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Mohini
Mohini
(Sanskrit: मोहिनी, Mohinī) is the only female avatar of the Hindu god Vishnu. Mohini
Mohini
is introduced into the Hindu belief system in the narrative epic of the Mahabharata. Here, she appears as a form of Vishnu, acquires the pot of Amrita
Amrita
(an elixir of immortality) from the asuras (demons), and gives it back to the devas (gods). Many different legends tell of her various exploits and marriages, including union with Shiva. These tales relate, among other things, the birth of the god Shasta and the destruction of Bhasmasura, the ash-demon. Mohini's main modus operandi is to trick or beguile those she encounters. She is worshipped throughout Indian culture, but mainly in Western India, where temples are devoted to her depicted as Mahalasa, the consort of Khandoba, a regional avatar of Shiva.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Legends and history

2.1 The Amrita 2.2 Slayer of demons 2.3 Relationship with Shiva

3 Cultural interpretations 4 Worship 5 Customs and ceremonies 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 External links

Etymology[edit] The name Mohini
Mohini
comes from the verb root moha, meaning "to enchant, perplex, or disillusion,"[1][2] and literally means "delusion personified." In the Baiga culture of Central India, the word mohini means "erotic magic or spell."[3] The name also has an implied connotation of "the essence of female beauty and allurement."[4] Legends and history[edit]

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Dashavatara

Matsya Kurma Varaha Narasimha Vamana Parasurama Rama Balarama Krishna Buddha Kalki

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Mohini Nara-Narayana Hayagriva

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Texts

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Puranas

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Sampradayas

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(Dvaitadvaita)

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Nammalvar Yamunacharya Ramanuja Madhva Chaitanya Vallabha Sankardev Madhavdev Nimbarka Pillai Lokacharya Prabhupada Vedanta Desika

Related traditions

Bhagavatism Pancharatra Tattvavada Pushtimarg Radha
Radha
Krishna ISKCON Swaminarayan Ekasarana Pranami Ramanandi Vaikhanasas

Hinduism
Hinduism
portal

v t e

The Amrita[edit]

Mohini
Mohini
distributing the Amrita
Amrita
to the Devas (left), while the Asuras look on

The earliest reference to a Mohini-type goddess appears in the Samudra manthan episode of the 5th century BCE Hindu epic Mahabharata.[5] The Amrita, or nectar of immortality, is produced by the churning of the Ocean of Milk. The Devas and the Asuras
Asuras
fight over its possession.[6] The Asuras
Asuras
contrive to keep the Amrita
Amrita
for themselves, angering the Devas. Vishnu, wise to their plan, assumes the form of an "enchanting damsel". She uses her allure to trick the Asuras
Asuras
into giving her the Amrita, and then distributes it amongst the Devas. Rahu, an Asura, disguises himself as a god and tries to drink some Amrita
Amrita
himself. Surya
Surya
(the sun-god) and Chandra
Chandra
(the moon-god) quickly inform Vishnu, and he uses the Sudarshana Chakra
Sudarshana Chakra
(the divine discus) to decapitate Rahu, leaving the head immortal.[7] The decapitated body becomes Ketu. Rahu
Rahu
and Ketu are both regarded as celestial bodies that assume one's destiny. The other major Hindu epic, Ramayana
Ramayana
(4th century BCE), narrates the Mohini
Mohini
story briefly in the Bala Kanda chapter.[8] This same tale is also recounted in the Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana four centuries later.[9] In the original text, Mohini
Mohini
is referred to as simply an enchanting, female form of Vishnu. In later versions, Mohini
Mohini
is described as the maya (illusion) of Vishnu. Later still, the name of the avatar becomes Mohini
Mohini
from the original phrase describing his deliberate false appearance (mayam ashito mohinim).[10] Once the Mohini
Mohini
legend became popular, it was retold, revised, and expanded in several texts. The tales of Mohini- Vishnu
Vishnu
also increased among devotional circles in various regions.[11][12] The same expanded Mahabharata
Mahabharata
version of the story is also recounted in the Bhagavata Purana
Bhagavata Purana
in the 10th century CE.[13][14][15] Here, Mohini
Mohini
becomes a formal avatar of Vishnu.[16] This legend is also retold in the Padma Purana[16] and Brahmanda Purana. In the Brahmanda Purana, however, Vishnu- Mohini
Mohini
simply, after meditation upon the Great Goddess Maheshvari, acquires her form to trick the thieving asuras.[12] Slayer of demons[edit]

