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The Mojave Desert
Desert
( /moʊˈhɑːvi, mə-/,[5][6][7] mo-HAH-vee or mə-HAH-vee) is an arid rain-shadow desert and the driest desert in North America.[8] It is located in the southwestern United States, primarily within southeastern California
California
and southern Nevada, and it occupies a total of 47,877 sq mi (124,000 km2). Very small areas also extend into Utah
Utah
and Arizona.[9] Its boundaries are generally noted by the presence of Joshua trees, which are native only to the Mojave Desert
Desert
and are considered an indicator species, and it is believed to support an additional 1,750 to 2,000 species of plants.[10] The central part of the desert is sparsely populated, while its peripheries support large communities such as Las Vegas, San Bernardino, Lancaster, Palmdale, Victorville, and St. George. The Mojave Desert
Desert
is bordered by the Great Basin Desert
Great Basin Desert
to its north[8] and the Sonoran Desert
Sonoran Desert
to its south and east.[8] Topographical boundaries include the Tehachapi Mountains
Tehachapi Mountains
to the west, and the San Gabriel Mountains
San Gabriel Mountains
and San Bernardino Mountains
San Bernardino Mountains
to the south. The mountain boundaries are distinct because they are outlined by the two largest faults in California
California
– the San Andreas and Garlock faults. The Mojave Desert
Desert
displays typical basin and range topography. Higher elevations above 2,000 ft (610 m)) in the Mojave are commonly referred to as the High Desert; however, Death Valley is the lowest elevation in North America at 280 ft (85 m) below sea level and is one of the Mojave Desert's more notorious places. The Mojave Desert
Desert
occupies less than 50,000 sq mi (130,000 km2), making it the smallest of the North American deserts.[8] The Mojave Desert
Desert
is often referred to as the "high desert", in contrast to the "low desert", the Sonoran Desert
Sonoran Desert
to the south. However, the Mojave Desert
Desert
is generally lower than the Great Basin Desert
Desert
to the north.[citation needed] The spelling Mojave originates from the Spanish language while the spelling Mohave comes from modern English. Both are used today, although the Mojave Tribal Nation officially uses the spelling Mojave; the word is a shortened form of Hamakhaave, their endonym in their native language, which means 'beside the water'.[11]

Contents

1 Climate 2 Geography 3 Cities and regions 4 Parks and tourism

4.1 Museums 4.2 Parks and protected areas 4.3 Flora 4.4 Fauna

5 Soil and Plants Conditions 6 West Mojave Plan litigation 7 Gallery 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

Climate[edit] The Mojave Desert
Desert
receives less than 13 in (330 mm) of rain a year and is generally between 2,000 and 5,000 feet (610 and 1,520 m) in elevation. The Mojave Desert
Desert
also contains the Mojave National Preserve; as well as the lowest and hottest place in North America: Death Valley
Death Valley
at 282 ft (86 m) below sea level; where the temperature often surpasses 120 °F (49 °C) from late June to early August. Zion National Park
Zion National Park
in Utah
Utah
lies at the junction of the Mojave, the Great Basin
Great Basin
Desert, and the Colorado Plateau. Despite its aridity, the Mojave (and particularly the Antelope Valley
Antelope Valley
in its southwest) has long been a center of alfalfa production; fed by irrigation coming from groundwater and (in the 20th century) from the California
California
Aqueduct.

Mustard blue summer sunset at Landers, California

The Mojave is a desert of temperature extremes and two distinct seasons. Winter months bring comfortable daytime temperatures, which occasionally drop to around 25 °F (−4 °C) on valley floors, and below 0 °F (−18 °C) at the highest elevations. Storms moving from the Pacific Northwest
Pacific Northwest
can bring rain and in some places even snow. More often, the rain shadow created by the Sierra Nevada
Nevada
as well as mountain ranges within the desert such as the Spring Mountains, bring only clouds and wind. In longer periods between storm systems, winter temperatures in valleys can approach 80 °F (27 °C). Spring weather continues to be influenced by Pacific storms, but rainfall is more widespread and occurs less frequently after April. By early June, it is rare for another Pacific storm to have a significant impact on the region's weather; and temperatures after the middle of May are normally above 90 °F (32 °C) and frequently above 100 °F (38 °C). Summer weather is dominated by heat. Temperatures on valley floors can soar above 120 °F (49 °C) and above 130 °F (54 °C) at the lowest elevations. Low humidity, high temperatures, and low pressure, draw in moisture from the Gulf of Mexico creating thunderstorms across the desert southwest known as the North American monsoon. While the Mojave does not get nearly the amount of rainfall that the Sonoran desert
Sonoran desert
to the south receives, monsoonal moisture will create thunderstorms as far west as California's Central Valley from mid-June through early September.

