Willett Enos Rotzell. (1905). Man: an introduction to anthropology.
^ "Dennis C. Dirkmaat, Ph.D., D.A.B.F.A." Mai.mercyhurst.edu.
Retrieved 20 January 2015.
^ Dirkmaat, D. (2012). A companion to forensic anthropology.
Wiley-Blackwell Publishing: USA. pp. 300 ISBN 978-1-4051-9123-4
^ Ann H Ross. Research Gate Retrieved March 8, 2014, from Research
^ Ross, A.H. (2011). Seminar Session 1 The Concept of "Race": A
Forensic Anthropological Perspective on Human Variation. Advances in
Forensic Anthropology Retrieved March 8, 2014, from YouTube Video
^ Horlick M; Thornton J; Wang J; Pierson R.N.; Heshka S; Gallagher D
(2002). "Sex and race differences in fat distribution among Asian,
African-American and Caucasian prepubertal children". Journal of
Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 87 (5): 2164–2170.
^ Deedrick D. W. (2000). "Hairs, fibers, crime, and evidence".
Forensic science communications. 2: 3.
^ a b Jeong Sangki; Lemke Bradley N.; Dortzbach Richard K.; Geol Park
Yeoung; Keun Kang Heoung (1999). "The Asian Upper Eyelid: An
Anatomical Study With Comparison to the Caucasian Eyelid". Arch
Ophthalmol. 117: 907–912. doi:10.1001/archopht.117.7.907.
^ Thong H. Y.; Jee S. H.; Sun C. C.; Biossy R. E. (2003). "The
patterns of melanosome distribution in keratinocytes of human skin as
one determining factor of skin colour". British Journal of
Dermatology. 149 (3): 498–505. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2133.2003.05473.x.
^ George Richard Scott; Christy G. Turner (1997). The Anthropology of
Modern Human Teeth: Dental Morphology and Its Variation. Cambridge
^ McCurdy, J.A., Jr., & Lam, S.M. (2005). Cosmetic Surgery of the
Asian Face (2nd ed.). China: Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc. pp. 4.
TMP ISBN 1-58890-218-8 GTV ISBN 3 13 747602 X
^ Goldman, M.P. et al. (2013). Lasers and Energy Devices for the Skin
(2nd ed.). Taylor & Francis Group. pp. 293.
^ a b c Turkic people, Encyclopædia Britannica, Online Academic
^ Racial and cultural minorities: an analysis of prejudice and
discrimination, Environment, development, and public policy, George
Eaton Simpson, John Milton Yinger, Springer, 1985,
ISBN 0-306-41777-4, p.32.
^ American anthropologist, American Anthropological Association,
Anthropological Society of Washington (Washington, D.C,), 1984 v. 86,
nos. 3-4, p. 741.
^ Pritsak O. & Golb. N: Khazarian Hebrew Documents of the Tenth
Century, Ithaca: Cornell Univ. Press, 1982.
^ "Timur", The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, 2001–05,
Columbia University Press.
Encyclopædia Britannica article: Consolidation & expansion of
the Indo-Timurids, Online Edition, 2007.
^ Walton, Linda (2013). World History: Journeys from Past to Present.
^ a b Rapini, Ronald P.; Bolognia, Jean L.; Jorizzo, Joseph L. (2007).
Dermatology: 2-Volume Set. St. Louis: Mosby. p. 1720.
^ Die koerperlichen Eigenschaften der Japaner.(1885) Baelz.E.
Mittheil.d.deusch Gesell.f.Natur-u-Voelkerheilkunde Ostasiens.
^ Circumscribed dermal melanosis (Mongolian spot)(1981) Kikuchi I,
Inoue S. in "Biology and Diseases of Dermal Pigmentation", University
of Tokyo Press, p83
^ Bernard Cohen (1993). Atlas of pediatric dermatology. Wolfe.
pp. 6–17. ISBN 1563750198. Retrieved May 17, 2014.
^ JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, Volume 51.