Bhasmasura- Mohini
Mohini
by Raja Ravi Varma. Bhasmasura
Bhasmasura
(left) is about to place his hand on his head following the dancing Mohini
Mohini
(centre), as Shiva
Shiva
(right) looks from behind the tree.

Mohini
Mohini
also has an active history in the destruction of demons throughout Hindu texts. In the Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana, Mohini
Mohini
defeats Bhasmasura, the "ash-demon".[17] Bhasmasura
Bhasmasura
invokes the god Shiva
Shiva
by performing severe penances. Shiva, pleased with Bhasmasura, grants him the power to turn anyone into ashes by touching their head. The demon decides to try the power on Shiva
Shiva
himself. Shiva
Shiva
runs terrified. Vishnu, witnessing the unfortunate turn of events, transforms into Mohini
Mohini
and charms Bhasmasura. Bhasmasura
Bhasmasura
is so taken by Mohini
Mohini
that he asks her to marry him. Mohini
Mohini
agrees, but only on the condition that Bhasmasura
Bhasmasura
follows her move for move in a dance. In the course of the dance, she places her hand on her head. Bhasmasura
Bhasmasura
mimics the action, and in turn, reduces himself to ashes.[18] The legend of Bhasmasura
Bhasmasura
is retold in the Buddhist text Satara Dewala Devi
Devi
Puvata, with a slight variation. In this tale, Vishnu
Vishnu
assumes his female form (the name "Mohini" is not used) and charms Bhasmasura. The female Vishnu
Vishnu
asks Bhasmasura
Bhasmasura
to promise never to leave her by placing his hand on his head as per the usual practice to swear on one's head. On doing so, Bhasmasura
Bhasmasura
is reduced to ashes.[19] In a similar legend related to the birth of Ayyappa, the demon Surpanaka earns the power to turn anyone into ashes by his austerities. The tale mirrors all other aspects of the Buddhist version of the Bhasmasura
Bhasmasura
tale, where he is forced by Mohini
Mohini
to severe fidelity by keeping his hand on his head and is burnt.[20] The prelude of the Ramakien, the Thai version of the Ramayana, the demon Nontok is charmed and killed by Mohini-Vishnu. Nontok misuses a divine weapon given to him by Shiva. The four-armed Mohini-Vishnu enchants Nontok and then attacks him. In his last moments, the demon accuses Vishnu
Vishnu
of foul play saying that Vishnu
Vishnu
first seduced him and then attacked him. Vishnu
Vishnu
decrees that in his next birth, Nontok will be born as the ten-headed demon Ravana
Ravana
and Vishnu
Vishnu
will be a mortal man called Rama. He will then fight him and defeat him.[21] In a lesser-known tale in the Ganesha Purana
Ganesha Purana
(900–1400 CE) the wise asura king Virochana is rewarded a magical crown by the sun-god Surya. The crown shields him against all harm. Vishnu
Vishnu
as Mohini
Mohini
then enchants Virochana and steals his crown. The demon, thus unprotected, is killed by Vishnu.[22] Another legend about the demon Araka associates Mohini
Mohini
with Krishna rather than the god himself. The demon Araka had become virtually invincible because he had never laid eyes on a woman (extreme chastity). Krishna
Krishna
takes the form of the beautiful Mohini
Mohini
and marries him. After three days of marriage, Araka's bonds of chastity are broken, and Krishna
Krishna
kills him in battle.[23] Transgender Hijras consider Krishna- Mohini
Mohini
to be a transsexual deity.[24] Relationship with Shiva[edit] Stories about Mohini
Mohini
and Shiva
Shiva
have been popular in South Indian texts.[25] In the southern version of the Bhagavata Purana, after Vishnu
Vishnu
deceives the demons by his maya female form, Shiva
Shiva
