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Monaco
Monaco
(/ˈmɒnəkoʊ/ ( listen); French pronunciation: ​[mɔnako]), officially the Principality
Principality
of Monaco
Monaco
(French: Principauté de Monaco),[a] is a sovereign city-state, country and microstate on the French Riviera
French Riviera
in Western Europe. France borders the country on three sides while the other side borders the Mediterranean Sea. Monaco
Monaco
has an area of 2.02 km2 (0.78 sq mi) and a population of about 38,400, according to the last census of 2016.[6] With 19,009 inhabitants per km², it is the second-smallest and most densely populated sovereign state in the world. Monaco
Monaco
has a land border of 5.47 km (3.40 mi),[6] a coastline of 3.83 km (2.38 mi), and a width that varies between 1,700 and 349 m (1,859 and 382 yd). The highest point in the country is a narrow pathway named Chemin des Révoires
Chemin des Révoires
on the slopes of Mont Agel, in the Les Révoires
Les Révoires
Ward, which is 161 metres (528 feet) above sea level. Monaco's most populous Quartier is Monte Carlo
Monte Carlo
and the most populous Ward is Larvotto/Bas Moulins. Through land reclamation, Monaco's land mass has expanded by 20 percent; in 2005, it had an area of only 1.974 km2 (0.762 sq mi). Monaco
Monaco
is known as a playground for the rich and famous, due to its tax laws. In 2014, it was noted about 30% of the population was made up of millionaires, more than in Zürich
Zürich
or Geneva.[10] Monaco
Monaco
is a principality governed under a form of constitutional monarchy, with Prince Albert II as head of state. Although Prince Albert II is a constitutional monarch, he wields immense political power. The House of Grimaldi
House of Grimaldi
have ruled Monaco, with brief interruptions, since 1297.[11] The official language is French, but Monégasque, Italian, and English are widely spoken and understood.[b] The state's sovereignty was officially recognized by the Franco-Monegasque Treaty of 1861, with Monaco
Monaco
becoming a full United Nations voting member in 1993. Despite Monaco's independence and separate foreign policy, its defense is the responsibility of France. However, Monaco
Monaco
does maintain two small military units. Economic development was spurred in the late 19th century with the opening of the country's first casino, Monte Carlo, and a railway connection to Paris.[12] Since then, Monaco's mild climate, scenery, and gambling facilities have contributed to the principality's status as a tourist destination and recreation center for the rich. In more recent years, Monaco
Monaco
has become a major banking center and has sought to diversify its economy into the services sector and small, high-value-added, non-polluting industries. The state has no income tax, low business taxes, and is well known for being a tax haven. It is also the host of the annual street circuit motor race Monaco
Monaco
Grand Prix, one of the original Grands Prix of Formula One. Monaco
Monaco
is not formally a part of the European Union
European Union
(EU), but it participates in certain EU policies, including customs and border controls. Through its relationship with France, Monaco
Monaco
uses the euro as its sole currency (prior to this it used the Monégasque franc). Monaco
Monaco
joined the Council of Europe
Europe
in 2004. It is a member of the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie
Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie
(OIF).

Contents

1 History

1.1 Arrival of the Grimaldi family 1.2 1400–1800 1.3 19th century 1.4 20th century 1.5 21st century

2 Government

2.1 Administrative divisions

2.1.1 Traditional quarters and modern geographic areas 2.1.2 Wards

2.2 Security

3 Geography

3.1 Architecture 3.2 Climate

4 Economy

4.1 Gambling industry 4.2 Taxes 4.3 Numismatics

5 Population

5.1 Demographics 5.2 Language 5.3 Religion

5.3.1 Catholic Church 5.3.2 Protestantism 5.3.3 Anglicanism 5.3.4 Greek Orthodoxy 5.3.5 Judaism 5.3.6 Islam

6 Sports

6.1 Formula One 6.2 Monte Carlo
Monte Carlo
Rally 6.3 Football 6.4 Rugby 6.5 Other sports

7 Culture

7.1 Music 7.2 Visual arts 7.3 Museums in Monaco 7.4 Events, festivals and shows

8 Education

8.1 Primary and secondary schools 8.2 Colleges and universities

9 Flag 10 Transport 11 Relations with other countries 12 See also 13 Notes 14 References 15 External links

History[edit] Main article: History of Monaco

Monaco
Monaco
in Roman Liguria
Liguria
in Italy, 1st century BC

Monaco's name comes from the nearby 6th-century BC Phocaean Greek colony. Referred to by the Ligurians as Monoikos, from the Greek "μόνοικος", "single house", from "μόνος" (monos) "alone, single"[13] + "οἶκος" (oikos) "house",[14] which bears the sense of a people either settled in a "single habitation" or of "living apart" from others. According to an ancient myth, Hercules
Hercules
passed through the Monaco
Monaco
area and turned away the previous gods.[15] As a result, a temple was constructed there, the temple of Hercules Monoikos. Because the only temple of this area was the "House" of Hercules, the city was called Monoikos.[16][17] It ended up in the hands of the Holy Roman Empire, which gave it to the Genoese. An ousted branch of a Genoese family, the Grimaldi, contested it for a hundred years before actually gaining control. Though the Republic of Genoa would last until the 19th century, they allowed the Grimaldi family to keep Monaco, and, likewise, both France
France
and Spain
Spain
left it alone for hundreds of years. France
France
did not annex it until the French Revolution, but after the defeat of Napoleon
Napoleon
it was put under the care of the Kingdom of Sardinia. In the 19th century, when Sardinia
Sardinia
became a part of Italy, the region came under French influence again but France
France
allowed it to remain independent. Like France, Monaco
Monaco
was over-run by the Axis powers
Axis powers
during the Second World
World
War and for a short time was administered by Italy, then the Third Reich, before finally being liberated. Although the occupation lasted for just a short time, it meant the deportation of the Jewish population and execution of several resistance members from Monaco. Since then Monaco has been independent. It has taken some steps towards integration with the European Union. Arrival of the Grimaldi family[edit]

Rainier I of Grimaldi, victor of the naval battle at Zierikzee and first sovereign Grimaldi ruler of Monaco

Following a land grant from Emperor Henry VI in 1191, Monaco
Monaco
was refounded in 1215 as a colony of Genoa.[18][19] Monaco
Monaco
was first ruled by a member of the House of Grimaldi
House of Grimaldi
in 1297, when Francesco Grimaldi, known as "Il Malizia" (translated from Italian either as "The Malicious One" or "The Cunning One"), and his men captured the fortress protecting the Rock of Monaco
Rock of Monaco
while dressed as Franciscan monks—a monaco in Italian, although this is a coincidence as the area was already known by this name.[20] Francesco, however, was evicted only a few years afterwards by the Genovese forces, and the struggle over "the Rock" continued for another century.[21] The Grimaldi family was Genoese and the struggle was something of a family feud. However, the Genoese became engaged in other conflicts, and in the late 1300s Genoa became involved in a conflict with the Crown of Aragon over Corsica.[22] The Crown of Aragon
Crown of Aragon
eventually became a part of Spain
Spain
through marriage (see modern day Catalonia) and other parts drifted into various pieces of other kingdoms and nations.[22] 1400–1800[edit]

Monaco
Monaco
in 1494

In 1419, the Grimaldi family purchased Monaco
Monaco
from the Crown of Aragon and became the official and undisputed rulers of "the Rock of Monaco". In 1612 Honoré II
Honoré II
began to style himself "Prince" of Monaco.[23] In the 1630s, he sought French protection against the Spanish forces and, in 1642, was received at the court of Louis XIII
Louis XIII
"Duc et Pair Etranger".[24] The princes of Monaco
Monaco
thus became vassals of the French kings while at the same time remaining sovereign princes.[25] Though successive princes and their families spent most of their lives in Paris, and intermarried with French and Italian nobilities, the House of Grimaldi is Italian. The principality continued its existence as a protectorate of France
France
until the French Revolution.[26] In 1793, Revolutionary forces captured Monaco
Monaco
and it remained under direct French control until 1814, when the Grimaldi family returned to the throne.[24][27] 19th century[edit]