Clouds reflecting high wind conditions from orographic lift in the Mojave Desert

Autumn is generally pleasant, with one to two Pacific storm systems creating regional rain events. October is one of the driest and sunniest months in the Mojave; and average high temperatures usually remain between 70 °F (21 °C) and 90 °F (32 °C) on the valley floors. After temperature, wind is the most significant weather phenomenon in the Mojave. Across the region windy days are common; and also common in areas near the transition between the Mojave and the California
California
low valleys, including near Cajon Pass, Soledad Canyon
Soledad Canyon
and the Tehachapi areas. During the June Gloom, cooler air can be pushed into the desert from Southern California. In Santa Ana wind
Santa Ana wind
events, hot air from the desert blows into the Los Angeles basin
Los Angeles basin
and other coastal areas. Wind farms in these areas generate power from these winds. The other major weather factor in the region is elevation. The highest peak within the Mojave is Charleston Peak
Charleston Peak
at 11,918 feet (3,633 m);[3] while the Badwater Basin
Badwater Basin
in Death Valley
Death Valley
is 279 feet (85 m) below sea level.[4] Accordingly, temperature and precipitation ranges wildly in all seasons across the region. The Mojave Desert
Desert
has not historically supported a fire regime because of low fuel loads and connectivity. However, in the last few decades, invasive annual plants such asBromus, Schismus and Brassica
Brassica
have facilitated fire. This has significantly altered many areas of the desert.[12] At higher elevations, fire regimes are regular but infrequent.

Climate data for Furnace Creek, Death Valley
Death Valley
(Elevation −190 ft (−58 m))

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °F (°C) 88 (31) 97 (36) 102 (39) 113 (45) 122 (50) 128 (53) 134 (57) 127 (53) 123 (51) 113 (45) 98 (37) 88 (31) 134 (57)

Average high °F (°C) 66.9 (19.4) 73.3 (22.9) 82.1 (27.8) 90.5 (32.5) 100.5 (38.1) 109.9 (43.3) 116.5 (46.9) 114.7 (45.9) 106.5 (41.4) 92.8 (33.8) 77.1 (25.1) 65.2 (18.4) 91.4 (33)

Average low °F (°C) 40.0 (4.4) 46.3 (7.9) 54.8 (12.7) 62.1 (16.7) 72.7 (22.6) 81.2 (27.3) 88.0 (31.1) 85.7 (29.8) 75.6 (24.2) 61.5 (16.4) 48.1 (8.9) 38.3 (3.5) 62.9 (17.2)

Record low °F (°C) 15 (−9) 26 (−3) 26 (−3) 39 (4) 46 (8) 54 (12) 67 (19) 65 (18) 55 (13) 37 (3) 30 (−1) 22 (−6) 15 (−9)

Average precipitation inches (mm) 0.39 (9.9) 0.51 (13) 0.30 (7.6) 0.12 (3) 0.03 (0.8) 0.05 (1.3) 0.07 (1.8) 0.13 (3.3) 0.21 (5.3) 0.07 (1.8) 0.18 (4.6) 0.30 (7.6) 2.36 (59.9)

Mean monthly sunshine hours 217 226 279 330 372 390 403 372 330 310 210 186 3,625

Source #1: NOAA 1981–2010 US Climate Normals [13]

Source #2: weather2travel.com [14]

Climate data for Searchlight, Nevada. (Elevation 3,550 ft (1,080 m))

