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Mobile Bay
Mobile Bay
is an inlet of the Gulf of Mexico, lying within the state of Alabama
Alabama
in the United States. Its mouth is formed by the Fort Morgan Peninsula on the eastern side and Dauphin Island, a barrier island on the western side. The Mobile River
Mobile River
and Tensaw River
Tensaw River
empty into the northern end of the bay, making it an estuary. Several smaller rivers also empty into the bay: Dog River, Deer River, and Fowl River on the western side of the bay, and Fish River on the eastern side. Mobile Bay
Mobile Bay
is the fourth largest estuary in the United States with a discharge of 62,000 cubic feet (1,800 m3) of water per second.[1] Annually, and often several times during the summer months, the fish and crustaceans will swarm the shallow coastline and shore of the bay. This event, appropriately named a jubilee, draws a large crowd because of the abundance of fresh, easily caught seafood it yields. Mobile Bay
Mobile Bay
is the only place on earth where jubilees are a common occurrence. Mobile Bay
Mobile Bay
is 413 square miles (1,070 km2) in area. It is 31 miles (50 km) long by a maximum width of 24 miles (39 km).[1] The deepest areas of the bay are located within the shipping channel, sometimes in excess of 75 feet (23 m) deep, but the average depth of the bay is 10 feet (3 m).[1]

Contents

1 History 2 Shoreline towns 3 See also 4 References 5 External links

History[edit] Spanish explorers were sailing into the area of Mobile Bay
Mobile Bay
as early as 1500, with the bay being marked on early maps as the Bahía del Espíritu Santo (Bay of the Holy Spirit). The area was explored in more detail in 1516 by Diego de Miruelo and in 1519 by Alonso Álvarez de Pineda. In 1528, Pánfilo de Narváez
Pánfilo de Narváez
travelled through what was likely the Mobile Bay
Mobile Bay
area, encountering Native Americans who fled and burned their towns at the approach of the expedition. This response was a prelude to the journeys of Hernando de Soto, more than eleven years later.[2]

Mobile Bay
Mobile Bay
during the American Civil War.

Hernando de Soto explored the area of Mobile Bay
Mobile Bay
and beyond in 1540, finding the area inhabited by indigenous Muscogee people. During this expedition his forces destroyed the fortified town of Mauvila, also spelled Maubila, from which the name Mobile was later derived.[3] This battle with Chief Tuscaloosa
Chief Tuscaloosa
and his warriors took place somewhere in inland Alabama, well to the north of the current site of Mobile. The next large expedition was that of Tristán de Luna y Arellano, in his unsuccessful attempt to establish a permanent colony for Spain nearby at Pensacola
Pensacola
in 1559.[2] Although Spain's presence in the area had been sporadic, the French created a deep-sea port at Dauphin Island
Dauphin Island
and founded French Louisiana's capital at Mobile, a few miles north of Mobile Bay
Mobile Bay
on the Mobile River
Mobile River
in 1702. The original settlement of Fort Louis de la Mobile was relocated in 1711 to the head of Mobile Bay
Mobile Bay
following a series of floods.[4] During the American Civil War
American Civil War
Mobile Bay
Mobile Bay
was used as a major port for blockade runners bringing in badly needed supplies for the Confederacy. On August 5, 1864, Admiral David Farragut
David Farragut
led a Union flotilla through Confederate defenses and sealed off one of the last major Southern ports of the bay in the Battle of Mobile Bay, effectively cutting off another port for receiving supplies. A number of Civil War-era shipwrecks remain in Mobile Bay, including American Diver, CSS Gaines, CSS Huntsville, USS Philippi, CSS Phoenix, USS Rodolph, USS Tecumseh, and CSS Tuscaloosa.[5] Mobile's role as a seaport has continued to the present day, though the commodities have changed through time. Cotton
Cotton
was the chief commodity in the nineteenth century. During the Second World War, Mobile's shipbuilding industry expanded and the city's population surged. Growth has been rapid since then. The city has endured several devastating hurricanes in its history, the most recent being Hurricane Frederic
Hurricane Frederic
in 1979 and Hurricane Katrina in 2005. Areas of low elevation, including the downtown business district, have been flooded repeatedly in hurricanes. However, much of the city is at an elevation exceeding 200 feet (61 m) above sea level, which is unusually high for the Gulf and Atlantic Coasts. On September 13, 1979, Hurricane Frederic
Hurricane Frederic
entered the bay with winds reaching 145 miles per hour (233 km/h), destroying the bridge to Dauphin Island. On August 28–29, 2005, Hurricane Katrina
Hurricane Katrina
pushed a massive storm surge into Mobile Bay, measuring 16 feet (4.9 m) high at Bayou La Batre
Bayou La Batre
(Alabama), with higher waves on top, and 12 feet (3.7 m) high at Mobile, at the far northern end of Mobile Bay. Thousands of boats, piers, and beach houses were damaged by waves exceeding 22 feet (6.7 m) high, and the battleship USS  Alabama
Alabama
was pushed off her moorings, leaving her listing to port (tilted to the left). Downtown Mobile was flooded several feet, and the south-end towns of Bayou La Batre
Bayou La Batre
and Bon Secour were severely damaged. Dozens of vessels of various sizes were left stranded inland. Shoreline towns[edit] The city of Mobile is situated at the head of the bay on the western shore. On the Eastern Shore of the bay are found several small communities, including Spanish Fort, Daphne, Fairhope, Point Clear, and Bon Secour. The town of Gulf Shores lies just outside the bay, on the Fort Morgan peninsula. The Middle Bay Lighthouse
Middle Bay Lighthouse
has been located in the center of the bay since 1885. The head of the bay is crossed by two major thoroughfares, the Jubilee Parkway, better known as the "Bayway", and the Battleship
Battleship
Parkway, better known as the "Causeway". These two bridges serve as the primary connections between the city of Mobile and the Eastern Shore.[6] On warm summer nights, the residents living around Mobile Bay
Mobile Bay
sometimes enjoy the fruits of a mysterious natural phenomenon called a Jubilee, when fish and crabs swarm toward shore and can be easily harvested by people wading in the shallows. See also[edit]