French annexion in 1860

Between 1793 and 1814 Monaco
Monaco
was occupied by the French (in this period much of Europe
Europe
had been overrun by the French under command of Napoleon).[24][27] The principality was reestablished in 1814 only to be designated a protectorate of the Kingdom of Sardinia
Kingdom of Sardinia
by the Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
in 1815.[27] Monaco
Monaco
remained in this position until 1860 when, by the Treaty of Turin, the Sardinian forces pulled out of the principality and the surrounding county of Nice
Nice
(as well as Savoy) was ceded to France.[28] Monaco
Monaco
became a French protectorate once again. Before this time there was unrest in Menton
Menton
and Roquebrune, where the townspeople had become weary of heavy taxation by the Grimaldi family. They declared their independence, hoping for annexation by Sardinia. France
France
protested. The unrest continued until Charles III gave up his claim to the two mainland towns (some 95% of the principality at the time) that had been ruled by the Grimaldi family for over 500 years.[29] These were ceded to France
France
in return for 4,100,000 francs.[30] The transfer and Monaco's sovereignty were recognized by the Franco-Monegasque Treaty of 1861. In 1869, the principality stopped collecting income tax from its residents—an indulgence the Grimaldi family could afford to entertain thanks solely to the extraordinary success of the casino.[31] This made Monaco
Monaco
not only a playground for the rich, but a favored place for them to live.[32] 20th century[edit]

Mayor of Monaco
Monaco
announcing concessions ending absolute monarchy of Prince Albert I
Prince Albert I
in 1910

Until the Monegasque Revolution
Monegasque Revolution
of 1910 forced the adoption of the 1911 constitution, the princes of Monaco
Monaco
were absolute rulers.[33] The new constitution, however, barely reduced the autocratic rule of the Grimaldi family and Prince Albert I
Prince Albert I
soon suspended it during the First World
World
War. In July 1918, the Franco-Monegasque Treaty was signed, providing for limited French protection over Monaco. The treaty, endorsed in 1919 by the Treaty of Versailles, established that Monegasque international policy would be aligned with French political, military, and economic interests, and resolved the Monaco
Monaco
Succession Crisis.[34]

The marriage of Grace Kelly
Grace Kelly
to Prince Rainier III
Prince Rainier III
brought attention to the principality.

In 1943, the Italian Army
Italian Army
invaded and occupied Monaco, forming a fascist administration.[35] Shortly thereafter, following the collapse of Mussolini, the German Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
occupied Monaco
Monaco
and the Nazi deportation of the Jewish population began. René Blum, the prominent French Jew who founded the Ballet de l'Opera in Monte Carlo, was arrested in his Paris
Paris
home and held in the Drancy deportation camp outside the French capital before being transported to the Auschwitz concentration camp, where he was later killed.[36] Blum's colleague Raoul Gunsbourg, the director of the Opéra de Monte-Carlo, helped by the French Resistance, escaped arrest and fled to Switzerland.[37] In August 1944, the Germans
Germans
executed René Borghini, Joseph-Henri Lajoux and Esther Poggio, who were Resistance leaders. Rainier III, who ruled until 2005, succeeded to the throne following the death of his grandfather, Prince Louis II, in 1949. On 19 April 1956, Prince Rainier married the American actress Grace Kelly; the event was widely televised and covered in the popular press, focusing the world's attention on the tiny principality.[38] A 1962 amendment to the constitution abolished capital punishment, provided for women's suffrage, and established a Supreme Court of Monaco
Monaco
to guarantee fundamental liberties. In 1963, a crisis developed when Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
blockaded Monaco, angered by its status as a tax haven for wealthy French. The 2014 film Grace of Monaco
Monaco
is loosely based on this crisis.[39] In 1993, the Principality
Principality
of Monaco
Monaco
became a member of the United Nations, with full voting rights.[28][40] 21st century[edit]

View of Monaco
Monaco
in 2016

In 2002, a new treaty between France
France
and Monaco
Monaco
specified that, should there be no heirs to carry on the Grimaldi dynasty, the principality would still remain an independent nation rather than revert to France. Monaco's military defence, however, is still the responsibility of France.[41][42] On 31 March 2005, Rainier III, who was too ill to exercise his duties, relinquished them to his only son and heir, Albert.[43] He died six days later, after a reign of 56 years, with his son succeeding him as Albert II, Sovereign Prince of Monaco. Following a period of official mourning, Prince Albert II formally assumed the princely crown on 12 July 2005,[44] in a celebration that began with a solemn Mass at Saint Nicholas Cathedral, where his father had been buried three months earlier. His accession to the Monégasque throne was a two-step event with a further ceremony, drawing heads of state for an elaborate reception, held on 18 November 2005, at the historic Prince's Palace in Monaco-Ville.[45] On 27 August 2015, Albert II apologized for Monaco's role during World War II in facilitating the deportation of a total of 90 Jews
Jews
and resistance fighters, of whom only nine survived. "We committed the irreparable in handing over to the neighbouring authorities women, men and a child who had taken refuge with us to escape the persecutions they had suffered in France," Albert said at a ceremony in which a monument to the victims was unveiled at the Monaco
Monaco
cemetery. "In distress, they came specifically to take shelter with us, thinking they would find neutrality."[46] In 2015, Monaco
Monaco
unanimously approved a modest land reclamation expansion intended primarily for some desperately needed housing and a small green/park area.[47] Monaco
Monaco
had previously considered an expansion in 2008, but called it off.[47] The plan is for about six hectares of apartment buildings, parks, shops and offices for about 1 billion euros for the land.[48] The development will be adjacent to the Larvotto
Larvotto
district and also will include a small marina.[48][49] There were four main proposals, and the final mix of use will be finalised as the development progresses.[50] The name for the new district is Anse du Portier.[49]

Panoramic view of Monaco
Monaco
from the Tête de Chien
Tête de Chien
in 2017

Government[edit] Main article: Politics of Monaco

Albert II, Prince of Monaco

Monaco
Monaco
has been governed under a constitutional monarchy since 1911, with the Sovereign Prince of Monaco
Sovereign Prince of Monaco
as head of state.[51] The executive branch consists of a Minister of State as the head of government, who presides over a five-member Council of Government.[52] Until 2002, the Minister of State was a French citizen appointed by the prince from among candidates proposed by the French government; since a constitutional amendment in 2002, the Minister of State can be French or Monegasque.[18] However, Prince Albert II appointed, on 3 March 2010, the Frenchman Michel Roger
Michel Roger
as Minister of State.[53] Under the 1962 constitution, the prince shares his veto power with the unicameral National Council.[54] The 24 members of the National Council are elected for five-year terms; 16 are chosen through a majority electoral system and 8 by proportional representation.[55] All legislation requires the approval of the National Council, which is currently dominated by the conservative Rally and Issues for Monaco (REM) party which holds 20 seats.[55] Union Monégasque holds three seats[55] while Renaissance holds one seat. The principality's city affairs are directed by the Communal Council,[56] which consists of 14 elected members and is presided over by a mayor.[57] Unlike the National Council, councillors are elected for four-year terms,[58] and are strictly non-partisan; however, oppositions inside the council frequently form.[56][59] Administrative divisions[edit]

This section needs to be updated. In particular: wards were re-organized in 2013. See Monaco#Organisation territoriale (fr). Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (July 2015)

In the center is La Condamine. At right with the smaller harbor is Fontvieille, with The Rock (the old town, fortress, and Palace) jutting out between the two harbors. At left are the high-rise buildings is La Rousse/Saint Roman.