sees Mohini.[26] He becomes "bereft of shame and robbed by her of good sense," runs crazily behind enchanting form, while his wife Parvati (Uma) looks on. Shiva
Shiva
is overcome by Kāma
Kāma
(love and desire) in this version of mythology. Shiva's seed falls on the ground creating ores of silver and gold. Vishnu
Vishnu
then states that emotions are difficult to overcome, and states that Maya will become a half of Shiva's Ardhanarisvara aspect. Shiva
Shiva
then extols Vishnu's power.[13][27] The Tripurarahasya, a south Indian Shakta
Shakta
text, retells the story, giving more importance to the Goddess. When Shiva
Shiva
wishes to see Vishnu's Mohini
Mohini
form again, Vishnu
Vishnu
fears that he may be burned to ashes like Kamadeva by the ascetic Shiva. So, Vishnu
Vishnu
prays to goddess Tripura, who grants half of her beauty to Vishnu, begetting the Mohini-form. As Shiva
Shiva
touches Mohini, his seed spills, indicating a loss of the merit gained through of all his austerities.[28] In the Brahmanda Purana
Brahmanda Purana
when the wandering sage Narada
Narada
tells Shiva about Vishnu's Mohini
Mohini
form that deluded the demons, Shiva
Shiva
dismisses him. Shiva
Shiva
and his wife Parvati
Parvati
go to Vishnu's home. Shiva
Shiva
asks him to take on the Mohini
Mohini
form again so he can see the actual transformation for himself. Vishnu
Vishnu
smiles, again meditates on the Goddess, and in place of Vishnu
Vishnu
stands the gorgeous Mohini. Overcome by lust, Shiva chases Mohini
Mohini
as Parvati
Parvati
hangs her head in shame and envy. Shiva
Shiva
grabs Mohini's hand and embraces her, but Mohini
Mohini
frees herself and runs further. Finally, Shiva
Shiva
grabs her and their "violent coupling" leads to discharge of Shiva's seed which falls on the ground and the god Maha-Shasta ("The Great Chastiser") is born. Mohini
Mohini
disappears, while Shiva
Shiva
returns home with Parvati.[29][30] Shasta is identified primarily with two regional deities: Ayyappa from Kerala
Kerala
and the Tamil Aiyanar. He is also identified with the classical Hindu gods Skanda and Hanuman.[31] In the later story of the origin of Ayyappa, Shiva
Shiva
impregnates Mohini, who gives birth to Ayyappa. Another variant says that instead of a biological origin, Ayyappa sprang from Shiva's semen, which he ejaculated upon embracing Mohini.[32] Ayyappa is referred to as Hariharaputra, "the son of Vishnu
Vishnu
(Hari) and Shiva (Hara)", and grows up to be a great hero.[33] Another tale says after Surpanaka's destruction, Shiva
Shiva
wishes to see Mohini
Mohini
and mesmerized by her looks, has union with her resulting in the birth of Ayyapppa.[20] The Tamil text Kanda Puranam narrates about the birth of Shasta identified with Aiyanar. The text tells just before the tale that Vishnu
Vishnu
is Shiva's Shakti
Shakti
(wife and power) Parvati
Parvati
in a male form. The legend begins with Shiva's request and Vishnu's agreement to show his illusionary Mohini
Mohini
form, that he assumed for the distribution of amrita. Shiva
Shiva
falls in love with Mohini
Mohini
and proposes a union with her. Mohini- Vishnu
Vishnu
declines saying that union of two same sex women was unfruitful. Shiva
Shiva
informs Mohini- Vishnu
Vishnu
that he was just one of forms of his Shakti. Thereafter, their union resulted in the birth of a dark boy with red locks, who was named Hariharaputra. Further, he was also known as Shasta and Aiyannar.[34][35]

Shiva
Shiva
sees " Mohini
Mohini
on a swing" (1894 by Raja Ravi Varma). The painter suggests her seductive nature by showing her torso peeping through her sari.