American Medical Association. American Medical Association. 1908.
p. 2262. Retrieved May 17, 2014.
^ Kevin C. Stuart (1997).
Mongols in Western/American consciousness
(illustrated ed.). Edwin Mellen Press. p. 95.
ISBN 0773484434. Retrieved May 17, 2014.
^ Miller (1999). Nursing Care of Older Adults: Theory and Practice (3,
illustrated ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 90.
ISBN 0781720761. Retrieved May 17, 2014.
^ Mongolian blue spots - Health care guide discussing the Mongolian
^ Egemen, A; Ikizoğlu, T; Ergör, S; Mete Asar, G; Yilmaz, O (July
2006). "Frequency and characteristics of Mongolian spots among Turkish
children in Aegean region". Turk J Pediatr. 48: 232–6.
^ a b c "About Mongolian Spot". tokyo-med.ac.jp. Retrieved 1 October
^ Transcultural Medicine: Dealing with patients from different
^ Epidemiology of
Mongolian spot on MedScape
^ "Spain's Japon clan has reunion to trace its 17th century roots -
Japan Times". The
Japan Times. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
^ N Silverberg (2012). Atlas of Pediatric Cutaneous Biodiversity:
Comparative Dermatologic Atlas of Pediatric Skin of All Colors.
Springer Science & Business Media. p. 34.
ISBN 1461435641. Archived from the original on 2012. Retrieved
May 17, 2014.
^ a b "斎藤成也 Naruya, S.
Kyushu Museum. 2002. February 2, 2007".
Museum.kyushu-u.ac.jp. Retrieved 2013-12-15.
^ a b Roberts, D.F., Fujiki, N. and Torizuka, N. (1992). Isolation,
Migration and Health. 33rd Symposium Volume of the Society for Study
of Human Biology.
^ a b Cavalli-Sforza, L.L., Menozzi, P. & Piazza, A. (1994). The
History and Geography of Human Genes. New Jersey: Princeton University
Mongoloid 41,000±15,000, Caucasoid/Negroid
Mongoloid 116,000±34,000. Nei, M. (1985).
Human Evolution at the Molecular Level. Population Genetics and
Japan Sci. Soc. Press, Tokyo. pp. 44–64.
^ Gravel S.; et al. (2010). "Demographic history and rare allele
sharing among human populations" (PDF). Proceedings of the National
Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 108 (29): 11983.
doi:10.1073/pnas.1019276108. PMC 3142009 .
^ Jeong et al., "Deep History of
East Asian Populations Revealed
Through Genetic Analysis of the Ainu", Genetics. 2016
Jan;202(1):261-72. doi: 10.1534/genetics.115.178673.
^ Peng, Y. et al. The
ADH1B Arg47His polymorphism in East Asian
populations and expansion of rice domestication in history. BMC
Evolutionary Biology 10, 15 (2010).
^ Traits affected by the mutation are sweat glands, teeth, hair
thickness and breast tissue. Kamberov et al., "Modeling Recent Human
Evolution in Mice by Expression of a Selected
EDAR Variant", Cell
Volume 152, Issue 4, p691–702, 14 February 2013, DOI:
https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2013.01.016. Journalistic report:
East Asian Physical Traits Linked to 35,000-Year-Old Mutation, NYT, 14
^ Ding, Q.; Hu, Y.; Xu, S.; Wang, J.; Jin, L. (2014) [Online 2013].
Neanderthal Introgression at Chromosome 3p21.31 was Under Positive
Natural Selection in East Asians". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 31
(3): 683–695. doi:10.1093/molbev/mst260. PMID 24336922. .
^ Yang et al., "40,000-Year-Old Individual from
Asia Provides Insight
into Early Population Structure in Eurasia", Current Biology Volume
27, Issue 20, p3202–3208.e9, 23 October 2017, DOI:
^ More specifically, the ethnic groups Cavalli-Sforza said that were
in the Northeast and
East Asian cluster were the Koryak, Chukchi,
Reindeer Chukchi, Nganasan Samoyed, Northern Tungus, Nentsy, N.