Monaco
Monaco
is the second-smallest country by area in the world; only Vatican City
Vatican City
is smaller.[60] Monaco
Monaco
is also the world's second-smallest monarchy,[61] and is the most densely populated country in the world.[62] The state consists of only one municipality (commune), the Municipality
Municipality
of Monaco. There is no geographical distinction between the State and City of Monaco, although responsibilities of the government (state-level) and of the municipality (city-level) are different.[53] According to the constitution of 1911, the principality was subdivided into three municipalities:[63]

Monaco-Ville, the old city on a rocky promontory extending into the Mediterranean, known as the Rock of Monaco, or simply "The Rock"; Monte Carlo, the principal residential and resort area with the Monte Carlo Casino in the east and northeast; La Condamine, the southwestern section including the port area, Port Hercules.

The municipalities were merged into one in 1917, after accusations that the government was acting according to the motto "divide and conquer," and they were accorded the status of Wards or Quartiers thereafter.

Fontvieille was added as a fourth ward, a newly constructed area claimed from the sea in the 1970s; Moneghetti
Moneghetti
became the fifth ward, created from part of La Condamine; Larvotto
Larvotto
became the sixth ward, created from part of Monte Carlo; La Rousse/Saint Roman (including Le Ténao) became the seventh ward, also created from part of Monte Carlo.

Subsequently, three additional wards were created:

Saint Michel, created from part of Monte Carlo; La Colle, created from part of La Condamine; Les Révoires, also created from part of La Condamine.

An additional ward was planned by new land reclamation to be settled beginning in 2014[64] but Prince Albert II announced in his 2009 New Year Speech that he had ended plans due to the current economic climate.[65] However, Prince Albert II in mid-2010 firmly restarted the program.[66][67] In 2015, a new development called Anse du Portier was announced.[49] Traditional quarters and modern geographic areas[edit] The four traditional Quartiers of Monaco
Monaco
are: Monaco-Ville, La Condamine, Monte Carlo
Monte Carlo
and Fontvieille.[68][69] However, the suburb of Moneghetti, the high-level part of La Condamine, is generally seen today as an effective fifth Quartier of the Monaco, having a very distinct atmosphere and topography when compared with low-level La Condamine.[70] Wards[edit]

This section needs to be updated. In particular: wards were re-organized in 2013 (see Monaco#Organisation territoriale.. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (July 2015)

Wards of Monaco

Currently Monaco
Monaco
is subdivided into ten wards, with their official numbers; either Fontvieille II or Le Portier, would become the effective eleventh ward, if built:[67][71][72]

Ward Area (km²) Population (Census of 2008) Density (km²) City Blocks (îlots) Remarks

Former municipality of Monaco

Monaco-Ville 0.19 1,034 5,442 19 Old City

Former municipality of Monte Carlo

Monte Carlo/Spélugues (Bd. Des Moulins-Av. de la Madone) 0.30 3,834 12,780 20 Casino and resort area

La Rousse/Saint Roman (Annonciade-Château Périgord) 0.13 3,223 24,792 17 Northeast area, includes Le Ténao

Larvotto/Bas Moulins (Larvotto-Bd Psse Grace) 0.34 5,443 16,009 17 Eastern beach area

Saint Michel (Psse Charlotte-Park Palace) 0.16 3,907 24,419 24 Central residential area

Former municipality of La Condamine

La Condamine 0.28 3,947 14,096 28 Northwest port area

La Colle (Plati-Pasteur-Bd Charles III) 0.11 2,829 25,718 15 On the western border with Cap d'Ail

Les Révoires
Les Révoires
(Hector Otto-Honoré Labande) 0.09 2,545 28,278 11 Contains the Jardin Exotique de Monaco

Moneghetti/ Bd de Belgique (Bd Rainier III-Bd de Belgique) 0.10 3,003 30,030 17 Central-north residential area

New land reclaimed from the sea

Fontvieille 0.35 3,901 11,146 10 Started 1981

Monaco[73][74] 2.05 33,666 16,422 178  

(1) Not included in the total, as it is only proposed

Note: for statistical purposes, the Wards of Monaco
Monaco
are further subdivided into 178 city blocks (îlots), which are comparable to the census blocks in the United States.[73]

Other possible expansions are Le Portier, a project relaunched in 2012[75] Another possibility was Fontvieille II Development to commence in 2013[71][76]

Land reclamation
Land reclamation
in Monaco
Monaco
since 1861

Security[edit] See also: Law enforcement in Monaco and Military of Monaco

Palace guard in Monaco

The wider defence of the nation is provided by France. Monaco
Monaco
has no navy or air force, but on both a per-capita and per-area basis, Monaco has one of the largest police forces (515 police officers for about 36,000 people) and police presences in the world.[77] Its police includes a special unit which operates patrol and surveillance boats.[78] There is also a small military force. This consists of a bodyguard unit for the Prince and the palace in Monaco-Ville
Monaco-Ville
called the Compagnie des Carabiniers du Prince
Compagnie des Carabiniers du Prince
(Prince's Company of Carabiniers), which is equipped with weapons such as M16A2 rifles and 9 mm pistols (Glock 17),[79] and which together with the militarized, armed fire and civil defence Corps (Sapeurs-Pompiers) forms Monaco's total public forces.[80] The Compagnie des Carabiniers du Prince
Compagnie des Carabiniers du Prince
was created by Prince Honoré IV in 1817 for the protection of the principality and the Princely family. The company numbers exactly 116 officers and men; while the NCOs and soldiers are local, the officers have generally served in the French Army. In addition to their guard duties as described, the Carabiniers patrol the principality's beaches and coastal waters.[81] Geography[edit] See also: Land reclamation
Land reclamation
in Monaco

Satellite view of Monaco, with the Monégasque-French border shown in yellow

Monaco
Monaco
is a sovereign city state, with five quartiers and ten wards,[82] located on the French Riviera
French Riviera
in Western Europe. It is bordered by France's Alpes-Maritimes
Alpes-Maritimes
département on three sides, with one side bordering the Mediterranean Sea. Its center is about 16 km (9.9 mi) from Italy
Italy
and only 13 km (8.1 mi) northeast of Nice, France.[40] It has an area of 2.02 km2 (0.78 sq mi), or 202 hectares (500 acres), and a population of 38,400,[83] making Monaco
Monaco
the second-smallest and the most densely populated country in the world.[40] The country has a land border of only 5.47 km (3.40 mi),[83] a coastline of 3.83 km (2.38 mi), a maritime claim that extends 22.2 kilometres (13.8 mi), and a width that varies between 1,700 and 349 m (5,577 and 1,145 ft).[84][85] The highest point in the country is at the access to the Patio Palace residential building on the Chemin des Révoires
Chemin des Révoires
(ward Les Révoires) from the D6007 (Moyenne Corniche street) at 164.4 metres (539 feet) above sea level.[86] The lowest point in the country is the Mediterranean Sea.[87] Saint-Jean is the longest flowing body of water, around 0.19 km (0.12 miles) in length, and Fontvieille is the largest lake, approximately 0.5 ha (1.24 acres) in size.[88] Monaco's most populated quartier is Monte Carlo, and the most populated ward is Larvotto/Bas Moulins.[73] After a recent expansion of Port
Port
Hercules,[89] Monaco's total area grew to 2.02 km2 (0.78 sq mi) or 202 hectares (500 acres);[73] consequently, new plans have been approved to extend the district of Fontvieille by 0.08 km2 (0.031 sq mi) or 8 hectares (20 acres), with land reclaimed from the Mediterranean Sea. Current land reclamation projects include extending the district of Fontvieille.[90][91][92][89][93] There are two ports in Monaco, Port Hercules
Hercules
and Port
Port
Fontvieille.[94] Monaco's only natural resource is fishing;[95] with almost the entire country being an urban area, Monaco
Monaco
lacks any sort of commercial agriculture industry. There is a neighboring French port called Cap d'Ail
Cap d'Ail
that is near Monaco.[94]