In the Agni Purana, as the enchanted Shiva
Shiva
follows Mohini, drops of his semen falls on the ground and become lingas, Shiva's symbols. His semen also generates the monkey-god Hanuman, who helps Vishnu's avatar Rama
Rama
in his fight against Ravana
Ravana
in the Ramayana.[36] Shiva
Shiva
Purana says that by the mere glimpse of Mohini, Shiva
Shiva
spurts out his seed. The seed was collected and poured into the ear of Anjani, who gave birth to Hanuman, the incarnation of Shiva.[34] The latter is retold in the Thai and Malaysian version of the Ramayana.[37] Though Hanuman strings from Shiva's seed, he is also considered as a combined son of Vishnu
Vishnu
and Shiva.[17] The Buddhist version of the Bhasmasura
Bhasmasura
tale continues with Shiva (Ishvara) asking the female-Vishnu, who is seated on a swing, to marry him. She asks Shiva
Shiva
to get the permission of his wife Umayangana to take her home. Shiva
Shiva
returns with Umayangana's consent to find the female- Vishnu
Vishnu
pregnant, who sends him back to get permission to bring a pregnant woman home. When he returns, a child is born and female- Vishnu
Vishnu
is pregnant again. She requests Shiva
Shiva
to seek approval to bring a pregnant woman with a child home. This happens six more times. Finally, Shiva
Shiva
brings Umayangana with him to witness the miraculous woman. Vishnu
Vishnu
then returns to his male form. Umayangana embraces the six youngest children merging them into the six-headed Skanda, while the eldest, named Aiyanayaka ("eldest brother") remains intact.[19] Aiyanayaka is identified with Aiyanar.

Mohini
Mohini
seduces the sages. Mohini
Mohini
is depicted nude, adorned with garlands and ornaments, holding a lotus and a parrot, leaning on a stick. The sages pray to her, as their phalluses point to her.

Mohini
Mohini
plays a lesser role in a Shaiva legend in the Skanda Purana. Here, Vishnu
Vishnu
as Mohini
Mohini
joins Shiva
Shiva
to teach a lesson to arrogant sages. A group of sages are performing rituals in a forest, and start to consider themselves as gods. To humble them, Shiva
Shiva
takes the form of an attractive young beggar (Bhikshatana) and Vishnu
Vishnu
becomes Mohini, his wife. While the sages fall for Mohini, their women wildly chase Shiva. When they regain their senses, they perform a black magic sacrifice, which produces a serpent, a lion, an elephant (or tiger) and a dwarf, all of which are overpowered by Shiva. Shiva
Shiva
then dances on the dwarf and takes the form of Nataraja, the cosmic dancer.[38] The legend is retold in the Tamil Kovil Puranam and Kandha Puranam with some variation.[28][34][35] This legend is also told in the Sthala Purana
Sthala Purana
related to the Chidambaram Temple
Chidambaram Temple
dedicated to Shiva-Nataraja.[39] Another legend from the Linga
Linga
Purana says that the embracing of love-struck Shiva
Shiva
and Mohini
Mohini
led to be their merging into one body. At this moment, Mohini
Mohini
became Vishnu
Vishnu
again, resulting the composite deity Harihara, whose right side of the body is Shiva
Shiva
and left side is Vishnu
Vishnu
in his male form.[40][41] In the temple in Sankarnayinarkovil near Kalugumalai
Kalugumalai
is one of the rarest exceptions to iconography of Harihara
Harihara
(Sankara-Narayana). The deity is depicted similar to the Ardhanari, the composite form of Shiva-Parvati, where right side of the body is the male Shiva
Shiva
and left side is female. This image's female side represents Mohini
Mohini
and it, as a whole, symbolizes the union of Shiva
Shiva
and Mohini.[42] The influence of Shakta
Shakta
traditions on Shaiva ones may have led to the development of composite images like Harihara, where Vishnu
Vishnu
is identified with Shiva's consort, or Mohini.[43] Like the Kanda Puranam narrative, the Shaiva saint Appar identifies Vishnu
Vishnu
as Parvati
Parvati
(Uma), the female counterpart of Shiva.[44] Cultural interpretations[edit]

Mohini
Mohini
at Belur.

