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Moab
Moab
(/ˈmoʊæb/; Moabite: 𐤌𐤀𐤁‬ mʾb; Arabic: مؤاب‎ muʾāb; Hebrew: מוֹאָב‬, Modern Mō'av, Tiberian Mōʾôḇ; Ancient Greek: Μωάβ Mōáb; Assyrian Mu'aba, Ma'ba, Ma'ab; Egyptian Mu'ab) is the historical name for a mountainous tract of land in Jordan. The land lies alongside much of the eastern shore of the Dead Sea. The existence of the Kingdom of Moab
Moab
is attested to by numerous archaeological findings, most notably the Mesha
Mesha
Stele, which describes the Moabite victory over an unnamed son of King Omri
Omri
of Israel.[1] The Moabite capital was Dibon. According to the Hebrew Bible, Moab
Moab
was often in conflict with its Israelite neighbours to the west.

Contents

1 Geography 2 Economy 3 History 4 Biblical and other narratives 5 Religion 6 Etymology 7 Language 8 In Jewish tradition 9 Decline and fall 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

Geography[edit] Moab
Moab
occupied a plateau about 3,000 feet (910 m) above the level of the Mediterranean, or 4,300 feet (1,300 m) above the Dead Sea, and rising gradually from north to south. It was bounded on the west by the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
and the southern section of the Jordan
Jordan
River; on the east by Ammon
Ammon
and the Arabian desert, from which it was separated by low, rolling hills; and on the south by Edom. The northern boundary varied, but generally is represented by a line drawn some miles above the northern extremity of the Dead Sea. In Ezekiel 25:9 the boundaries are given as being marked by Beth-jeshimoth (north), Baal-meon (east), and Kiriathaim (south). That these limits were not fixed, however, is plain from the lists of cities given in Isaiah 15–16 and Jeremiah
Jeremiah
48, where Heshbon, Elealeh, and Jazer are mentioned to the north of Beth-jeshimoth; Madaba, Beth-gamul, and Mephaath to the east of Baalmeon; and Dibon, Aroer, Bezer, Jahaz, and Kirhareseth
Kirhareseth
to the south of Kiriathaim. The principal rivers of Moab
Moab
mentioned in the Bible
Bible
are the Arnon, the Dimon or Dibon, and the Nimrim. The limestone hills which form the almost treeless plateau are generally steep but fertile. In the spring they are covered with grass and the table-land itself produces grain. In the north are a number of long, deep ravines, and Mount Nebo, famous as the scene of the death of Moses.[2] The rainfall is fairly plentiful and the climate, despite the hot summer, is cooler than the area west of the Jordan
Jordan
river, snow falling frequently in winter and in spring. The plateau is dotted with hundreds of dolmens, menhirs, and stone circles, and contains many ruined villages, mostly of the Roman and Byzantine periods. The land is now occupied chiefly by Bedouin, though it contains such towns as al-Karak. The territory occupied by Moab
Moab
at the period of its greatest extent, before the invasion of the Amorites, divided itself naturally into three distinct and independent portions: the enclosed corner or canton south of the Arnon (referred to as "field of Moab");[3] the more open rolling country north of the Arnon, opposite Jericho
Jericho
and up to the hills of Gilead
Gilead
(called the "land of Moab");[4] and the district below sea level in the tropical depths of the Jordan
Jordan
valley.[5] Economy[edit] The country of Moab
Moab
was the source of numerous natural resources, including limestone, salt and balsam from the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
region. The Moabites occupied a vital place along the King's Highway, the ancient trade route connecting Egypt with Mesopotamia, Syria, and Anatolia. Like the Edomites and Ammonites, trade along this route gave them considerable revenue. History[edit]