Chinese, Tibetan, Bhutanese, Ainu, Mongol, Japanese and Korean. Moving
south, the ethnic groups Cavalli-Sforza said that were in the
Southeast Asian cluster were the Indonesian, Malaysian, Taiwan
aborigines, S. Chinese, Vietnamese, Muong, Thai, Filipino, Balinese
^ Table from "Genetic evidence supports demic diffusion of Han
culture". Nature (journal, 16 September 2004 issue)
^ Table from " A spatial analysis of genetic structure of human
China reveals distinct difference between maternal and
paternal lineages". European Journal of Human Genetics (journal, 23
January 2008 issue)
^ Tajima A; PAN I.-H; Fucharoen G; Fucharoen S; Matsuo M; Tokunaga K;
Juji T; Hayami M; Omoto K; Horai S (2002). "Three major lineages of
Asian Y chromosomes: implications for the peopling of east and
southeast Asia". Human Genetics. 110 (1): 80–88.
doi:10.1007/s00439-001-0651-9. PMID 11810301.
^ a b Horai, Satoshi & Hayasaka, Kenji. (1990). Intraspecific
Nucleotide Sequence Differences in the Major Noncoding Region of Human
American Journal of Human Genetics 46(4). Page 833.
Retrieved March 4, 2018, from link to the article and link to the PDF
^ Mapping Human Genetic Diversity in Asia, The HUGO Pan-Asian SNP
^ Ballinger S.W. (1992). "
Southeast Asian Mitochondrial DNA Analysis
Reveals Genetic Continuity of Ancient
Mongoloid Migrations". Genetics.
^ a b Oota, Hiroki et al. (2002). Extreme mtDNA homogeneity in
continental Asian populations. American Journal of Physical
Anthropology 118(2). Page 149. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.10056 Retrieved March
4, 2018, from link to the article's abstract and link to the PDF
^ a b Cann, Rebecca L., Stoneking, Mark & Wilson, Allan C. (1987).
Mitochondrial DNA and human evolution. Nature 325. Page 32. doi:
10.1038/325031a0 Retrieved March 5, 2018, from link to the article.
^ Wallace D.C.; Garrison K; Knower W.C. (1985). "Dramatic Founder
Amerindian Mitochondrial DNAs". American Journal of
Physical Anthropology. 68: 149–155. doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330680202.
^ Barnabas S.; Joshi B.; Suresh C. G. "Indian-Asian Relationship:
mtDNA Reveals More". Naturwissenschaften. 87 (4): 180–183.
^ Nei, Masatoshi. (1985). Human evolution at the molecular level. In:
Population Genetics and Molecular Evolution (T. Ohta and K. Aoki,
Japan Scientific Societies Press, Tokyo, Tokyo. Page 42.
Retrieved March 3, 2018, from link to the PDF document.
^ Nei, Masatoshi & Tajima, Fumio. (1983). Maximum likelihood
estimation of the number of nucleotide substitutions from restriction
sites data. Genetics 105. Pages 207-217. Retrieved March 5, 2018, from
link to a PDF document of the article.
^ Polednak, Anthony P. (1989). Racial & Ethnic Differences in
Disease. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press. Page 36.
Retrieved March 5, 2018, from Google Books.
^ Blumenfeld, Jodi. (2000). "Racial Identification in the
Teeth". Totem: The University of Western Ontario Journal of
Anthropology. 8 (1): 21–33. Retrieved December 10, 2016, from
link to the PDF document.
^ Pickering, Robert B. & Bachman, David C. (2009). The Use of
Forensic Anthropology (2nd. ed.). Boca Raton, FL:
CRC Press Taylor
& Francis Group. Page 83. Retrieved March 11, 2018, from Google
^ Bhushan, B. (2010). Springer Handbook of Nanotechnology (3rd ed.).
Heidelberg, Dordrecht, London, New York: Springer. Page 1106.
Retrieved December 29, 2016, from link to Google Books.