Panoramic view of La Condamine
La Condamine
and Monte Carlo

Architecture[edit] See also: Monaco
Monaco
villas Monaco
Monaco
exhibits a wide range of architecture, but the principality's signature style, particularly in Monte Carlo, is that of the Belle Epoque. It finds its most florid expression in the 1878–9 Casino and the Salle Garnier created by Charles Garnier and Jules Dutrou. Decorative elements including turrets, balconies, pinnacles, multi-coloured ceramics and caryatids and borrowed and blended to create a picturesque fantasy of pleasure and luxury, and an alluring expression of how Monaco
Monaco
sought, and still seeks, to portray itself.[96] This capriccio of French, Italian and Spanish elements was incorporated into hacienda villas and apartments. Following major development in the 1970s, Prince Rainier III
Prince Rainier III
banned high-rise development in the principality. However, his successor, Prince Albert II, overturned this Sovereign Order.[97] In recent years the accelerating demolition of Monaco's architectural heritage, including its single-family villas, has created dismay.[98] The principality currently has no heritage protection legislation.[99] Climate[edit] Monaco
Monaco
has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification: Csa), which is influenced by the oceanic climate and the humid subtropical climate. As a result, it has warm, dry summers and mild, rainy winters.[100] Cool and rainy interludes can interrupt the dry summer season, the average length of which is also shorter. Summer afternoons are infrequently hot (indeed, temperatures greater than 30 °C or 86 °F are rare) as the atmosphere is temperate because of constant sea breezes. On the other hand, the nights are very mild, due to the fairly high temperature of the sea in summer. Generally, temperatures do not drop below 20 °C (68 °F) in this season. In the winter, frosts and snowfalls are extremely rare and generally occur once or twice every ten years.[101][102]

Climate data for Monaco
Monaco
(1981–2010 averages, extremes 1966–present)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 19.9 (67.8) 23.2 (73.8) 25.6 (78.1) 26.2 (79.2) 30.3 (86.5) 32.5 (90.5) 34.4 (93.9) 34.5 (94.1) 33.1 (91.6) 29.0 (84.2) 25.0 (77) 22.3 (72.1) 34.5 (94.1)

Average high °C (°F) 13.0 (55.4) 13.0 (55.4) 14.9 (58.8) 16.7 (62.1) 20.4 (68.7) 23.7 (74.7) 26.6 (79.9) 26.9 (80.4) 24.0 (75.2) 20.6 (69.1) 16.5 (61.7) 13.9 (57) 19.2 (66.6)

Daily mean °C (°F) 10.2 (50.4) 10.2 (50.4) 12.0 (53.6) 13.8 (56.8) 17.5 (63.5) 20.9 (69.6) 23.8 (74.8) 24.2 (75.6) 21.1 (70) 17.9 (64.2) 13.8 (56.8) 11.2 (52.2) 16.4 (61.5)

Average low °C (°F) 7.4 (45.3) 7.4 (45.3) 9.1 (48.4) 10.9 (51.6) 14.6 (58.3) 18.0 (64.4) 21.0 (69.8) 21.4 (70.5) 18.3 (64.9) 15.2 (59.4) 11.2 (52.2) 8.5 (47.3) 13.6 (56.5)

Record low °C (°F) −3.1 (26.4) −5.2 (22.6) −3.1 (26.4) 3.8 (38.8) 7.5 (45.5) 9.0 (48.2) 10.5 (50.9) 12.4 (54.3) 10.5 (50.9) 6.5 (43.7) 1.6 (34.9) −1.0 (30.2) −5.2 (22.6)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 67.7 (2.665) 48.4 (1.906) 41.2 (1.622) 71.3 (2.807) 49.0 (1.929) 32.6 (1.283) 13.7 (0.539) 26.5 (1.043) 72.5 (2.854) 128.7 (5.067) 103.2 (4.063) 88.8 (3.496) 743.6 (29.276)

Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 6.0 4.9 4.5 7.3 5.5 4.1 1.7 2.5 5.1 7.3 7.1 6.5 62.4

Mean monthly sunshine hours 149.8 158.9 185.5 210.0 248.1 281.1 329.3 296.7 224.7 199.0 155.2 136.5 2,574.7

Source #1: Météo France[103]

Source #2: Monaco
Monaco
website (sun only)[104]

Climate data for Monaco

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average sea temperature °C (°F) 13.4 (56.2) 13.0 (55.5) 13.4 (56.1) 14.6 (58.4) 18.0 (64.3) 21.8 (71.3) 23.1 (73.6) 23.6 (74.4) 22.2 (71.9) 19.6 (67.2) 17.4 (63.3) 14.9 (58.9) 17.9 (64.3)

Source: Weather Atlas[105]

Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of Monaco

Fontvieille and its new harbour

Monaco
Monaco
has the world's second-highest GDP nominal per capita at US$153,177, GDP PPP per capita at $132,571 and GNI per capita at $183,150.[7][106][107] It also has an unemployment rate of 2%,[108] with over 48,000 workers who commute from France
France
and Italy
Italy
each day.[73] According to the CIA World
World
Factbook, Monaco
Monaco
has the world's lowest poverty rate[109] and the highest number of millionaires and billionaires per capita in the world.[110][111] For the fourth year in a row, Monaco
Monaco
in 2012 had the world's most expensive real estate market, at $58,300 per square metre.[112][113][114] One of Monaco's main sources of income is tourism. Each year many foreigners are attracted to its casino and pleasant climate.[85][115] It has also become a major banking center, holding over €100 billion worth of funds.[116] Banks in Monaco
Monaco
specialize in providing private banking, asset and wealth management services.[117] The principality has successfully sought to diversify its economic base into services and small, high-value-added, non-polluting industries, such as cosmetics and biothermics.[109] The state retains monopolies in numerous sectors, including tobacco and the postal service. The telephone network ( Monaco
Monaco
Telecom) used to be fully owned by the state; it now owns only 45%, while the remaining 55% is owned by both Cable & Wireless Communications (49%) and Compagnie Monégasque de Banque (6%). It is still, however, a monopoly. Living standards are high, roughly comparable to those in prosperous French metropolitan areas.[118] Monaco
Monaco
is not a member of the European Union. However, it is very closely linked via a customs union with France
France
and, as such, its currency is the same as that of France, the euro. Before 2002, Monaco minted its own coins, the Monegasque franc. Monaco
Monaco
has acquired the right to mint euro coins with Monegasque designs on its national side. Gambling industry[edit]