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °F (°C) 77 (25) 81 (27) 90 (32) 94 (34) 102 (39) 110 (43) 111 (44) 110 (43) 107 (42) 98 (37) 86 (30) 75 (24) 111 (44)

Average high °F (°C) 53.7 (12.1) 58.4 (14.7) 65.0 (18.3) 73.1 (22.8) 82.5 (28.1) 92.7 (33.7) 97.6 (36.4) 95.4 (35.2) 89.0 (31.7) 77.0 (25) 63.6 (17.6) 54.4 (12.4) 75.2 (24)

Average low °F (°C) 35.6 (2) 38.3 (3.5) 41.8 (5.4) 48.0 (8.9) 55.9 (13.3) 64.8 (18.2) 71.4 (21.9) 69.6 (20.9) 63.9 (17.7) 53.9 (12.2) 43.0 (6.1) 36.4 (2.4) 51.9 (11.1)

Record low °F (°C) 7 (−14) 11 (−12) 20 (−7) 27 (−3) 30 (−1) 40 (4) 52 (11) 51 (11) 41 (5) 23 (−5) 15 (−9) 8 (−13) 7 (−14)

Average precipitation inches (mm) 0.92 (23.4) 0.96 (24.4) 0.77 (19.6) 0.40 (10.2) 0.20 (5.1) 0.11 (2.8) 0.91 (23.1) 1.08 (27.4) 0.61 (15.5) 0.52 (13.2) 0.43 (10.9) 0.79 (20.1) 7.70 (195.6)

Source: The Western Regional Climate Center[15]

Climate data for Mount Charleston Lodge, Nevada. (Elevation 7,420 ft (2,260 m))

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °F (°C) 70 (21) 69 (21) 73 (23) 79 (26) 86 (30) 93 (34) 98 (37) 93 (34) 90 (32) 83 (28) 79 (26) 69 (21) 98 (37)

Average high °F (°C) 44.0 (6.7) 43.4 (6.3) 48.8 (9.3) 54.8 (12.7) 64.4 (18) 74.1 (23.4) 79.4 (26.3) 78.2 (25.7) 71.7 (22.1) 61.4 (16.3) 51.6 (10.9) 44.3 (6.8) 59.7 (15.4)

Average low °F (°C) 19.2 (−7.1) 19.8 (−6.8) 23.5 (−4.7) 28.2 (−2.1) 36.4 (2.4) 44.1 (6.7) 52.0 (11.1) 50.6 (10.3) 43.5 (6.4) 34.5 (1.4) 26.0 (−3.3) 19.4 (−7) 33.1 (0.6)

Record low °F (°C) −11 (−24) −15 (−26) 1 (−17) 7 (−14) 16 (−9) 17 (−8) 31 (−1) 30 (−1) 17 (−8) 9 (−13) 1 (−17) −18 (−28) −18 (−28)

Average precipitation inches (mm) 2.83 (71.9) 3.51 (89.2) 1.92 (48.8) 1.23 (31.2) 0.70 (17.8) 0.29 (7.4) 2.13 (54.1) 1.89 (48) 1.69 (42.9) 1.96 (49.8) 1.31 (33.3) 3.61 (91.7) 23.09 (586.5)

Average snowfall inches (cm) 18.2 (46.2) 29.3 (74.4) 13.2 (33.5) 8.3 (21.1) 1.0 (2.5) 0.2 (0.5) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1.6 (4.1) 5.2 (13.2) 20.0 (50.8) 97.1 (246.6)

Source: The Western Regional Climate Center[16]

Geography[edit] See also: the categories Mountain ranges of the Mojave Desert, Valleys of the Mojave Desert, and Lakes of the Mojave Desert. The Mojave Desert
Desert
is defined by numerous mountain ranges creating its xeric conditions. These ranges often create valleys, endorheic basins, salt pans, and seasonal saline lakes when precipitation is high enough. These mountain ranges and valleys are part of the Basin and Range Province and the Great Basin; a geologic area of crustal thinning which pulls open valleys over millions of years. Most of the valleys are internally drained (endorheic basins), so all precipitation that falls within the valley does not eventually flow to the ocean. Some of the Mojave (toward the east, in and around the Colorado River/Virgin River Gorge) is within a different geographic domain called the Colorado Plateau. This area is known for its incised canyons, high mesas and plateaus, and flat strata; a unique geographic locality found nowhere else on earth. Cities and regions[edit] Main article: List of cities in the Mojave Desert For a description of the metropolitan areas of the Mojave, see High Desert
Desert
(California).

