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Monday is the
day of the week File:Heptagram of the celestial bodies of the weekdays.png, Heptagram of the seven celestial bodies of the week The names of the days of the week in many languages are derived from the names of the classical planets in Hellenistic astrology, w ...
between
Sunday Sunday is the day of the week between Saturday and Monday. In most Western countries, Sunday is a day of rest and a part of the Workweek and weekend, weekend, whereas in much of the rest of the world, it is considered the first day of the week. ...

Sunday
and
Tuesday Tuesday is the day of the week File:Heptagram of the celestial bodies of the weekdays.png, Heptagram of the seven celestial bodies of the week The names of the days of the week in many languages are derived from the names of the class ...
. According to the
International Organization for Standardization The International Organization for Standardization (ISO ) is an international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm Norm, the Norm or NORM may refer to: In academic discipline ...
's
ISO 8601 ISO 8601 is an international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technical task which is applied to a common and repeated use of rule ...
standard, it is the first
day The word day has a number of meanings, depending on the context it is used such as of astronomy, physics, and various calendar systems. As a term in physics and astronomy it is approximately the period during which the Earth completes one ro ...

day
of the
week A week is a time unit equal to seven days. It is the standard time period used for cycles of rest days in most parts of the world, mostly alongside—although not strictly part of—the Gregorian calendar. In many languages, the days of the we ...

week
and in countries that adopt the "Sunday-first" convention, it is the second day of the week. The name of Monday is derived from
Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language ...
''Mōnandæg'' and
Middle English Middle English (abbreviated to ME) was a form of the English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language is a structured sys ...
''Monenday'', originally a translation of
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
''dies lunae'' "day of the
Moon The Moon is Earth's only natural satellite. At about one-quarter the diameter of Earth (comparable to the width of Australia (continent), Australia), it is the largest natural satellite in the Solar System relative to the size of its plane ...

Moon
".


Names

The names of the day of the week were coined in the
Roman era In , ancient Rome is civilization from the founding of the Italian city of in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the in the 5th century AD, encompassing the (753 BC–509 BC), (509 BC–27 BC) and (27 BC–476 AD) until the fall of ...

Roman era
, in
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
and Latin, in the case of Monday as ἡμέρᾱ Σελήνης, ''diēs Lūnae'' "day of the Moon". Many languages use terms either directly derived from these names, or loan-translations based on them. The English noun ''Monday'' derived sometime before 1200 from ''monedæi'', which itself developed from
Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language ...
(around 1000) ''mōnandæg'' and ''mōndæg'' (literally meaning "
moon The Moon is Earth's only natural satellite. At about one-quarter the diameter of Earth (comparable to the width of Australia (continent), Australia), it is the largest natural satellite in the Solar System relative to the size of its plane ...

moon
's day"), which has cognates in other
Germanic languages The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European The Indo-European languages are a language family native to western and southern Eurasia. It comprises most of the languages of Europe together with those of the northern Indian su ...

Germanic languages
, including
Old Frisian Old Frisian was a West Germanic language spoken between the 8th and 16th centuries in the area between the Rhine ), Surselva Surselva Region is one of the eleven administrative districts Administrative division, administrative unitArticl ...
''mōnadeig'',
Middle Low German Middle Low German or Middle Saxon (autonym: ''Sassisch'', i.e. "Saxon", Standard German, Standard High German: ', Dutch language, Modern Dutch: ') is a developmental stage of Low German. It developed from the Old Saxon language in the Middle ...
and
Middle Dutch Middle Dutch is a collective name for a number of closely related West Germanic The West Germanic languages constitute the largest of the three branches of the Germanic languages, Germanic family of languages (the others being the North German ...
''mānendag, mānendach'' (modern
Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () Dutch may also refer to: Places * Dutch, West Virginia, a community in the United States * Pennsylvania Dutch Country People E ...
''Maandag''),
Old High German Old High German (OHG, german: Althochdeutsch, German abbr. ) is the earliest stage of the German language German ( Standard High German: , ) is a West Germanic language mainly spoken in Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Euro ...
''mānetag'' (modern
German German(s) may refer to: * Germany (of or related to) **Germania (historical use) * Germans, citizens of Germany, people of German ancestry, or native speakers of the German language ** For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law **Ger ...