According to mythologist Pattanaik, Mohini
Mohini
is just a disguise to delude the demon Bhasmasura, rather than a sexual transformation in this legend. Mohini
Mohini
is a disillusion, Vishnu's maya.[21] Stories in which Shiva
Shiva
knows of Mohini's true nature have been interpreted to "suggest the fluidity of gender in sexual attraction".[45] Pattanaik writes while Westerners may interpret the Shiva- Mohini
Mohini
union as homosexual, traditional Hindus do not agree to this interpretation.[46] He also writes that those focusing only on homoeroticism miss the narrative's deeper metaphysical significance: Mohini's femininity represents the material aspect of reality, and Mohini's seduction is another attempt to induce the ascetic Shiva
Shiva
into taking an interest in worldly matters. Only Vishnu
Vishnu
has the power to "enchant" Shiva; a demon who tried to enchant and hurt Shiva
Shiva
in form of a woman was killed in the attempt.[47] Another interpretation posits that the Mohini
Mohini
tale suggests that Vishnu's maya blinds even supernatural beings. Mohini
Mohini
is "the impersonation of the magically delusive nature of existence which fetters all beings to the rounds of births and deaths and vicissitudes of life."[3] Mohini
Mohini
also does not have an independent existence; she exists only as a temporary delusion, and is absorbed back into Vishnu after serving her purpose.[31] The legend of the union of Mohini- Vishnu
Vishnu
and Shiva
Shiva
may also be written as part of the desire to have a common child of the two cosmic patriarchs of Hinduism.[48] Worship[edit] On the fifth day of Brahmotsavam, Venkateshwara
Venkateshwara
is dressed as Mohini and paraded in a grand procession.[49] In Goa, Mohini
Mohini
is worshipped as Mahalasa
Mahalasa
or Mahalasa
Mahalasa
Narayani. She is the Kuladevi (family goddess) of many Hindus from western and southern India, including Goud Saraswat Brahmins,[50] Karhade Brahmins, Daivajnas and Bhandaris. The chief temple of Mahalasa
Mahalasa
Narayani is at Mardol, Goa, though her temples also exist in the states of Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, and Gujarat.[51] Mahalasa
Mahalasa
has four hands, carrying a Trishula, a sword, a severed head, and a drinking bowl. She stands on a prostrate man or demon, as a tiger or lion licks blood dripping from the severed head. Goud Saraswat Brahmins
Goud Saraswat Brahmins
as well as Vaishnavas from Goa
Goa
and South Canara
South Canara
identify her with Mohini
Mohini
and call her Narayani and Rahu-matthani, the slayer of Rahu, as told in the Bhavishya Purana.[52] Mahalasa
Mahalasa
is also called Mhalsa, the consort of Khandoba, a local incarnation of Shiva. As the consort of Khandoba, her chief temple - the Mohiniraj temple - is located at Nevasa, where she is worshiped as a four-armed goddess and identified with Mohini. Mhalsa is often depicted with two arms and accompanying Khandoba
Khandoba
on his horse or standing besides him.[53] The central icon of the Jaganmohini-Kesava Swany temple at Ryali, discovered buried underground by the king in the 11th century, represents the male Vishnu
Vishnu
in the front, while the back of the icon is the female Jagan- Mohini
Mohini
("one who deludes the world") or Mohini, with a female hairdo and figure. A Sthala Purana
Sthala Purana
tells that the flower in Mohini's hair fell at Ryali
Ryali
("fall" in Telugu) when Mohini
Mohini
was being chased by Shiva.[54] Customs and ceremonies[edit]