Monte Carlo
Monte Carlo
Casino

The plan for casino gambling was drafted during the reign of Florestan I in 1846. Under Louis-Philippe's petite-bourgeois regime, however, a dignitary such as the Prince of Monaco
Prince of Monaco
was not allowed to operate a gambling house.[18] All this changed in the dissolute Second French Empire under Napoleon
Napoleon
III. The House of Grimaldi
House of Grimaldi
was in dire need of money. The towns of Menton
Menton
and Roquebrune, which had been the main sources of income for the Grimaldi family for centuries, were now accustomed to a much improved standard of living and lenient taxation thanks to Sardinian intervention and clamored for financial and political concession, even for separation. The Grimaldi family hoped the newly legal industry would help alleviate the difficulties they faced, above all the crushing debt the family had incurred, but Monaco's first casino would not be ready to operate until after Charles III assumed the throne in 1856. The grantee of the princely concession (licence) was unable to attract enough business to sustain the operation and, after relocating the casino several times, sold the concession to French casino magnates François and Louis Blanc for 1.7 million francs. The Blancs had already set up a highly successful casino (in fact the largest in Europe) in Bad-Homburg in the Grand Duchy of Hesse-Homburg, a small German principality comparable to Monaco, and quickly petitioned Charles III to rename a depressed seaside area known as "Les Spelegures (Den of Thieves)" to " Monte Carlo
Monte Carlo
(Mount Charles)."[119] They then constructed their casino in the newly dubbed "Monte Carlo" and cleared out the area's less-than-savory elements to make the neighborhood surrounding the establishment more conducive to tourism. The Blancs opened Le Grand Casino de Monte Carlo
Monte Carlo
in 1858 and the casino benefited from the tourist traffic the newly built French railway system created.[120] Due to the combination of the casino and the railroads, Monaco
Monaco
finally recovered from the previous half-century of economic slump and the principality's success attracted other businesses.[121] In the years following the casino's opening, Monaco founded its Oceanographic Museum
Oceanographic Museum
and the Monte Carlo
Monte Carlo
Opera House, 46 hotels were built and the number of jewelers operating in Monaco increased by nearly five-fold. In an apparent effort to not overtax citizens, it was decreed that the Monégasque citizens were prohibited from entering the casino unless they were employees.[122] By 1869, the casino was making such a vast sum of money that the principality could afford to end tax collection from the Monegasques—a master stroke that was to attract affluent residents from all over Europe
Europe
in a policy that still exists today. Today, Société des bains de mer de Monaco, which owns Le Grand Casino, still operates in the original building that the Blancs constructed and has since been joined by several other casinos, including the Le Casino Café de Paris, the Monte Carlo
Monte Carlo
Sporting Club & Casino and the Sun Casino. The most recent addition in Monte Carlo is the Monte Carlo
Monte Carlo
Bay Casino, which sits on 4 hectares of the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
and, among other things, offers 145 slot machines, all equipped with "ticket-in, ticket-out" (TITO); it is the first Mediterranean casino to use this technology.[123] Taxes[edit] Monaco
Monaco
has high social insurance taxes, payable by both employers and employees. The employers' contributions are between 28% and 40% (averaging 35%) of gross salary, including benefits, and employees pay a further 10% to 14% (averaging 13%).[124]

Residential area in Monaco

Monaco
Monaco
has never levied income tax on individuals,[90] and foreigners are thus able to use it as a "tax haven" from their own country's taxes, because as an independent country Monaco
Monaco
is not obligated to pay taxes to other countries.[125][126] The absence of a personal income tax in the principality has attracted to it a considerable number of wealthy "tax refugee" residents from European countries who derive the majority of their income from activity outside Monaco; celebrities such as Formula One
Formula One
drivers attract most of the attention, but the vast majority of them are lesser-known business people.[111][127] However, due to a bilateral treaty with France, French citizens are still required to pay applicable income and wealth taxes to the French state even if they are resident in Monaco,[128] and the principality also actively discourages the registration of foreign corporations, charging a 33 per cent corporation tax on profits unless it can be shown that at least three-quarters of the turnover has been generated within its borders. Unlike classic tax havens, it does not offer offshore financial services.[90] In 1998 the Centre for Tax Policy and Administration, part of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
(OECD), issued a first report on the consequences of the financial systems of known tax havens.[129] Monaco
Monaco
did not appear in the list of these territories until 2004, when the OECD became indignant regarding the Monegasque situation and denounced it in a report, as well as Andorra, Liechtenstein, Liberia, and the Marshall Islands, underlining its lack of co-operation regarding financial information disclosure and availability.[130][131] However, Monaco
Monaco
went on to overcome the objections of the OECD and was thus removed from its "grey list" of unco-operative jurisdictions. In 2009 it went a step farther and secured a place on its "white list", after signing twelve information exchange treaties with other jurisdictions.[90] In 2000, the Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering (FATF) stated: "The anti-money laundering system in Monaco
Monaco
is comprehensive. However, difficulties have been encountered with Monaco
Monaco
by countries in international investigations on serious crimes that appear to be linked also with tax matters. In addition, the FIU of Monaco
Monaco
(SICCFIN) suffers a great lack of adequate resources. The authorities of Monaco have stated that they will provide additional resources to SICCFIN."[132] Also in 2000, a report by the French parliamentarians Arnaud Montebourg
Arnaud Montebourg
and Vincent Peillon
Vincent Peillon
stated that Monaco
Monaco
had relaxed policies with respect to money laundering, including within its casino, and that the government of Monaco
Monaco
had been placing political pressure on the judiciary, so that alleged crimes were not being properly investigated.[133] In its Progress Report of 2005, the International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund
(IMF) identified Monaco, along with 36 other territories, as a tax haven,[134] but in its FATF report of the same year it took a positive view of Monaco's measures against money-laundering.[135][136] The Council of Europe
Europe
also decided to issue reports naming tax havens. Twenty-two territories, including Monaco, were thus evaluated between 1998 and 2000 on a first round. Monaco
Monaco
was the only territory that refused to perform the second round, between 2001 and 2003, whereas the 21 other territories had planned implementing the third and final round, planned between 2005 and 2007.[137] Numismatics[edit] Main articles: Monégasque franc, Monégasque euro coins, and Euro gold and silver commemorative coins (Monaco)

1978 Monégasque franc
Monégasque franc
coin with an effigy of Rainier III

Of interest to numismatists, in Monaco
Monaco
the euro was introduced in 2002, having been preceded by the Monégasque franc.[138] In preparation for this date, the minting of the new euro coins started as early as 2001. Like Belgium, Finland, France, the Netherlands, and Spain, Monaco
Monaco
decided to put the minting date on its coins. This is why the first euro coins from Monaco
Monaco
have the year 2001 on them, instead of 2002, like the other countries of the Eurozone
Eurozone
that decided to put the year of first circulation (2002) on their coins.[139][140] Three different designs were selected for the Monégasque coins.[141] However, in 2006, the design was changed after the death of ruling Prince Rainier to have the effigy of Prince Albert.[141][142] Monaco
Monaco
also has a rich and valuable collection of collectors' coins, with face value ranging from €5 to €100.[143] These coins are a legacy of an old national practice of minting silver and gold commemorative coins.[144][145] Unlike normal issues, these coins are not legal tender in all the Eurozone.[146] The same practice concerning commemorative coins is exercised by all eurozone countries.

Population[edit] Demographics[edit] Main article: Demographics
Demographics
of Monaco

Monaco's Population   French (28.4%)    Monegasques
Monegasques
(21.6%)    Italians
Italians
(18.7%)   British (7.5%)    Belgians
Belgians
(2.8%)    Germans
Germans
(2.5%)   Swiss (2.5%)    Americans
Americans
(1.2%)   Other (14.8%)

Monaco's total population was 38,400 in 2015.[147] Monaco's population is unusual in that the native Monégasques are a minority in their own country: the largest group are French nationals at 28.4%, followed by Monégasque (21.6%), Italian (18.7%), British (7.5%), Belgian (2.8%), German (2.5%), Swiss (2.5%) and U.S. nationals (1.2%).[148] Citizens of Monaco, whether born in the country or naturalized, are called Monégasque.[149] Monaco
Monaco
has the world's highest life expectancy at nearly 90 years.[150] Language[edit] Main article: Languages of Monaco The official language of Monaco
Monaco
is French, while Italian is spoken by the principality's sizeable community from Italy. Thus, French and Italian supplants the Occitan language, the vernacular language of the Monegasques, which is not recognized as an official language; English is used by American, British, Anglo-Canadian, and Irish residents. The Grimaldi, princes of Monaco, have Ligurian origin, thus, the traditional national language is Monégasque, a variety of Ligurian, now spoken by only a minority of residents and as a common second language by many native residents. In Monaco-Ville, street signs are printed in both French and Monégasque.[151][152] Religion[edit]