German
''Montag''), and
Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian is a stage of development of North Germanic dialects before their final divergence into separate Nordic languages. Old Norse was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia Scandinavia; : ''Skades ...
''mánadagr'' (
Swedish Swedish or ' may refer to: * Anything from or related to Sweden, a country in Northern Europe * Swedish language, a North Germanic language spoken primarily in Sweden and Finland * Swedish alphabet, the official alphabet used by the Swedish langu ...
and
Norwegian nynorsk Nynorsk (translates to “Modern Norwegian”, literally “New Norwegian”) is one of the two written standards of the Norwegian language Norwegian ( no, norsk, links=no) is a North Germanic The North Germanic languages make up one of ...
''måndag'',
Icelandic Icelandic refers to anything of, from, or related to Iceland and may refer to: *Icelandic people *Icelandic language *Icelandic alphabet *Icelandic cuisine See also

* Icelander (disambiguation) * Icelandic Airlines, a predecessor of Icelandai ...
''mánudagur''.
Danish Danish may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Denmark * A national or citizen of Denmark, also called a "Dane," see Demographics of Denmark * Danish people or Danes, people with a Danish ancestral or ethnic identity * Dani ...
and
Norwegian bokmål Norwegian, Norwayan, or Norsk may refer to: *Something of, from, or related to Norway, a country in northwestern Europe *Norwegians, both a nation and an ethnic group native to Norway *Demographics of Norway *The Norwegian language, including the ...
''mandag''). The Germanic term is a Germanic interpretation of
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
''lunae dies'' ("day of the moon").Barnhart (1995:485).
Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or ...

Japanese
and
Korean Korean may refer to: People and culture * Koreans Koreans ( South Korean: , , North Korean: , , ; see names of Korea There are various names of Korea in use today, all derived from ancient kingdoms and dynasties. The modern English name " ...
share the same ancient '月曜日' (
Hiragana is a Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat ...

Hiragana
:げつようび,
translit. Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping Letter (alphabet), letters (thus ''wikt:trans-#Prefix, trans-'' + ''wikt:littera#Latin, liter-'') in predictable ways, such as Greek → , Cyr ...

translit.
''getsuyо̄bi'',
Hangul The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul, . Hangul may also be written as following South Korea's standard Romanization. in South Korea South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (ROK), is a country in East Asia, constituting the ...

Hangul
:월요일) for Monday which means "day of the moon". In many
Indo-Aryan languages The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages form a major language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages h ...
, the word for Monday is ''Somavāra'' or ''Chandravāra'',
Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It arose in South Asia after its predecessor langua ...

Sanskrit
loan-translations of "Monday". In some cases, the "ecclesiastical" names are used, a tradition of numbering the days of the week in order to avoid the "pagan" connotation of the planetary names, and to keep with the biblical name, in which Monday is the "second day" (Hebrew יום שני, Greek Δευτέρα ἡμέρα (''Deutéra hēméra''), Latin ''feria secunda, Arabic الأثنين'' ). In many
Slavic languages The Slavic languages, also known as the Slavonic languages, are Indo-European languages spoken primarily by the Slavs, Slavic peoples or their descendants. They are thought to descend from a proto-language called Proto-Slavic language, Proto- ...

Slavic languages
the name of the day translates to "after Sunday/holiday".
Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (), Russian language term for all citizens and people ...
''понедельник'' (''ponyedyelnik'') literally translated, Monday means "next to the week", по "next to" or "on" недельник "(the) week"
Croatian Croatian may refer to: *Croatia *Croatian cuisine *Croatian language *Croatian name *Croats, people from Croatia, or of Croatian descent *Citizens of Croatia, see demographics of Croatia See also

* Croatia (disambiguation) * Serbo-Croatian (di ...
and
Bosnian Bosnian may refer to: *Anything related to the state of Bosnia and Herzegovina or its inhabitants *Anything related to Bosnia (region) or its inhabitants * Bosniaks, an ethnic group mainly inhabiting Bosnia and Herzegovina and one of three Ethnic gr ...
''ponedjeljak'',
Serbian Serbian may refer to: * someone or something related to Serbia, a country in Southeastern Europe * someone or something related to the Serbs, a South Slavic people * Serbian language * Serbian names See also