A typical Mojave desert valley and city: Indian Wells Valley
Indian Wells Valley
and Ridgecrest, California

A Mojave desert nautical twilight, in Johnson Valley, California

While the Mojave Desert
Desert
itself is sparsely populated, it has increasingly become urbanized in recent years. The metropolitan areas include: Las Vegas, which is the largest city in the Mojave with a metropolitan population of around 2.3 million in 2015; St. George, the largest Utah
Utah
city in the Mojave, is located at the convergence of the Mojave, Great Basin
Great Basin
and Colorado Plateau
Colorado Plateau
making it the northeastern-most metropolitan area in the Mojave. Lancaster, the largest California
California
city in the desert; and over 850,000 people live in areas of the Mojave attached to the Greater Los Angeles metropolitan area, including Palmdale and Lancaster, (referred to as the Antelope Valley), Victorville, Apple Valley and Hesperia (referred to as the Victor Valley) attached to the Inland Empire metropolitan area, the 14th largest in the nation. Smaller cities or micropolitan areas in the Mojave Desert
Desert
include Helendale, Lake Havasu
Lake Havasu
City, Kingman, Laughlin, Bullhead City and Pahrump. All have experienced rapid population growth since 1990. Towns with fewer than 30,000 people in the Mojave include: Barstow, Boron, California
California
City, Helendale, Joshua Tree, Landers, Lone Pine, Lucerne Valley, Mojave, Needles, Nipton, Pioneertown, Randsburg, Ridgecrest, Rosamond, Yucca Valley and Twentynine Palms in California; Mesquite and Moapa Valley in Nevada; and Hurricane in Utah. The California
California
portion of the desert also contains Edwards Air Force Base and Naval Air Weapons Station China Lake, noted for experimental aviation and weapons projects, and the largest Marine Corps base in the world at Twentynine Palms. The US Army also maintains Fort Irwin & the National Training Center (NTC) which is another major training area for the United States
United States
Military. Mojave airport is also home to a long term storage facility for large airplanes due to extremely dry non-corrosive weather conditions and a hard ground ideal for parking aircraft. The airport also houses the Air and Space Port and was one of the test centres for the Virgin Galactic Fleet. The Mojave Desert
Desert
contains a number of ghost towns, the most significant of these being the gold-mining town of Oatman, Arizona, the silver-mining town of Calico, California, and the old railroad depot of Kelso. Some of the other ghost towns are of the more modern variety, created when U.S. Route 66
U.S. Route 66
(and the lesser-known U.S. Route 91) were abandoned in favor of the Interstates. The Mojave Desert
Desert
is crossed by major highways Interstate 15, Interstate 40, U.S. Route 95, U.S. Route 395
U.S. Route 395
and California
California
State Route 58. Other than the Colorado River
Colorado River
on the eastern half of the Mojave, few long streams cross the desert. The Mojave River
Mojave River
is an important source of water for the southern parts of the desert. The Amargosa River flows from the Great Basin Desert
Great Basin Desert
south to near Beatty, Nevada, then underground through Ash Meadows
Ash Meadows
before returning to the surface near Shoshone, California, disappearing underground again a short while later and has its final outlet into the southern end of Death Valley. The riverbed passes under SR 127 near Dumont Dunes
Dumont Dunes
before turning north into Death Valley
Death Valley
National Park. The Mojave Desert
Desert
is also home to the Devils Playground; about 40 miles (64 km) of dunes and salt flats going in a northwest-southeasterly direction. The Devils Playground is a part of the Mojave National Preserve
Mojave National Preserve
and is located between the town of Baker, California
California
and Providence Mountains. The Cronese Mountains
Cronese Mountains
are found within the Devils Playground. Parks and tourism[edit] The Mojave Desert
Desert
is one of the most popular tourism spots in North America, primarily because of the gambling destination of Las Vegas. The Mojave is also known for its scenic beauty, playing host to Death Valley National Park, Joshua Tree National Park, and the Mojave National Preserve. Lakes Mead, Mohave, and Havasu provide water sports recreation, and vast off-road areas entice off-road enthusiasts. The Mojave Desert
Desert
also includes a California
California
State Park, the Antelope Valley California
California
Poppy Reserve, located in Lancaster. Hoover Dam
Hoover Dam
is a popular tourist destination. Visitors get a chance to see the structure, the hydroelectric power plant, and hear the history of the dam's construction during the Great Depression.[17] Besides the major national parks, there are other areas of identified significance and tourist interest in the desert such as the Big Morongo Canyon Preserve, within the Colorado Desert, and the Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area, 17 miles (27 km) west of Las Vegas, both of which are managed by the Bureau of Land Management. Among the more popular and unique tourist attractions in the Mojave is the self described world's tallest thermometer at 134 feet (41 m) high, which is located along Interstate 15
Interstate 15
in Baker, California. The newly renovated Kelso Depot is the Visitor Center for the Mojave National Preserve. Nearby the massive Kelso Dunes
Kelso Dunes
are a popular recreation spot. Nipton, California, located on the northern entrance to the Mojave National Preserve, is a restored ghost town founded in 1885. Several attractions and natural features are located in the Calico Mountains. Calico Ghost Town, in Yermo, is administered by San Bernardino County. The ghost town has several shops and attractions, and inspired Walter Knott
Walter Knott
to build Knott's Berry Farm. The BLM also administers Rainbow Basin
Rainbow Basin
and Owl Canyon, two "off-the-beaten-path" scenic attractions together north of Barstow in the Calicos. The Calico Early Man Site, in the Calico Hills east of Yermo, is believed by some archaeologists, including the late Louis Leakey, to show the earliest evidence with lithic stone tools found here of human activity in North America. The Calico Peaks
Calico Peaks
scenically rise above all the destinations. A tour of the Mojave Desert
Desert
inspired American songwriter Carrie Jacobs-Bond to compose the parlor song "A Perfect Day" in 1909.[18] Museums[edit]