Bhasmasura
Bhasmasura
and Mohini
Mohini
as depicted in Yakshagana

Mohini
Mohini
has an important, dramatic role in several mythical works of South Indian drama like Yakshagana
Yakshagana
and Kathakali. In Kerala, however, where Mohini's son Ayyappa is popular, the Mohiniattam
Mohiniattam
("the dance of Mohini") is honored as an independent dance form.[55] Named after the goddess, it is a dance meant exclusively for women and "an ideal example of the erotic form." The origins of Mohiniattam
Mohiniattam
form are unknown, though it was popularized in the 1850s, but later banned as it was used by "loose women" to attract customers. The ban was lifted in 1950, after which it has seen a renewal.[4][55] The legends of Mohini
Mohini
are also being depicted in other dances, including the modern Kathak.[4] The Sonal Nati, performed in the Saho area of Chamba district, Himachal Pradesh, retells the Mohini- Bhasmasura
Bhasmasura
tale, and hence is known as the Mohini-Bhasmasura dance. It is performed on festive occasions, especially in the Saho fair held in Baisakh in the precincts of the Chandershekhar temple.[56] See also[edit]

Barbelo

Notes[edit]

^ Pattanaik (2001), p. 70 ^ [1] Monier Williams, Sanskrit-English Dictionary. (1899). ^ a b Goudriaan p. 44 ^ a b c Reginald Massey (2004-01-01). India's dances: their history, technique, and repertoire. Abhinav Publications. pp. 131–2, 152. ISBN 978-81-7017-434-9.  ^ Goudriaan, p. 44, Adi Parva (chapter 17, stanzas 38–40) ^ Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Astika Parva, Section 18. ^ Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Section 19. ^ Robert P. Goldman (2007). The Ramayana
Ramayana
of Valmiki Balakanda
Balakanda
'An Epic of Ancient India. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. p. 366. ISBN 978-81-208-3162-9.  ^ Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana, Book 1, Chap. 9. ^ Goudriaan p. 41 ^ Goudriaan p. 42 ^ a b Doniger (1999) p. 263 ^ a b Jarow, Rick (March 2003). Tales for the dying: the death narrative of the Bhāgavata-Purāṇa. SUNY Press. pp. 78–80. ISBN 978-0-7914-5609-5.  ^ Pattanaik (2001), p. 65 ^ Anand Aadhar translation of Bhagavata Purana, Canto 8, chapter 9 ^ a b Daniélou, Alain (1991-12-01). The myths and gods of India. Inner Traditions / Bear & Company. pp. 165, 186–87. ISBN 978-0-89281-354-4.  ^ a b Pattanaik, Devdutt (2006-01-01). Shiva
Shiva
to Shankara: decoding the phallic symbol. Indus Source. pp. 125, 129. ISBN 978-81-88569-04-5.  ^ Pattanaik (2001), pp. 66–67 ^ a b John Clifford Holt (2008-01-01). The Buddhist Visnu : 'Religious Transformation, Politics, and Culture. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. pp. 146–48. ISBN 978-81-208-3269-5.  ^ a b Smith, B.L., p. 5, Religion and Legitimation of Power in South Asia [2] ^ a b Pattanaik (2001), p. 67 ^ Pattanaik (2001), pp. 70–71 ^ Pattanaik (2001), p. 83 ^ Doniger (1999) p. 265 ^ Goudriaan pp. 42–43 ^ Goudriaan pp. 42–43 ^ Goudriaan pp. 42–43 ^ a b Goudriaan p. 43 ^ Doniger (1999) pp. 263–65 ^ Vanita & Kidwai (2001), p. 69 ^ a b Doniger (1999) p. 264 ^ Pattanaik (2001), p. 76 ^ Vanita & Kidwai (2001), p. 94 ^ a b c Daniélou, Alain (1992). Gods of love and ecstasy: the traditions of Shiva
Shiva
and Dionysus. Inner Traditions / Bear & Company. pp. 68–70. ISBN 978-0-89281-374-2.  (originally published in French in 1979 and first translated into English in 1984 ^ a b Dr.akila sivaraman (2006). sri kandha puranam (english). GIRI Trading Agency Private. pp. 170–2, 366–7. ISBN 978-81-7950-397-3.  ^ Pattanaik (2001), p. 74 ^ Kodaganallur Ramaswami Srinivasa Iyengar. Asian variations in Ramayana. Sahitya Akademi. p. 268.  ^ Pattanaik (2001), p. 71 ^ Swami Parmeshwaranand pp. 150–51 ^ Patricia Turner, Charles Russell Coulter (2001). Dictionary of ancient deities. Oxford University Press US. pp. 204, 327, 498. ISBN 978-0-19-514504-5.  ^ Swami P. Anand, Swami Parmeshwaranand p. 287 ^ Monika Böck, Aparna Rao (2000). Culture, creation, and procreation: concepts of kinship in South Asian practice. Berghahn Books. pp. 331–32. ISBN 978-1-57181-912-3.  ^ Swami Parmeshwaranand p. 295 ^ Swami Parmeshwaranand p. 46 ^ Vanita & Kidwai (2001), p. 70 ^ Pattanaik (2001), pp. 16-17 ^ Pattanaik (2001), p. 73 ^ Dongier p. 273 ^ Pattanaik (2001). p. 65. ^ Pattanaik (2001), p. 72 ^ NT Network (11 February 2010). "Music concert to be held at Mardol". Navhind Times. Retrieved 12 March 2010. [dead link] ^ V. P. Chavan (1991). Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
of the Gowd Saraswat Brahmins and a few Konkani folklore tales. Asian Educational Services. pp. 26–7. ISBN 978-81-206-0645-6.  ^ Dhere, R C. "Chapter 2: MHAALSA". Summary of Book "FOLK GOD OF THE SOUTH: KHANDOBA". R C Dhere. Retrieved 14 March 2010.  ^ "Ryali". Official Government site of East Godavari district. National Informatics Centre(East Godavari District Centre). Archived from the original on 19 June 2009. Retrieved 14 March 2010.  ^ a b Ragini Devi
Devi
(2002). "The Dance of Mohini". Dance dialects of India. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. pp. 116–9, 96. ISBN 978-81-208-0674-0.  ^ "Folk Dances of Himachal Pradesh". Official Government site of Chamba district. NIC, Chamba district. Archived from the original on 17 September 2009. Retrieved 14 March 2010. 