Moabite sarcophagus in Jordan
Jordan
Archaeological Museum in Amman

The Moabites likely[original research?] settled in the Transjordanian highlands. Whether they were among the nations referred to in the Egyptian language
Egyptian language
as Shutu or Shasu
Shasu
is a matter of some debate among scholars.[who?] Despite a scarcity of archaeological evidence, the existence of Moab prior to the rise of the Israelite state has been deduced from a colossal statue erected at Luxor
Luxor
by pharaoh Ramesses II, in the 13th century BCE, which lists Mu'ab among a series of nations conquered during a campaign. Early modern travellers in the region included Ulrich Jasper Seetzen (1805), Johann Ludwig Burckhardt
Johann Ludwig Burckhardt
(1812), Charles Leonard Irby and James Mangles (1818), and Louis Félicien de Saulcy
Louis Félicien de Saulcy
(1851).[6] Biblical and other narratives[edit]

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According to the biblical account, Moab
Moab
and Ammon
Ammon
were born to Lot and Lot's elder and younger daughters, respectively, in the aftermath of the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah. The Bible
Bible
refers to both the Moabites and Ammonites as Lot's sons, born of incest with his daughters (Genesis 19:37–38). The Moabites first inhabited the rich highlands at the eastern side of the chasm of the Dead Sea, extending as far north as the mountain of Gilead, from which country they expelled the Emim, the original inhabitants,[7] but they themselves were afterward driven southward by warlike tribes of Amorites, who had crossed the river Jordan. These Amorites, described in the Bible
Bible
as being ruled by King Sihon, confined the Moabites to the country south of the river Arnon, which formed their northern boundary.[8] God
God
renewed his covenant with the Israelites
Israelites
at Moab
Moab
before the Israelites
Israelites
entered the "promised land" ( Deuteronomy
Deuteronomy
29:1). Moses died there,[9] prevented by God
God
from entering the promised land. He was buried in an unknown location in Moab
Moab
and the Israelites
Israelites
spent a period of thirty days there in mourning.[10] According to the Book of Judges, the Israelites
Israelites
did not pass through the land of the Moabites (Judges 11:18), but conquered Sihon's kingdom and his capital at Heshbon. After the conquest of Canaan
Canaan
the relations of Moab
Moab
with Israel were of a mixed character, sometimes warlike and sometimes peaceable. With the tribe of Benjamin they had at least one severe struggle, in union with their kindred the Ammonites and the Amalekites.[11] The Benjaminite shofet Ehud ben Gera
Ehud ben Gera
assassinated the Moabite king Eglon and led an Israelite army against the Moabites at a ford of the Jordan
Jordan
river, killing many of them.

Ruth in the fields of Boaz
Boaz
by Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld

The Book of Ruth
Book of Ruth
testifies to friendly relations between Moab
Moab
and Bethlehem, one of the towns of the tribe of Judah. By his descent from Ruth, David
David
may be said to have had Moabite blood in his veins. He committed his parents to the protection of the king of Moab
Moab
(who may have been his kinsman), when hard pressed by King Saul. (1 Samuel 22:3,4) But here all friendly relations stop forever. The next time the name is mentioned is in the account of David's war, who made the Moabites tributary.[12] Moab
Moab
may have been under the rule of an Israelite governor during this period; among the exiles who returned to Judea from Babylonia
Babylonia
were a clan descended from Pahath-Moab, whose name means "ruler of Moab".