Gulf Islands National Seashore
Gulf Islands National Seashore
- offshore islands, includes nearby states. Gaillard Island Mobile- Tensaw River
Tensaw River
Delta

References[edit]

^ a b c "Estuarium Exhibits: Mobile Bay". " Dauphin Island
Dauphin Island
Sea Lab". Retrieved 2008-02-08.  ^ a b Thomason, Michael. Mobile : the new history of Alabama's first city, pages 7-14. Tuscaloosa : University of Alabama
Alabama
Press, 2001. ISBN 0-8173-1065-7 ^ "The Old Mobile Project Newsletter" (PDF). University of South Alabama
Alabama
Center for Archaeological Studies. Retrieved 2007-11-19.  ^ "Historic Fort Conde". MuseumOfMobile.com. Retrieved 2007-05-06.  ^ Gaines, W. Craig (2008). Encyclopedia of Civil War Shipwrecks. LSU Press. pp. 1–8. ISBN 978-0-8071-3274-6.  ^ "History". "Rivers of Alabama: Mobile Bay". Archived from the original on 2008-03-12. Retrieved 2008-02-05. 

External links[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of an 1879 American Cyclopædia
American Cyclopædia
article about Mobile Bay.

Mobile Baykeeper - local Waterkeeper Alliance
Waterkeeper Alliance
group  "Mobile, a bay on the coast of Alabama". The New Student's Reference Work. 1914. 

Coordinates: 30°26′34″N 88°00′33″W / 30.44278°N 88.00917°W / 30.44278; -88.00917

v t e

Mobile, Alabama

History

Timeline Mobile in the Civil War Africatown Alabama
Alabama
Drydock and Shipbuilding Company Battle of Fort Blakeley Battle of Mobile Bay Battle of Spanish Fort Brookley Air Force Base Clotilde Mobile magazine explosion Old Mobile Site

Culture

Azalea Trail Maids Bayfest Mardi Gras in Mobile Mobile Arts Council Mobile Civic Center Mobile Opera Mobile Symphony Orchestra Mystic society People from Mobile Popular culture Saenger Theatre

Economy

Mobile Aeroplex at Brookley Port of Mobile Mobile Downtown Airport Mobile Regional Airport Austal USA BAE Systems Southeast Shipyards Continental Motors, Inc. Signal International ST Aerospace Mobile Volkert, Inc.

Education

K-12

Mobile County PSS

Davidson High LeFlore Magnet High Murphy High Baker High (unincorporated area)

Alabama
Alabama
School of Mathematics and Science Faith Academy McGill–Toolen Catholic High St. Paul's Episcopal School

Tertiary

Bishop State Community College Spring Hill College University of Mobile University of South Alabama

Geography

Airport Boulevard Blakeley Island Dog River Fowl River Government Street Mobile Bay Mobile River Mobile- Tensaw River
Tensaw River
Delta Old Shell Road Pinto Island Spanish River Spring Hill Toulminville

Green spaces

Bellingrath Gardens and Home Bienville Square Cathedral Square Langan Park Mobile Botanical Gardens

Historic sites

National Register of Historic Places listings in Mobile Ahavas Chesed Cemetery Boyington Oak Duffie Oak Cathedral Basilica of the Immaculate Conception Catholic Cemetery Church Street Graveyard Magnolia Cemetery Sha'arai Shomayim Cemetery

Museums

Battleship
Battleship
Memorial Park (USS Alabama
Alabama
and USS Drum) Fort Conde Mobile Carnival Museum Mobile Museum of Art Museum of Mobile National African American Archives and Museum Oakleigh Historic Complex Richards DAR House

Structures

Tallest buildings in Mobile RSA Battle House Tower RSA–BankTrust Building Renaissance Riverview Plaza Hotel Mobile Government Plaza Mobile Marriott Regions Bank Building Wachovia Building Providence Hospital Van Antwerp Building The Battle House Hotel

Mayors

List of mayors of Mobile Sandy Stimpson Sam Jones Mike Dow Arthur R. Outlaw Lambert C. Mims Joseph N. Langan Charles S. Trimmier Henry R. Luscher Charles F. Hackmeyer Charles A. Baumhauer George Washington Owen

Media

Lagniappe Mod Mobilian Press-Register WFNA 55 WK

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