Maturango Museum, in Ridgecrest

Antelope Valley
Antelope Valley
Indian Museum State Historic Park Amargosa Opera House and Hotel Barstow Route 66 "Mother Road" Museum California
California
Route 66 Museum Desert
Desert
Discovery Center Harvey House Railroad Depot Kelso Depot, Restaurant and Employees Hotel Maturango Museum Mojave River
Mojave River
Valley Museum Western America Railroad Museum

Parks and protected areas[edit] Main pages: Category:Protected areas of the Mojave Desert
Desert
and Category:Protected areas of the Mojave Desert

Antelope Valley
Antelope Valley
California
California
Poppy Reserve Arthur B. Ripley Desert
Desert
Woodland State Park Death Valley
Death Valley
National Park Desert
Desert
National Wildlife Refuge (Nevada) Joshua Tree National Park Lake Mead
Lake Mead
National Recreation Area Mojave National Preserve Providence Mountains
Providence Mountains
State Recreation Area Red Cliffs National Conservation Area
Red Cliffs National Conservation Area
(Utah) Red Rock Canyon State Park Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area
Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area
(Nevada) Saddleback Butte State Park Snow Canyon State Park
Snow Canyon State Park
(Utah)

Flora[edit] Further information: List of flora of the Mojave Desert
Desert
region The flora of the Mojave Desert
Desert
help define what is called the Mojave Desert
Desert
in that the desert itself is generally considered to be outlined by the extent of growth of one of its plants, the Joshua tree (Yucca brevifolia). Mojave Desert
Desert
flora is not a vegetation type, although plants in the area have evolved in isolation because of physical barriers. This area includes southeastern California
California
and smaller parts of central California, southern Nevada, southwestern Utah
Utah
and northwestern Arizona
Arizona
in the United States. The flora are adapted to extremely hot and dry conditions, but generally not as extreme as the adaptations needed for survival in the flora of the Sonoran Desert, which has an overlap in its major flora, such as the creosote bush (Larrea tridentata).[19] Fauna[edit] See also: Category:Fauna of the Mojave Desert