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History of Jordan

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After the destruction of the First Temple, the knowledge of which people belonged to which nation was lost and the Moabites were treated the same as other gentiles. As a result, all members of the nations could convert to Judaism without restriction. The problem in Ezra
Ezra
and Nehemiah
Nehemiah
occurred because Jewish men married women from the various nations without their first converting to Judaism.[citation needed] At the disruption of the kingdom under the reign of Rehoboam, Moab seems to have been absorbed into the northern realm. It continued in vassalage to the Kingdom of Israel until the death of Ahab
Ahab
which according to E. R. Thiele's reckoning was in about 853 BCE,[13] when the Moabites refused to pay tribute and asserted their independence, making war upon the kingdom of Judah.[14] After the death of Ahab
Ahab
in about 853 BCE, the Moabites under Mesha rebelled against Jehoram, who allied himself with Jehoshaphat, King of the Kingdom of Judah, and with the King of Edom. According to the Bible, the prophet Elisha
Elisha
directed the Israelites
Israelites
to dig a series of ditches between themselves and the enemy, and during the night these channels were miraculously filled with water which was as red as blood. According to the biblical account, the crimson color deceived the Moabites and their allies into attacking one another, leading to their defeat at Ziz, near En Gedi.[15] According to Mesha's inscription on the Mesha
Mesha
Stele, however, he was completely victorious and regained all the territory of which Israel had deprived him. The battle of Ziz is the last important date in the history of the Moabites as recorded in the Bible. In the year of Elisha's death they invaded Israel.[16] and later aided Nebuchadnezzar in his expedition against Jehoiakim.[17] Although allusions to Moab
Moab
are frequent in the prophetical books[18] and although two chapters of Isaiah (15 and 16) and one of Jeremiah (48) are devoted to the "burden of Moab," they give little information about the land. Its prosperity and pride, which the Israelites believed incurred the wrath of God, are frequently mentioned;[19] and their contempt for Israel is once expressly noted.[20]

The Mesha
Mesha
stele, circa 1891, describes King Mesha's wars against the Israelites

In the Nimrud
Nimrud
clay inscription of Tiglath-pileser III
Tiglath-pileser III
the Moabite king Salmanu (perhaps the Shalman who sacked Beth-arbel in Hosea
Hosea
x. 14) is mentioned as tributary to Assyria. Sargon II
Sargon II
mentions on a clay prism a revolt against him by Moab
Moab
together with Philistia, Judah, and Edom; but on the Taylor prism, which recounts the expedition against Hezekiah, Kammusu-Nadbi (Chemosh-nadab), King of Moab, brings tribute to Sargon as his suzerain. Another Moabite king, Mutzuri ("the Egyptian" ?), is mentioned as one of the subject princes at the courts of Esarhaddon
Esarhaddon
and Assurbanipal, while Kaasḥalta, possibly his successor, is named on cylinder B of Assurbanipal. Religion[edit] References to the religion of Moab
Moab
are scant. Most of the Moabites followed the ancient Semitic religion like other ancient Semitic-speaking peoples, and the Book of Numbers
Book of Numbers
says that they induced the Israelites
Israelites
to join in their sacrifices.[21] Their chief god was Chemosh,[22] and the Israelites
Israelites
sometimes referred to them as the "people of Chemosh."[23] According to II Kings, at times, especially in dire peril, human sacrifices were offered to Chemosh, as by Mesha, who gave up his son and heir to him.[24] Nevertheless, King Solomon
King Solomon
built a "high place" for Chemosh
Chemosh
on the hill before Jerusalem,[25] which the Bible describes as "this detestation of Moab". The altar was not destroyed until the reign of Josiah.[26] The Moabite Stone also mentions (line 17) a female counterpart of Chemosh, Ashtar-Chemosh, and a god Nebo (line 14), probably the well-known Babylonian divinity Nabu. Etymology[edit]

Moab[27] in hieroglyphs

Mib / Mab [27] Mjb [27]

The etymology of the word Moab
Moab
is uncertain. The earliest gloss is found in the Septuagint[28] which explains the name, in obvious allusion to the account of Moab's parentage, as ἐκ τοῦ πατρός μου. Other etymologies which have been proposed regard it as a corruption of "seed of a father", or as a participial form from "to desire", thus connoting "the desirable (land)". Rashi explains the word Mo'ab to mean "from the father", since ab in Hebrew and Arabic and the rest of the Semitic languages
Semitic languages
means "father". He writes that as a result of the immodesty of Moab's name, God
God
did not command the Jews to refrain from inflicting pain upon the Moabites in the manner in which he did with regard to the Ammonites. Fritz Hommel regards Moab
Moab
as an abbreviation of Immo-ab = "his mother is his father".[29] According to Genesis 19:30–38, the ancestor of the Moabites was Lot by incest with his eldest daughter. She and her sister, having lost their fiancés and their mother in the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah, decided to continue their father's line through intercourse with their father. The elder got him drunk to facilitate the deed and conceived Moab. The younger daughter did the same and conceived a son named Ben-Ammi, who became ancestor to the Ammonites. According to the Book of Jasher (24,24), Moab
Moab
had four sons—Ed, Mayon, Tarsus and Kanvil—and his wife, whose name is not given, is apparently from Canaan. Language[edit]