References[edit]

Pattanaik, Devdutt (2001). The man who was a woman and other queer tales of Hindu lore. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-56023-181-3.  Vanita, Ruth; Kidwai, Saleem (2001). Same-sex love in India: readings from literature and history. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-312-29324-6.  Goudriaan, Teun (1978). "The Māyā of the Gods: Mohini". Māyā divine and human. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. pp. 41–49. ISBN 978-81-208-2389-1.  Doniger, Wendy (1999). Splitting the difference: gender and myth in ancient Greece and India. London: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-15641-5.  Hiltebeitel, Alf (1988). "Aravan's Sacrifice". The Cult of Draupadi : Mythologies: from Gingee to Kuruksetra. 1. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-34046-3.  Swami Parmeshwaranand (2004). Encyclopaedia Of The Saivism. 1. Sarup & Sons. ISBN 978-81-7625-427-4. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mohini.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Mohini

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Avatars of Vishnu

Dashavatara

Matsya Kurma Varaha Narasimha Vamana Parashurama Rama Balarama1 Krishna1 Buddha1 Kalki

Other avatars

Four Kumaras Narada Nara-Narayana Kapila Dattatreya Yajna Rishabha Prithu Dhanvantari Mohini Vyasa Prsnigarbha Hayagriva Hamsa

1 The list of ten avatars varies regionally. The two substitutions involve Balarama, Krishna
Krishna
and Buddha is considered the avatar of Vishnu. Krishna
Krishna
is almost always included; in exceptions, he is considered the source of all avatars.

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