* * * Serbian Uprising (disamb ...
''понедељак'' (''ponedeljak''),
Ukrainian Ukrainian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Ukraine * Something relating to Ukrainians an East Slavic people from Eastern Europe * Something relating to Demographics of Ukraine, in terms of demography: population of Ukraine * Somethi ...
''понеділок'' (''ponedilok''),
Bulgarian Bulgarian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Bulgaria * Bulgarians, a South Slavic ethnic group * Bulgarian language, a Slavic language * Bulgarian alphabet * A citizen of Bulgaria, see Demographics of Bulgaria * Bulg ...

Bulgarian
''понеделник'' (''ponedelnik''),
Polish Polish may refer to: * Anything from or related to Poland Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 Voivodeships of Poland, administrative provinces, covering an area of , ...
''poniedziałek'',
Czech Czech may refer to: * Anything from or related to the Czech Republic The Czech Republic, also known by its short-form name Czechia and formerly known as Bohemia, is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Austria to th ...
''pondělí'',
Slovak Slovak may refer to: * Something from, related to, or belonging to Slovakia (''Slovenská republika'') * Slovaks, a Western Slavic ethnic group * Slovak language, an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages * Slovak, Arkans ...
''pondelok'',
Slovenian Slovene or Slovenian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Slovenia, a country in Central Europe * Slovene language, a South Slavic language mainly spoken in Slovenia * Slovenes, an ethno-linguistic group mainly living in Slovenia * Sl ...
''ponedeljek''. In Turkish it is called ''pazartesi'', which also means "after Sunday".


Arrangement in the week

Historically, the Greco-Roman week began with Sunday (''dies solis''), and Monday (''dies lunae'') was the second day of the week. It is still the custom to refer to Monday as ''feria secunda'' in the
liturgical calendar The liturgical year, also known as the church year or Christian year, as well as the kalendar, consists of the cycle of liturgical Liturgy is the customary public worship Worship is an act of religion, religious wikt:devotion, devotion ...

liturgical calendar
of the
Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...

Catholic Church
.
Quakers Quakers are people who belong to a historically Protestant Christian Protestantism is a form of that originated with the 16th-century , a movement against what its followers perceived to be in the . Protestants originating in the Ref ...
also traditionally referred to Monday as "Second Day". The
Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variants of the Portuguese language ** Portu ...

Portuguese
and the
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
(Eastern Orthodox Church) also retain the ecclesiastical tradition (Portuguese ''segunda-feira'', Greek ''Δευτέρα'' "''deutéra''" "second"). Likewise, the
Modern Hebrew Modern Hebrew ( he, עברית חדשה, ''ʿivrít ḥadašá ', , '' lit.'' "Modern Hebrew" or "New Hebrew"), also known as Israeli Hebrew or Israeli, and generally referred to by speakers simply as Hebrew ( ), is the standard form of the He ...
name for Monday is ''yom-sheni'' (יום שני). While in North America Sunday is the first day of the week, Europeans commonly consider Monday as the first day of the week and the Geneva-based
International Organization for Standardization The International Organization for Standardization (ISO ) is an international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm Norm, the Norm or NORM may refer to: In academic discipline ...
places Monday as the first day of the week in its
ISO 8601 ISO 8601 is an international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technical task which is applied to a common and repeated use of rule ...
standard. Monday is ''xīngqīyī (星期一)'' in
Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in . It is the world's , with a of more than 1.4 billion. China spans five geographical and 14 different count ...
, meaning "day one of the week". Modern Western culture usually looks at Monday as the beginning of the workweek.