Religion in Monaco
Monaco
(2012)[153][c]

Christianity

83.2%

No Religion

12.9%

Judaism

2.9%

Islam

0.8%

Others/unspecified

0.5%

Catholic Church[edit]

Saint Nicholas Cathedral, Monaco

Main article: Catholic Church in Monaco The official religion is the Catholic Church, with freedom of other religions guaranteed by the constitution.[153] There are five Catholic parish churches in Monaco
Monaco
and one cathedral, which is the see of the archbishop of Monaco. The diocese, which has existed since the mid-19th century, was raised to a non-metropolitan archbishopric in 1981 as the Archdiocese of Monaco
Monaco
and remains exempt (i.e. immediately subject to the Holy See). The patron saint is Saint Devota. Christians comprise a total of 83.2% of Monaco's population.[153] Protestantism[edit] According to Monaco
Monaco
2012 International Religious Freedom Report, Protestants are the second-largest group after Roman Catholics. There are various Evangelical Protestant
Evangelical Protestant
communities that gather periodically. The report states that there are two Protestant churches, including the local Anglican church and a Reformed
Reformed
church. Anglicanism[edit] There is one Anglican church (St. Paul's Church), located in the Avenue de Grande Bretagne in Monte Carlo. In 2007 this had a formal membership of 135 Anglicans resident in the principality, but was also serving a considerably larger number of Anglicans temporarily in the country, mostly as tourists. The church site also accommodates an English-language library of over 3,000 books.[154] The church is part of the Anglican Diocese in Europe. Greek Orthodoxy[edit] Monaco's 2012 International Religious Freedom Report states that there is one Greek Orthodox Church
Greek Orthodox Church
in Monaco. Judaism[edit] The Association Culturelle Israélite de Monaco
Monaco
(founded in 1948) is a converted house containing a synagogue, a community Hebrew school, and a kosher food shop, located in Monte Carlo.[155] The community mainly consists of retirees from Britain (40%) and North Africa. Two-thirds of the Jewish population is Sephardic, mainly from North Africa, while the other third is Ashkenazi.[156] Islam[edit] The Muslim
Muslim
population of Monaco
Monaco
consists of about 280 people, most of whom are exclusively residents, not citizens.[157] The majority of the Muslim
Muslim
population of Monaco
Monaco
are Arabs, though there are smaller Turkish minorities as well.[158] Monaco
Monaco
does not have any official mosques.[159] There is a Muslim
Muslim
mosque in nearby Beausoleil, France, within easy walking distance of Monaco. Sports[edit] Formula One[edit] Main article: Monaco
Monaco
Grand Prix

Formation lap for the 1996 Monaco
Monaco
Grand Prix

Since 1929, the Monaco Grand Prix
Monaco Grand Prix
has been held annually in the streets of Monaco.[160] It is widely considered to be one of the most prestigious automobile races in the world. The erection of the Circuit de Monaco
Monaco
takes six weeks to complete and the removal after the race takes another three weeks.[160] The circuit is incredibly narrow and tight and its tunnel, tight corners and many elevation changes make it perhaps the most demanding Formula One
Formula One
track.[161] Driver Nelson Piquet compared driving the circuit to "riding a bicycle around your living room". Despite the challenging nature of the course it has only had one fatality, Lorenzo Bandini, who crashed, burned and died three days later from his injuries in 1967.[162] Two other drivers had lucky escapes after they crashed into the harbour, the most famous being Alberto Ascari
Alberto Ascari
in the 1955 Monaco Grand Prix
Monaco Grand Prix
and Paul Hawkins, during the 1965 race.[160] Monte Carlo
Monte Carlo
Rally[edit] Since 1911 part of the Monte Carlo
Monte Carlo
Rally has been held in the principality, originally held at the behest of Prince Albert I. Like the Grand Prix, the rally is organized by Automobile Club de Monaco. It has long been considered to be one of the toughest and most prestigious events in rallying and from 1973 to 2008 was the opening round of the World
World
Rally Championship (WRC).[163] From 2009 until 2011, the rally served as the opening round of the Intercontinental Rally Challenge.[164] The rally returned to the WRC calendar in 2012 and has been held annually since.[165] Due to Monaco's limited size, all but the ending of the rally is held on French territory. Football[edit]

Stade Louis II, home of AS Monaco
Monaco
FC

Monaco
Monaco
hosts two major football teams in the principality: the men's football club, AS Monaco
Monaco
FC, and the women's football club, OS Monaco. AS Monaco
Monaco
plays at the Stade Louis II
Stade Louis II
and competes in Ligue 1
Ligue 1
the first division of French football
French football
and are reigning champions, The club is historically one of the most successful clubs in the French league, having won Ligue 1
Ligue 1
eight times (most recently in 2016–17) and competed at the top level for all but six seasons since 1953. The club reached the 2004 UEFA Champions League
UEFA Champions League
Final, with a team that included Dado Pršo, Fernando Morientes, Jérôme Rothen, Akis Zikos and Ludovic Giuly, but lost 3–0 to Portuguese team FC Porto. Many international stars have played for the club, such as French World Cup-winners Thierry Henry, Fabien Barthez
Fabien Barthez
and David Trezeguet. The Stade Louis II
Stade Louis II
also played host to the annual UEFA
UEFA
Super Cup (1998–2012) between the winners of the UEFA Champions League
UEFA Champions League
and the UEFA
UEFA
Europa League. The women's team, OS Monaco, competes in the women's French football league system. The club currently plays in the local regional league, deep down in the league system. It once played in the Division 1 Féminine, in the 1994–95 season, but was quickly relegated. Current French women's international goalkeeper Sarah Bouhaddi
Sarah Bouhaddi
had a short stint at the club before going to the Clairefontaine
Clairefontaine
academy. The Monaco national football team
Monaco national football team
represents the nation in association football and is controlled by the Monégasque Football Federation, the governing body for football in Monaco. However, Monaco
Monaco
is one of only two sovereign states in Europe
Europe
(along with Vatican City) that is not a member of UEFA
UEFA
and so does not take part in any UEFA
UEFA
European Football Championship or FIFA World
World
Cup competitions. The team plays its home matches in the Stade Louis II. Rugby[edit] Main article: Rugby union in Monaco Monaco's national rugby team, as of October 2013, is 91st in the International Rugby Board
International Rugby Board
rankings.[166] Other sports[edit]

A view of the 2011 Monaco
Monaco
Porsche Supercup. Motor racing is very popular, with one course encompassing almost the whole country.