Moabite

Region Formerly spoken in northwestern Jordan

Era early half of 1st millennium BCE[30]

Language family

Afro-Asiatic

Semitic

Central Semitic

Northwest Semitic

Canaanite

Hebrew

Moabite

Writing system

Phoenician alphabet

Language codes

ISO 639-3 obm

Linguist List

obm

Glottolog (insufficiently attested or not a distinct language) moab1234[31]

The name which was translated into "Moab" in hieroglyphs

The Moabite language
Moabite language
is an extinct Canaanite language, spoken in Moab (modern day central-western Jordan) in the early first millennium BC. It was written using a variant of the Phoenician alphabet.[32] Most of our knowledge about Moabite comes from the Mesha
Mesha
Stele,[32] which is the only known extensive text in this language. In addition there are the three line El-Kerak Inscription and a few seals. The main features distinguishing Moabite from fellow Canaanite languages such as Hebrew are: a plural in -în rather than -îm (e.g. mlkn "kings" for Biblical Hebrew
Biblical Hebrew
məlākîm), like Aramaic and Arabic; retention of the feminine ending -at or "-ah" which Biblical Hebrew reduces to -āh only (e.g. qiryat or "qiryah" "town", Biblical Hebrew qiryāh) but retains in the construct state nominal form (e.g.qiryát yisrael "town of Israel"); and retention of a verb form with infixed -t-, also found in Arabic and Akkadian (w-’ltḥm "I began to fight", from the root lḥm.) According to Glottolog, referencing Huehnergard & Rubin (2011), Moabite was not a distinct language from Hebrew.[31] In Jewish tradition[edit] According to the Bible, the Moabites opposed the Israelite invasion of Canaan, as did the Ammonites. As a consequence, they were excluded from the congregation for ten generations.[33] The term "tenth generation" is considered an idiom, used for an unlimited time, as opposed to the third generation, which allows an Egyptian convert to marry into the community. The Talmud expresses the view that the prohibition applied only to male Moabites, who were not allowed to marry born Jews or legitimate converts. Female Moabites, when converted to Judaism, were permitted to marry with only the normal prohibition of a convert marrying a kohen (priest) applying. However, the prohibition was not followed during the Exile, and Ezra
Ezra
and Nehemiah
Nehemiah
sought to compel a return to the law because men had been marrying women who had not been converted at all.[34] The heir of King Solomon was Rehoboam, the son of an Ammonite woman, Naamah.[35] On the other hand, the marriages of the Bethlehem
Bethlehem
Ephrathites (of the tribe of Judah) Chilion and Mahlon to the Moabite women Orpah
Orpah
and Ruth,[36] and the marriage of the latter, after her husband's death, to Boaz[37] who by her was the great-grandfather of David, are mentioned with no shade of reproach. The Talmudic explanation, however, is that the language of the law applies only to Moabite and Ammonite men (Hebrew, like all Semitic languages, has grammatical gender). The Talmud also states that Prophet Samuel
Samuel
wrote the book of Ruth to settle the dispute as the rule had been forgotten since the time of Boaz. Another interpretation is that the Book of Ruth
Book of Ruth
is simply reporting the events in an impartial fashion, leaving any praise or condemnation to be done by the reader. The Babylonian Talmud in Yevamot 76B explains that one of the reasons was the Ammonites did not greet the Children of Israel with friendship and the Moabites hired Balaam
Balaam
to curse them. The difference in the responses of the two people led to God
God
allowing the Jewish People to harass the Moabites (but not go to war) but forbade them to even harass the Ammonites. (Compare/contrast with the basic message of Deuteronomy
Deuteronomy
23:4–5).[38] Ruth adopted the God
God
of Naomi, her Israelite mother-in-law. Ruth chose to go back to her (Naomi's) people after her husband, his brother and his father, Naomi's husband, died. Ruth said to Naomi, "Whither thou goest, I will go; whither thou lodgest, I will lodge; thy people shall be my people and thy God
God
my God". The Talmud uses this as the basis for what a convert must do to be converted. There are arguments as to exactly when she was converted and if she had to repeat the statement in front of the court in Bethlehem
Bethlehem
when they arrived there. According to the Book of Jeremiah, Moab
Moab
was exiled to Babylon
Babylon
for his arrogance and idolatry. According to Rashi, it was also due to their gross ingratitude even though Abraham, Israel's ancestor, had saved Lot, Moab's ancestor from Sodom. Jeremiah
Jeremiah
prophesies that Moab's captivity will be returned in the end of days.[39] Decline and fall[edit] Sometime during the Persian period Moab
Moab
disappears from the extant historical record. Its territory was subsequently overrun by waves of tribes from northern Arabia, including the Kedarites
Kedarites
and (later) the Nabataeans. In Nehemiah
Nehemiah
4:1 the Arabs
Arabs
are mentioned instead of the Moabites as the allies of the Ammonites.[40] Their region, however, continued to be known by its biblical name for some time. For example, when the Crusaders occupied the area, the castle they built to defend the eastern part of the Kingdom of Jerusalem
Kingdom of Jerusalem
was called Krak des Moabites. References[edit]