Arizona
Arizona
bark scorpion Bat

Black throated sparrow

Bobcat Burrowing owl California
California
kingsnake Chuckwalla Coachwhip Common raven Common side-blotched lizard Cottontail rabbit Cougar Coyote Desert
Desert
bighorn sheep Desert
Desert
chipmunk Desert
Desert
horned lizard Desert
Desert
iguana Desert
Desert
kit fox Desert
Desert
night lizard Desert
Desert
tortoise Elf owl Fringe-toed lizard

Gambols quail

Gila monster Glossy snake Gopher snake Great Basin
Great Basin
collared lizard

Great horned owl

Hummingbird Jackrabbit Kangaroo rat Long-nosed leopard lizard Long-tailed brush lizard Mojave green rattlesnake Mojave ground squirrel Mohave tui chub Mule deer Pronghorn Red-spotted toad Red-tailed hawk Rosy boa Sidewinder rattler Tarantula Vole Western diamondback rattlesnake Western patch-nosed snake Zebra-tailed lizard

Soil and Plants Conditions[edit] The soil types in the Mojave and Sonoran deserts are mostly derived from volcano, specifically the areas in California. As the topography goes down, particle sizes decreases as you move down the gradient, where you can also find low alkalinity. These erosional gradient is a habitat for many plant communities. As you go up the gradient of the desert, you will find more pediment and alluvial fans soil. In this areas, the flora is mostly succulents. As you move down the gradient, this area is described to be the upper and lower bajada, then you move into playa and salina, and finally you will reach the river. Drought deciduous plants are found in the alluvial fans and upper bajada. Evergreen perennials are found in some parts of the upper bajada, but it is mostly found in lower bajada. Once the salinity increases, you will find more salt-tolerant plants. In the river areas, deep-rooted plants reside. Due to the harsh and dry conditions in the desert, the plants have adapted to have succulent leaves, with CAM photosynthesis, spines, buried bulbs, hairy or waxy leaves, photosynthetic stems, deep tap roots, and ephemerals. West Mojave Plan litigation[edit] The U.S. Bureau of Land Management
Bureau of Land Management
(BLM) manages public lands in the Mojave Desert
Desert
as part of its "crown jewels of the American West" National Landscape Conservation System. It has designated numerous large off-road vehicle open use areas on public lands in the western Mojave Desert, including El Mirage, Jawbone Canyon, Rasor, Spangler Hills, Stoddard Valley, Dove Spring Canyon, Dumont Dunes, and the world's largest open off-road vehicle use area, Johnson Valley. Open areas designated for unrestricted vehicle travel in the western Mojave Desert
Desert
total 363,480 acres (1,471.0 km2). Several additional open areas dedicated to unrestricted vehicle travel on public lands have been designated in the northern and eastern Colorado (NECO) Desert. In 2002, BLM designated all washes in the southeastern third of the NECO planning area as also open to unrestricted vehicle travel. This was followed in 2003 by BLM expanding the off-road vehicle network in the western Mojave Desert
Desert
to enhance off-road vehicle recreation opportunity. In 2004, relative to the case of Center for Biological Diversity, et al., Plaintiffs, v. Bureau of Land Management, et al., Defendants; the United States
United States
District court enjoined "all off-road vehicle use in the washes of the NECO Desert
Desert
planning area pending issuance of a new biological opinion.".[20]:a A new biological opinion was subsequently issued and BLM's open wash designation in the NECO planning area was reinstated. In 2006, several environmental groups protested an additional route network expansion designated under the West Mojave Desert
Desert
(WEMO) plan. In 2009, U.S. District Judge Susan Illston
Susan Illston
ruled against the BLM's proposed designation of additional off-road vehicle use allowance in the western Mojave Desert. According to the ruling, the BLM violated its own regulations[21] when it designated approximately 5,000 miles (8,000 km) of off-roading routes in 2006.[22] According to Judge Ilston, the BLM's designation was significantly "flawed because it does not contain a reasonable range of alternatives" to limit damage to sensitive habitat.[23] Judge Illston found that the bureau had inadequately analyzed the routes' impacts on air quality, soils, plant communities, riparian habitats, and sensitive species such as the endangered Mojave fringe-toed lizard, pointing out that the desert and its resources are "extremely fragile, easily scarred, and slowly healed."[23] The court also found that the BLM failed to follow route designation procedures established in the agency’s own California
California
Desert Conservation Area Plan, which allowed visitors to create hundreds of illegal OHV routes during the past three decades. The plan normally requires the BLM to consider the impacts to private property, non-motorized recreation opportunity, and natural resources before establishing off-road areas.[21] The adopted West Mojave plan amendment was found to have violated the BLM's own manual of regulations, the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 (FLPMA) and the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969
National Environmental Policy Act of 1969
(NEPA).[22] The ruling was considered a success for a coalition of conservation groups, including the California
California
Native Plant Society, Friends of Juniper Flats, the Alliance for Responsible Recreation, Community Off-Road Vehicle Watch, The Center for Biological Diversity, Sierra Club, and The Wilderness Society, who together initiated the legal challenge in late 2006.[23] In 2011, Judge Illston ruled on a remedy request submitted by the ten involved environmental organizations. BLM in this ruling was directed to complete a revised WEMO route designation complying with all laws and regulations by March 2014. The agency is also required per this ruling to place signs on all off-road vehicle routes which are legal to use, create a monitoring plan to determine if illegal vehicle use is occurring, and provide additional enforcement to prevent illegal use.[24] Gallery[edit]