The Monte-Carlo Masters is held annually in neighbouring Roquebrune-Cap-Martin, France, as a professional tournament for men as part of tennis's ATP Masters Series.[167] The tournament has been held since 1897. Golf's Monte Carlo
Monte Carlo
Open was also held at the Monte Carlo Golf Club at Mont Agel
Mont Agel
in France
France
between 1984 and 1992. Monaco
Monaco
has also competed in the Olympic Games, although, no athlete from Monaco has ever won an Olympic medal. The 2009 Tour de France, the world's premier cycle race, started from Monaco
Monaco
with a 15-kilometre (9 mi) closed-circuit individual time trial starting and finishing there on the first day, and the 182-kilometre (113 mi) second leg starting there on the following day and ending in Brignoles, France.[168] Monaco
Monaco
also stage part of the Global Champions Tour (International Show-jumping). Acknowledged as the most glamorous of the series, Monaco
Monaco
will be hosting the world's most celebrated riders, including Monaco's own Charlotte Casiraghi, in a setting facing out over the world's most beautiful yachts, and framed by the Port
Port
Hercules
Hercules
and Prince's palace.[169] In 2009, the Monaco
Monaco
stage of the Global Champions tour took place between 25–27 June. The Monaco Marathon is the only marathon in the world to pass through three separate countries, those of Monaco, France
France
and Italy, before the finish at the Stade Louis II. The Monaco
Monaco
Ironman 70.3 triathlon race is an annual event with over 1,000 athletes competing and attracts top professional athletes from around the world. The race includes a 1.9-kilometre (1.2-mile) swim, 90-kilometre (56-mile) bike ride and 21.1-kilometre (13.1-mile) run. Since 1993, the headquarters of the International Association of Athletics Federations,[170] the world governing body of athletics, is located in Monaco.[171] An IAAF Diamond League meet is annually held at Stade Louis II.[172] A municipal sports complex, the Rainier III Nautical Stadium
Rainier III Nautical Stadium
in the Port
Port
Hercules
Hercules
district consists of a heated saltwater Olympic-size swimming pool, diving boards and a slide.[173] The pool is converted into an ice rink from December to March.[173] From 10–12 July 2014 Monaco
Monaco
inaugurated the Solar1 Monte Carlo
Monte Carlo
Cup, a series of ocean races exclusively for solar-powered boats.[174],[175] Culture[edit] Music[edit] Main article: Music of Monaco

Seaside façade of the Salle Garnier, home of the Opéra de Monte-Carlo

Monaco
Monaco
has an opera house, a symphony orchestra and a classical ballet company.[176] Visual arts[edit] Monaco
Monaco
has a national museum of contemporary visual art at the New National Museum of Monaco. The country also has numerous works of public art, statues,museums, and memorials (see list of public art in Monaco). Museums in Monaco[edit] Main article: List of museums in Monaco

Oceanographic Museum, Monaco

Monaco
Monaco
Top Cars Collection Napoleon
Napoleon
Museum (Monaco) Oceanographic Museum

Events, festivals and shows[edit] The Principality
Principality
of Monaco
Monaco
hosts major international events such as :

International Circus Festival of Monte-Carlo Mondial du Théâtre Monte-Carlo Television Festival

Education[edit] Primary and secondary schools[edit]

Lycée Albert Premier
Lycée Albert Premier
of Monaco

Monaco
Monaco
has ten state-operated schools, including: seven nursery and primary schools; one secondary school, Collège Charles III;[177] one lycée that provides general and technological training, Lycée Albert 1er;[178] and one lycée that provides vocational and hotel training, Lycée technique et hôtelier de Monte-Carlo.[179] There are also two grant-aided denominational private schools, Institution François d'Assise Nicolas Barré and Ecole des Sœurs Dominicaines, and one international school, the International School of Monaco,[180][181] founded in 1994.[182] Colleges and universities[edit] There is one university located in Monaco, namely the International University of Monaco
Monaco
(IUM), an English-language school specializing in business education and operated by the Institut des hautes études économiques et commerciales (INSEEC) group of schools. Flag[edit]

Monaco's flag and Coat of arms

Main article: Flag of Monaco The flag of Monaco
Monaco
is one of the world's oldest national flag designs.[183] The flag of Monaco
Monaco
is almost identical to the flag of Indonesia, except for the ratio of height to width.[184] Transport[edit] Main article: Transport in Monaco Further information: Rail transport in Monaco The Monaco- Monte Carlo
Monte Carlo
station is served by the SNCF, the French national rail system. The Monaco Heliport
Monaco Heliport
provides helicopter service to the closest airport, Côte d'Azur Airport in Nice, France. The Monaco
Monaco
bus company (CAM) covers all the tourist attractions, museums, Exotic garden, business centres, and the Casino or the Louis II Stadium.[185] Relations with other countries[edit] Main article: Foreign relations of Monaco

Le Rocher in 1890

Monaco
Monaco
is so old that it has outlived many of the nations and institutions that it has had relations with. The Crown of Aragon
Crown of Aragon
and Republic of Genoa
Republic of Genoa
became a part of other countries, as did the Kingdom of Sardinia. Honoré II, Prince of Monaco
Prince of Monaco
secured recognition of his independent sovereignty from Spain
Spain
in 1633, and then from Louis XIII of France
France
by the Treaty of Péronne (1641). Monaco
Monaco
made a special agreement with France
France
in 1963 in which French customs laws apply in Monaco
Monaco
and its territorial waters.[128] Monaco uses the euro but is not a member of the European Union.[128] Monaco shares a 6-kilometre (3.7-mile) border with France
France
but also has about 2-kilometre (1.2-mile) of coastline with the Mediterranean sea.[186] Two important agreements that support Monaco's independence from France
France
include the Franco-Monegasque Treaty of 1861 and the French Treaty of 1918 (see also Kingdom of Sardinia
Kingdom of Sardinia
The United States
United States
CIA Factbook records 1419 as the year of Monaco's independence).[186]

France- Monaco
Monaco
relations Monaco– United States
United States
relations Monaco– Russia
Russia
relations

There are two "full" embassies in Monaco; France
France
and Italy.[187] There are about another 30 or so consulates.[187] By the 21st century Monaco maintained embassies in Belgium
Belgium
(Brussels), France
France
(Paris), Germany (Berlin), the Vatican, Italy
Italy
(Rome), Spain
Spain
(Madrid), Switzerland (Bern), United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(London) and the United States (Washington).[187] In the year 2000 nearly two-thirds of the residents of Monaco
Monaco
were foreigners[188] In 2015 the immigrant population was estimated at 60%[186] However, it is reported to be difficult to gain citizenship in Monaco, or at least in relative number there is not many people who do so.[176] In 2015 an immigration rate of about 4 people per 1,000 was noted, which works out to something like 100–150 people a year.[189] The population of Monaco
Monaco
went from 35,000 in 2008 to 36,000 in 2013, and of that about 20 percent were native Monegasque[190] (see also Nationality law of Monaco). A recurring issue Monaco
Monaco
encounters with other countries is the attempt by foreign nationals to use Monaco
Monaco
to avoid paying taxes in their own country.[186] Monaco
Monaco
actually collects a number of taxes including a 20% VAT and 33% on companies unless they make over 75% of their income inside Monaco.[186] Monaco
Monaco
does not allow dual citizenship, but does have multiple paths to citizenship including by declaration and naturalization.[191] In many cases the key issue for obtaining citizenship, rather than attaining residency in Monaco, is the person’s ties to their departure country.[191] For example, French citizens must still pay taxes to France
France
even if they live full-time in Monaco
Monaco
unless they resided in the country before 1962 for at least 5 years.[191] In the early 1960s there was some tension between France
France
and Monaco
Monaco
over taxation.[192] There are no border formalities entering or leaving to France. For visitors a souvenir passport stamp is available on request at Monaco's tourist office. This is located on the far side of the gardens that face the Casino.