Religious observances


Christianity

In the Eastern Orthodox Church Mondays are days on which the Angels are commemorated. The Octoechos (liturgy), Octoechos contains hymns on this theme, arranged in an eight-week cycle, that are chanted on Mondays throughout the year. At the end of Divine Services on Monday, the dismissal (liturgy), dismissal begins with the words: "May Christ our True God, through the intercession, s of his most-pure Theotokos, Mother, of the honorable, Bodiless Powers (i.e., the angels) of Heaven…". In many Eastern monastery, monasteries Mondays are observed as Fasting#Eastern Orthodoxy, fast days; because Mondays are dedicated to the angels, and monks strive to live an angelic life. In these monasteries, the monks abstain from meat, fowl, dairy products, fish, wine and oil (if a feast day occurs on a Monday, fish, wine and oil may be allowed, depending upon the particular feast). The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints spend one evening per week called Family Home Evening (FHE) or Family Night usually Monday, that families are encouraged to spend together in study, prayer and other family activities. Many businesses owned by Latter-Day Saints close early on Mondays so they and their customers are able to spend more time with their families.


Islam

In Islam, Mondays are one of the days in a week in which Muslims are encouraged to do Fasting in Islam#Days of voluntary fasting, voluntary fasting, the other being Thursdays. There are a number of Hadith which narrated of prophet Muhammad fasting on these days. According to the same Hadith, Prophet Muhammad was born on Monday. It is also narrated that he received his Muhammad's first revelation, first revelation (which would later become the Qur'an) on Monday.


Judaism

In Judaism Mondays are considered auspicious days for fasting. The Didache warned early Christians not to fast on Mondays to avoid Judaizers, Judaizing, and suggests Wednesdays instead. In Judaism, a small portion of the weekly Parashah in Torah is read in public on Monday and Thursday mornings, as a supplement for the Saturday reading). Special penitential prayers are recited on Monday unless there is a special occasion for happiness which cancels them. According to the Mishna and Talmud, these traditions are due to Monday and Thursday being "the market days" when people gathered from the towns to the city. A tradition of Ashkenazi Jews to voluntarily fast on the first consecutive Monday Thursday and Monday of the Hebrew month is prevalent among the ultra-orthodox. In Hebrew, Monday is called "Yom Shayne," meaning literally "Second Day" following the biblical reference to the sabbath day as the "Seventh-day" and the tradition of that day being on Saturday. It has been established that the phonetic and cultural link between the planet Saturn, Saturday and the Sabbath day is of ancient Mesopotamian origin.


Cultural references

A number of popular songs in Western culture feature Monday, often as a day of depression, anxiety, avolition, hysteria, or melancholy (mostly because of its association with the first day of the workweek). For example, "Monday, Monday" (1966) from the Mamas & the Papas, "Rainy Days and Mondays" (1971) from the The Carpenters, Carpenters, "I Don't Like Mondays" (1979) from the The Boomtown Rats, Boomtown Rats, Monday, Monday, Monday (2002) from Tegan and Sara, and "Manic Monday" (1986) from the The Bangles, Bangles (written by Prince (musician), Prince). There is a band named the Happy Mondays and an American pop-punk band Hey Monday. The popular comic strip character Garfield (character), Garfield by Jim Davis is well known for his disdain for Mondays. In the United Kingdom, more people commit suicide in England and Wales on Mondays than other days of the week; more people in the country in general call in sick; and more people worldwide surf the web. In July 2002, the consulting firm PricewaterhouseCoopers announced that it would rename its consultancy practice "Monday", and would spend $110 million over the next year to establish the brand. When IBM acquired the consultancy three months later it chose not to retain the new name.


Named days

* Big Monday * Black Monday * Blue Monday (date), Blue Monday * Clean Monday (Ash Monday) * Cyber Monday * Easter Monday, also Bright Monday or Wet Monday * First Monday * Handsel Monday * Lundi Gras * Mad Monday * Miracle Monday * Plough Monday * Shrove Monday * Weather Market Monday, the day when commodity markets add or subtract weather premium * Wet Monday * Whit Monday


See also

* Monday Club * Monday demonstration (disambiguation), Monday demonstrations * ''Monday Night Football'' * WWE Raw, ''Monday Night Raw'' * ''WCW Monday Nitro'' * Monday Night Wars * Saint Monday


Notes


References

* Robert Barnhart, Barnhart, Robert K. (1995). ''The Barnhart Concise Dictionary of Etymology''. Harper Collins. {{Authority control Monday, Days of the week, 1 Monday