^ see 2 Kings 3 ^ Deuteronomy
Deuteronomy
xxxiv. 1–8 ^ Ruth 1:1,2,6 ^ Deuteronomy
Deuteronomy
1:5; 32:49 ^ Numbers 22:1 ^ Miller, Max (1997). "Ancient Moab: Still Largely Unknown". In George Ernest Wright; Frank Moore Cross; Edward Fay Campbell. The Biblical Archaeologist. 60. American Schools of Oriental Research. pp. 194–204. JSTOR 3210621. Among the travellers who traversed the whole Moabite plateau including Moab
Moab
proper prior to 1870 and whose published observations deserve special mention are Ulrich Seetzen (1805), Ludwig Burckhardt (1812), Charles Irby and James Mangles (1818), and Louis de Saulcy (1851). Both Seetzen and Burckhardt died during the course of their travels, and their travel journals were edited and published posthumously by editors who did not always understand the details. Burckhardt's journal was published first, in 1822, and served as the basis for the Moab
Moab
segment of Edward Robinson's map of Palestine published in 1841. Robinson's map depicts several strange features for the Moab
Moab
segment, most of which can be traced to editorial mistakes in Burckhardt's journal and/or to entirely understandable misinterpretations of the journal on Robinson's part. Unfortunately, these strange features would linger on in maps of Palestine throughout the nineteenth century.  ^ Deuteronomy
Deuteronomy
2:11 ^ Numbers 21:13; Judges 11:18 ^ Deuteronomy
Deuteronomy
34:5 ^ Deuteronomy
Deuteronomy
34:6–8 ^ Judges 3:12–30 ^ 2 Samuel
Samuel
8:2; 1 Chronicles 18:2 ^ Edwin Thistle, The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings, (1st ed.; New York: Macmillan, 1951; 2d ed.; Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1965; 3rd ed.; Grand Rapids: Zondervan/Kregel, 1983). ISBN 0-8254-3825-X, 9780825438257. ^ 2 Chronicles 22:1 ^ 2 Kings 3; 2 Chronicles 20 ^ 2 Kings 13:20 ^ 2 Kings 24:2 ^ e.g., Isa 25:10; Ezek 25:8–11; Amos 2:1–3; Zephaniah 2:8–11 ^ Isa 16:6; Jer 48:11–29; Zephaniah 2:10 ^ Jer. xlviii. 27 ^ Num 25:2; Judges 10:6 ^ Jer 48:7, 48:13 ^ Num 21:29; Jer 48:46 ^ 2 Kings 3:27 ^ 1 Kings 11:7 ^ 2 Kings 23:13 ^ a b c Rainer Hannig: Großes Handwörterbuch Ägyptisch-Deutsch: (2800-950 v. Chr.). von Zabern, Mainz 2006, ISBN 3-8053-1771-9, S. 1147. ^ Genesis 19:37 ^ Leyden (1904). Verhandlungen des Zwölften Internationalen Orientalisten-Congresses. p. 261.  ^ Moabite at MultiTree
MultiTree
on the Linguist List ^ a b Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Moabite". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ a b Bromiley, Geoffrey W. (2007). Moab. The International Standard Bible
Bible
Encyclopedia. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 395.  ^ Deuteronomy
Deuteronomy
23:4; comp. Nehemiah
Nehemiah
8:1–3 ^ Ezra
Ezra
9:1–2, 12; Nehemiah
Nehemiah
13:23–25 ^ 1 Kings 14:21 ^ Ruth 1:2–4 ^ Ruth 4:10–13 ^ Deuteronomy
Deuteronomy
23:3–4 ^ Jeremiah
Jeremiah
48, Tanach. Brooklyn, New York: ArtScroll. p. 1187.  ^ comp. 1 Macc 9:32-42; Josephus, Jewish Antiquities
Jewish Antiquities
xiii. 13, § 5; xiv. 1, § 4.