^ Stavrianos, Christos. et al. (2012). Facial Anatomy and Mapping
Across Races. In Research Journal of Medical Sciences, 6(4), 159-162.
Page 161. Retrieved December 10, 2016, from link to the article.
^ Heard, A. M. (2008) M.Sc. Forensic Science. "Non-metric assessment
of Southeast and Northeast Asian ancestry in the forensic context".
Michigan State University Thesis.
^ O'Neil, Dennis (May 13, 2007). "Biological Anthropology Terms".
Palomar College. Check date values in: year= / date= mismatch
^ Gill, George W. "Does Race Exist? A proponent's perspective".
^ Ward, Connor O. John Langdon (2006). "Down the man and the message".
^ "The importance of this anomaly among Europeans and their
descendants is not related to the segregation of genes derived from
Asians; its appearance among members of Asian populations suggests
such ambiguous designations as 'Mongol Mongoloid'; increasing
participation of Chinese and Japanese in investigation of the
condition imposes on them the use of an embarrassing term. We urge,
therefore, that the expressions which imply a racial aspect of the
condition be no longer used. Some of the undersigned are inclined to
replace the term Mongolism by such designations as 'Langdon Down
Anomaly', or 'Down's Syndrome or Anomaly', or 'Congenital Acromicria'.
Several of us believe that this is an appropriate time to introduce
the term 'Trisomy 21 Anomaly', which would include cases of simple
Trisomy as well as translocations. It is hoped that agreement on a
specific phrase will soon crystallise once the term 'Mongolism' has
been abandoned." Allen, G. Benda C.J. et al (1961). Lancet corr. 1,
^ Clark, Nicola (October 19, 2011). "Ricky Gervais, please stop using
the word 'mong'". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 26 May 2012.
^ Chong Yah Lim. Southeast Asia: The Long Road Ahead. World
Scientific, 2004 P. 3.
Media related to Race at Wikimedia Commons
The dictionary definition of mongoloid at Wiktionary
Historical race concepts
List of racially mixed groups
Robert Bennett Bean
Johann Friedrich Blumenbach
Alice Mossie Brues
Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon
Samuel A. Cartwright
Houston Stewart Chamberlain
Sonia Mary Cole
Carleton S. Coon
Egon Freiherr von Eickstedt
Stanley Marion Garn
Reginald Ruggles Gates
Arthur de Gobineau
Hans F. K. Günther
Frederick Ludwig Hoffman
Thomas Henry Huxley
Calvin Ira Kephart
Robert E. Kuttner
Georges Vacher de Lapouge
Felix von Luschan
Lewis H. Morgan
Samuel George Morton
Josiah C. Nott
Isaac La Peyrère
Ludwig Hermann Plate
James Cowles Prichard
William Z. Ripley
Charles Gabriel Seligman
Samuel Stanhope Smith
William Graham Sumner
Thomas Griffith Taylor
John H. Van Evrie
Otmar Freiherr von Verschuer
An Essay upon the Causes of the Different Colours of People in
Different Climates (1744)
The Outline of History of Mankind (1785)
Occasional Discourse on the
Negro Question (1849)
An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races
An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races (1855)
The Races of
Europe (Ripley, 1899)
The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century (1899)
Race Life of the Aryan Peoples
Race Life of the Aryan Peoples (1907)
Heredity in Relation to Eugenics (1911)
Castes in India: Their Mechanism, Genesis and Development (1916)
The Passing of the Great Race
The Passing of the Great Race (1916)
The Rising Tide of Color Against White World-Supremacy
The Rising Tide of Color Against White World-Supremacy (1920)
The Myth of the Twentieth Century
The Myth of the Twentieth Century (1930)
Annihilation of Caste
Annihilation of Caste (1936)
The Races of
Europe (Coon, 1939)
An Investigation of Global Policy with the Yamato Race as Nucleus
The Race Question
The Race Question (1950)
Great chain of being
History of anthropometry
in Latin America
in the United States
Nazism and race
in the United States