Microstate Association Agreement Eurozone[193] Schengen Area EU single market EU customs territory[194] EU VAT area[195] Dublin
Dublin
Regulation

  Monaco
Monaco
(relations) Negotiating[196] Yes[d] de facto[e] Partial[f] Yes[g] Yes[h][i] No

See also[edit]

Geography portal Europe
Europe
portal Mediterranean portal

Outline of Monaco List of sovereign states and dependent territories by population density Foreign relations of Monaco List of rulers of Monaco Japanese Garden, Monaco Telecommunications in Monaco Microstates and the European Union List of diplomatic missions in Monaco List of diplomatic missions of Monaco Monaco– European Union
European Union
relations

Notes[edit]

^ a b In other languages of Monaco:

Italian: Principato di Monaco Monégasque: Principatu de Múnegu Occitan: Principat de Mónegue

^ For further information, see languages of Monaco. ^ Percentage based on a 35,000 person population. ^ Monetary agreement with the EU to issue euros. ^ Although not a contracting party to the Schengen Agreement, has an open border with France
France
and Schengen laws are administered as if it were a part of France.[197][198] ^ Through an agreement with France.[199] ^ Through an agreement with France. Part of the EU Customs territory, administered as part of France.[197][200][201][202] ^ Also part of the EU excise territory.[202] ^ Through an agreement with France. Administered as a part of France for taxation purposes.[195][197][202][203]

References[edit]

^ "United-Nations data, country profile". Retrieved 29 October 2013.  ^ " Constitution of Monaco
Constitution of Monaco
(art. 78): The territory of the Principality forms a single commune.". Retrieved 29 October 2013.  ^ "Constitution de la Principauté". Council of Government. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 22 May 2008.  ^ " Monaco
Monaco
Constitution Chapter 1, Article 9". Retrieved 18 July 2017.  ^ a b " Monaco
Monaco
en Chiffres" (PDF). Archived from the original on 15 November 2009. Retrieved 15 November 2009. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) , Principauté de Monaco. Retrieved 7 June 2010. ^ a b c " Monaco
Monaco
Statistics / IMSEE — Monaco
Monaco
IMSEE" (in French). Imsee.mc. Retrieved 3 August 2016.  ^ a b "National Accounts Main Aggregates Database". United Nations Statistics Division. Retrieved 8 October 2012.  ^ "UNdata - country profile - Monaco". data.un.org.  ^ "What side of the road do people drive on?". Whatsideoftheroad.com. Retrieved 28 May 2012.  ^ "One in Three is a Millionaire
Millionaire
in Monaco: Study". ndtv.com.  ^ In fact Francesco Grimaldi, who captured the Rock on the night of 8 January 1297, was forced to flee Monaco
Monaco
only four years after the fabled raid, never to come back. The Grimaldi family was not able to permanently secure their holding until 1419 when they purchased Monaco, along with two neighbouring villages, Menton
Menton
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Berlin, Germany Bratislava, Slovakia Budapest, Hungary Ljubljana, Slovenia Prague, Czech Republic Vaduz, Liechtenstein Vienna, Austria Warsaw, Poland

Southern

Ankara, Turkey3 Athens, Greece Belgrade, Serbia Bucharest, Romania Gibraltar, Gibraltar (UK) Lisbon, Portugal Madrid, Spain Monaco, Monaco Nicosia, Cyprus4 North Nicosia, Northern Cyprus4, 5 Podgorica, Montenegro Pristina, Kosovo5 Rome, Italy San Marino, San Marino Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina Skopje, Macedonia Sofia, Bulgaria Tirana, Albania Valletta, Malta Vatican City, Vatican City Zagreb, Croatia

Eastern

Astana, Kazakhstan3 Baku, Azerbaijan3 Chișinău, Moldova Kiev, Ukraine Minsk, Belarus Moscow, Russia3 Riga, Latvia Stepanakert, Artsakh4, 5 Sukhumi, Abkhazia3, 5 Tallinn, Estonia Tbilisi, Georgia3 Tiraspol, Transnistria5 Tskhinvali, South Ossetia3, 5 Vilnius, Lithuania Yerevan, Armenia3

1 Also the capital of the Kingdom of the Netherlands 2 Also the seat of the European Union, see Institutional seats of the European Union
European Union
and Brussels
Brussels
and the European Union 3 Transcontinental country 4 Entirely in Southwest Asia but having socio-political connections with Europe 5 Partially recognised country

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Countries and territories of the Mediterranean Sea

Sovereign states

Albania Algeria Bosnia-Herzegovina Croatia Cyprus Egypt France Greece Israel Italy Lebanon Libya Malta Monaco Montenegro Morocco Slovenia Spain Syria Tunisia Turkey

States with limited recognition

Northern Cyprus Palestine

Dependencies and other territories

Akrotiri and Dhekelia
Akrotiri and Dhekelia
(UK) Gibraltar
Gibraltar
(UK)

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Climate of Europe

Sovereign states

Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland

Italy Kazakhstan Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom Vatican City

States with limited recognition

Abkhazia Artsakh Kosovo Northern Cyprus South Ossetia Transnistria

Dependencies and other entities

Åland Faroe Islands Gibraltar Guernsey Isle of Man Jersey Svalbard

Other entities

European Union

International organizations

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Council of Europe

Institutions

Secretary General Committee of Ministers Parliamentary Assembly Congress Court of Human Rights Commissioner for Human Rights Commission for the Efficiency of Justice Commission against Racism and Intolerance

Members

Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia1 Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom

Observers

Canada Holy See Israel Japan Mexico United States Sovereign Military Order of Malta

Former members

Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
(1991–1992) Saar (assoc. 1950–1956)

1 Provisionally referred to by the Council of Europe
Europe
as "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia"; see Macedonia naming dispute.

Other information

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Monarchies

List of current sovereign monarchs List of current constituent monarchs

Type

Absolute Constitutional Diarchy Elective Federal Hereditary

By region or entity

Africa

Lesotho Morocco Swaziland

Asia

Bahrain Bhutan Brunei Cambodia Japan Jordan Kuwait Malaysia Oman Qatar Saudi Arabia Thailand United Arab Emirates

Europe

Andorra Belgium Denmark Luxembourg Liechtenstein Monaco Netherlands Norway Spain Sweden Vatican City United Kingdom

Oceania

Australia Tonga New Zealand

Cook Islands Niue

Papua New Guinea Solomon Islands Tuvalu

Americas

Antigua and Barbuda Bahamas Barbados Belize Canada Grenada Jamaica Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

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Lists of countries by population statistics

Global

Current population Current population (United Nations)

(Sub-)Continents

Africa Asia Europe North America

Caribbean

Oceania South America

Intercontinental

Americas Arab world Commonwealth of Nations Eurasia European Union Islands Latin America Middle East

Cities/urban regions

National capitals Cities proper Metropolitan areas Urban areas Megacities Megalopolises

Past and future

Past population (United Nations) Past and future population 1 1000 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 1907 1939 1989 2000 2005 2010 Future population

Population density

Current density Current real density based on food growing capacity

Growth indicators

Population growth rate Natural increase Birth rate Mortality rate Fertility rate

Other demographics

Age at first marriage Divorce rate Ethnic and cultural diversity level Foreign-born population Immigrant population Linguistic diversity Median age Net migration rate Number of households Sex ratio Urban population Urbanization

Health

Antiviral medications for pandemic influenza HIV/AIDS adult prevalence rate Infant and under-five mortality rates Life expectancy Percentage suffering from undernourishment Health
Health
expenditure covered by government Suicide rate Total health expenditure per capita Body Mass Index (BMI)

Education and innovation

Bloomberg Innovation Index Education Index International Innovation Index Innovation Union Scoreboard Literacy rate Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies Progress in International Reading Literacy Study Student skills Tertiary education attainment Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study Women's average years in school World
World
Intellectual Property Indicators

Economic

Development aid given

Official Development Assistance received

Employment rate Irrigated land area Human Development Index

by country inequality-adjusted

Human Poverty Index Imports Income equality Job security Labour force Number of millionaires (US dollars) Number of billionaires (US dollars) Percentage living in poverty Public sector Sen social welfare function Unemployment rate

List of international rankings List of top international rankings by country Lists by country

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 130909670 LCCN: n81101064 GND: 4040031-1 SUDOC: 02658560X BNF: cb11945108x (data) HDS: 3363 NDL: 00567822

Coordinates: 43°44′N 7°25′E / 43.733°N 7.417°E / 4

.