Further reading[edit]

Many comparisons of Biblical Hebrew
Biblical Hebrew
with the language of the Mêša˓ inscription appear in Wilhelm Gesenius' Hebrew grammar, e.g. §2d, §5d, §7b, §7f, §49a, §54l, §87e, §88c, §117b, etc. Routledge, Bruce. Moab
Moab
in the Iron Age: Hegemony, Polity, Archaeology. 2004. The most comprehensive treatment of Moab
Moab
to date. Bienkowski, Piotr (ed.) Early Edom
Edom
and Moab: The Beginning of the Iron Age in Southern Jordan
Jordan
(1992). Dearman, Andrew (ed.) Studies in the Mesha
Mesha
inscription and Moab (1989). Jacobs, Joseph and Louis H. Gray. "Moab". Jewish Encyclopedia. Funk and Wagnalls, 1901–1906, which cites to the following bibliography: Tristram, The Land of Moab, London, 1874;

External links[edit] Media related to Moab
Moab
at Wikimedia Commons

Gutenberg E-text of Patriarchal Palestine by Archibald Henry Sayce (1895) Moab
Moab
entry in Smith's Bible
Bible
Dictionary

v t e

Ancient states and regions in the history of the Levant

Bronze Age

Akkadian Empire Amurru Bashan Canaan Ebla Edom Hittite Empire Mari Mitanni Moab Nagar Qatna Tyre Ugarit Urkesh Yamhad

Iron Age

Ammon Aramea Aram-Damascus Assyrian Empire Canaan Egyptian Empire Israel (Samaria) Israel and Judah Judah Neo-Babylonian Empire Philistia Phoenicia Syro-Hittite

Classical Age

Byzantine Empire Hasmonea Herodian Judaea Herodian Tetrarchy Macedonian Empire Nabataea Neo-Babylonian Empire Parthian Empire Palmyrene Empire Persian Empire Roman Empire Roman Republic Sasanian Empire Seleucid Empire

Coordinates: 31°54′00″N 35°45′00″E / 31.90000°N 35.75000°E /

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