lake in Badwater Basin, Death Valley
Death Valley
National Park

Church near Lancaster, California
California
used as a filming location for Quentin Tarantino's Kill Bill
Kill Bill
films, Vol. I & II (2003, 2004)

Where the San Bernardino Mountains
San Bernardino Mountains
meet the Mojave Desert

Sand blowing off a crest in the Kelso Dunes
Kelso Dunes
of the Mojave Desert

Lake Mead
Lake Mead
provides water for cities in Arizona, California, and Nevada

Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area

Pisgah Crater
Pisgah Crater
Lava tube SPJ, Between Barstow and Needles, California

Skull Rock, a rock formation in Joshua Tree NP

Cholla cactus
Cholla cactus
in bloom at night

Warm Springs Natural Area
Warm Springs Natural Area
is a natural oasis about 50 mi (80 km) northeast of Las Vegas

Orange flowering barrel cactus is very common in the Mojave Desert.]]

Moments after Dawn in Joshua Tree, California

Creosote (Larrea tridentata) on alluvium at Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area, southern Nevada.

Mojave desert, 30 mi (48 km) east of San Gorgonio Mountain, California.

See also[edit]

Amboy Crater Bullhead City, Arizona Cima volcanic field Coso Rock Art District Death Valley
Death Valley
National Park Deserts of California Fossil Falls Ivanpah Solar Power Facility Kelso Dunes List of California
California
regions Mitchell Caverns Mohave Native Americans Mojave Air and Space Port Mojave Desert
Desert
News Mojave Road Needles, California Pisgah Crater Shrub-steppe
Shrub-steppe
ecoregion Solar power plants in the Mojave Desert Trona Pinnacles Zzyzx, California

References[edit]

^ Munro, P., et al. A Mojave Dictionary Los Angeles: UCLA, 1992 ^ Western Ecology Division, US Environmental Protection Agency ^ a b Stark, Lloyd R.; Whittemore, Alan T. (2000). "Bryophytes From the Northern Mojave Desert". Southwestern Naturalist. 45: 226–232. Archived from the original on 2003-06-12 – via Mosses of Nevada On-line.  ^ a b "USGS National Elevation Dataset (NED) 1 meter Downloadable Data Collection from The National Map 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) – National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA) National Elevation Data Set (NED)". United States
United States
Geological Survey. September 21, 2015. Retrieved September 22, 2015.  ^ Jones, Daniel (2003) [1917], Peter Roach, James Hartmann and Jane Setter, eds., English Pronouncing Dictionary, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 3-12-539683-2 CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) ^ "Mojave". Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House.  ^ "Mojave". Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary
(3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) ^ a b c d Mojave Desert
Desert
Wildflowers, Pam MacKay, 2nd Ed. 2013, p. 1 ^ "Mojave desert Map".  ^ Mazzucchelli, Vincent G., "The Southern Limits of the Mohave Desert, California", The California
California
Geographer, 1967, VIII: 127–133. This study provides original maps of the Mohave and adjacent deserts in the southwestern states. ^ "American Indian History".  ^ Brooks, Matthew L. (2002-08-01). "Peak Fire Temperatures and Effects on Annual Plants in the Mojave Desert". Ecological Applications. 12 (4): 1088–1102. doi:10.1890/1051-0761(2002)012[1088:PFTAEO]2.0.CO;2. ISSN 1939-5582. [permanent dead link] ^ NOAA. "1981–2010 US Climate Normals". NOAA. Retrieved 2011-07-25.  ^ Weather2travel.com. "Weather2travel Death Valley
Death Valley
Climate". Retrieved 2011-06-16.  ^ "Seasonal Temperature and Precipitation
Precipitation
Information". Western Regional Climate Center. Retrieved March 24, 2013.  ^ "Seasonal Temperature and Precipitation
Precipitation
Information". Western Regional Climate Center. Retrieved March 29, 2013.  ^ "Hoover Dam". General Contractor Bob Moore Construction Company. Retrieved 2010-04-26.  ^ Reublein, Rick. "America's first great woman popular song composer" site. ^ Shreve, Forrest; Wiggins, Ira Loren (1964-01-01). Vegetation and Flora of the Sonoran Desert. Stanford University Press. ISBN 9780804701631.  ^ " Desert
Desert
Lawsuit Settlement". California
California
Desert
Desert
District. Bureau of Land Management. April 27, 2007. Archived from the original on April 10, 2010. Retrieved 2010-01-12.  a. "Order Re: Defendants' motion to alter or amend the judgment and plaintiffs' motion for injunctive relief" (PDF). United States District Court for the Northern District of California. December 20, 2004. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 12, 2009. Retrieved 2010-01-12.  ^ a b Mojave’s Off-Highway Roads Found Illegal ^ a b Judge rejects federal plan for SoCal desert routes ^ a b c Judge rejects U.S. management plan for California
California
desert, Los Angeles Times, 30 September 2009. ^ Danelski, David (31 January 2011). "Judge: Redo off-roading routes in Mojave Desert". Press-Enterprise. 

Further reading[edit]

Miller, D.M. and Amoroso, L. (2007). Preliminary surficial geology of the Dove Spring off-highway vehicle open area, Mojave Desert, California
California
[U.S. Geological Survey Open- File
File
Report 2006-1265]. Reston, VA: U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey. Mojave Desert
Desert
Wildflowers, Jon Mark Stewart, 1998, pg. iv

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Australia

Gibson Great Sandy Great Victoria Little Sandy Nullarbor Plain Painted Pedirka Simpson Strzelecki Sturt's Stony Tanami Tirari

Europe

Accona Bardenas Reales Błędów Cabo de Gata Deliblatska Peščara Hálendi Monegros Oleshky Oltenian Sahara Ryn Stranja Tabernas

North America

Alvord Amargosa Baja California Black Rock Carcross Carson Channeled scablands Chihuahuan Colorado Escalante Forty Mile Gran Desierto de Altar Great Basin Great Salt Lake Great Sandy Jornada del Muerto Kaʻū Lechuguilla Mojave North American Arctic Owyhee Painted Desert Red Desert Sevier Smoke Creek Sonoran Tonopah Desert Tule (Arizona) Tule (Nevada) Yp Yuha Yuma

South America

Atacama La Guajira Los Médanos de Coro Monte Patagonian Sechura Tatacoa

Zealandia

Rangipo Desert

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