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Mizoram
Mizoram
(English: /mɪˈzɔːrəm/ ( listen)) is a state in Northeast India, with Aizawl
Aizawl
as its capital city. The name is derived from "Mizo", the name of the native inhabitants, and "Ram", which means land, and thus Mizoram
Mizoram
means "land of the Mizos".[4] Within the northeast region, it is the southernmost landlocked state, sharing borders with three of the Seven Sister States, namely Tripura, Assam and Manipur. The state also shares a 722 kilometre border with the neighbouring countries of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and Myanmar.[5] Like several other northeastern states of India, Mizoram
Mizoram
was previously part of Assam
Assam
until 1972, when it was carved out as a Union Territory. It became the 23rd state of India, a step above Union Territory, on 20 February 1987, with Fifty-Third Amendment of Indian Constitution, 1986.[6] Mizoram's population was 1,091,014, according to a 2011 census. It is the 2nd least populous state in the country.[7] Mizoram
Mizoram
covers an area of approximately 21,087 square kilometres.[8] About 91% of the state is forested.[9] About 95% of the current population is of diverse tribal origins who settled in the state, mostly from Southeast Asia, over waves of migration starting about the 16th century but mainly in the 18th century.[10] This is the highest concentration of tribal people among all states of India, and they are currently protected under Indian constitution as a Scheduled Tribe.[11] Mizoram
Mizoram
is one of three states of India
India
with a Christian majority (87%).[12] Its people belong to various denominations, mostly Presbyterian
Presbyterian
in the north and Baptists in the south. Mizoram
Mizoram
is a highly literate agrarian economy, but suffers from slash-and-burn jhum, or shifting cultivation, and poor crop yields.[13] In recent years, the jhum farming practices are steadily being replaced with a significant horticulture and bamboo products industry.[14][15] The state's gross state domestic product for 2012 was estimated at ₹6,991 crore (US$1.1 billion).[8] About 20% of Mizoram's population lives below poverty line, with 35% rural poverty.[16] The state has about 871 kilometres of national highways, with NH-54 and NH-150 connecting it to Assam
Assam
and Manipur
Manipur
respectively. It is also a growing transit point for trade with Myanmar
Myanmar
and Bangladesh.[17]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 British era (1840s to 1940s) 2.2 Post 1947

3 Geography

3.1 Climate 3.2 Biodiversity

4 Demographics

4.1 Ethnic groups 4.2 Protected demographic category 4.3 Languages 4.4 Religion

5 Politics

5.1 Administration

6 Economy

6.1 Agriculture 6.2 Forestry, fisheries and sericulture 6.3 Industry 6.4 Education infrastructure 6.5 Energy infrastructure 6.6 Transport infrastructure

7 Education 8 Culture

8.1 Traditional festivals 8.2 Dance 8.3 Music 8.4 Sports

9 Tourism 10 Issues

10.1 Alcohol prohibition 10.2 Rat problems

11 Media and communication 12 Notable people 13 See also 14 References 15 Further reading 16 External links

Etymology[edit] The term Mizoram
Mizoram
is derived from two Mizo words-Mizo and ram. 'Mizo' is the name used to call the native inhabitants and 'Ram' means 'land'. There is dispute on the term 'zo'. According to one view, 'zo' means 'highland' (or hill) and Mizoram
Mizoram
means 'land of the Mizos'. B. Lalthangliana says 'zo' may also mean 'cold region' and therefore, Mizo may also signify people of the cold region.[18] History[edit] Main article: History of Mizoram

One of the many battles between British troops and British-aligned tribes of Mizoram
Mizoram
against a Lusei
Lusei
clan in Mizoram.[19] This sketch is by Lieutenant Cole in 1889 titled "Looshai expedition".

The origin of the Mizos, like those of many other tribes in the northeastern India, is shrouded in mystery. The people living in the Mizo Hills were generally referred to as the Cucis or Kukis
Kukis
by their neighbouring ethnic groups which was also a term adopted by the British writers. The claim that 'The Kukis
Kukis
are the earliest known residents of the Mizo hills area,' must be read in this light.[20] The majority of the tribes classified as "Mizo" today most likely migrated to their present territories from the neighbouring countries in several waves, starting around 1500 CE.[21] Before the British Raj, the various Mizo clans lived in autonomous villages. The tribal chiefs enjoyed an eminent position in the gerontocratic Mizo society. The various clans and subclans practised slash-and-burn, locally called jhum cultivation - a form of subsistence agriculture.[22] The chiefs were the absolute rulers of their respective clans' territories (ram), although they remained under the nominal political jurisdictions of the Rajas of Manipur, Tripura
Tripura
and Burma.[23] There were many instances of tribal raids and head-hunting led by the village chieftains. Head-hunting was a practice which involved ambushing, taking slaves and cutting off the heads of fighters from the enemy tribe, bringing it back, and displaying it at the entrance of the tribal village.[24] British era (1840s to 1940s)[edit] Some of the earliest records of raids and intertribal conflicts are from the early 19th century.[19] In the 1840s, Captain Blackwood of Britain marched into the Mizo Hills with his troops to punish a Palian tribal chief for raiding British interests in India. A few years later, Captain Lester was wounded in a battle with the Lusei
Lusei
tribe in the region that is now Mizoram. In 1849, a Lusei
Lusei
tribal raid killed 29 members of the Thahdos tribe and added 42 captives to their clan. Colonel Lister retaliated in 1850, with the co-operation of the Thahdos tribe, an event historically called the First British invasion, burning down a Lusei
Lusei
village of 800 tribal houses and freeing 400 Thahdos captives.[19][25] British historical records on the Mizo Hills state similar inter-ethnic tribal raids for loot, slaves and retaliatory battles continued for decades.[26] The Mizo Hills formally became part of British India
India
in 1895, and practices such as head-hunting were banned in Mizoram
Mizoram
as well as neighbouring regions.[27] The northern and southern Mizo Hills became part of Assam
Assam
province in 1898 as the Lushai Hills
Lushai Hills
District, with Aizawl
Aizawl
as their headquarters.[28] At the time of the British conquest, there were around 60 chiefs.[23] After Christian missionaries arrived with the gospel, the majority of the population became Christians in the first half of the 20th century. Post 1947[edit] By the time India
India
gained independence from the British Empire, the number of tribal chiefs had increased to over 200. The educated elites among the Mizos
Mizos
campaigned against the tribal chiefdoms under the banner of the Mizo Union. As a result of their campaign, the hereditary rights of the 259 chiefs were abolished under the Assam-Lushai District ("Acquisition of Chief's Rights") Act, 1954.[23][26] Village courts were re-implemented in the Mizo region along with other parts of Assam. All of these regions were frustrated by these arrangements and by centralised Assam
Assam
governance. The Mizos were particularly dissatisfied with the government's inadequate response to the 1959–60 mautam famine. The Mizo National Famine Front, a body formed for famine relief in 1959, later developed into a new political organisation, the Mizo National Front
Mizo National Front
(MNF) in 1961.[29] A period of protests and armed insurgency followed in the 1960s, with the MNF seeking independence from India.[30] In 1971, the government agreed to convert the Mizo Hills into a Union Territory, which came into being as Mizoram
Mizoram
in 1972. Following the Mizoram Peace Accord (1986) between the Government and the MNF, Mizoram
Mizoram
was declared a full-fledged state of India
India
in 1987.[31] Mizoram
Mizoram
was given two seats in the Parliament, one each in the Lok Sabha and in the Rajya Sabha.[32] The region has been peaceful in recent decades. Between 2006 and 2013, no more than two civilians have died each year from protest-related violence (or less than 0.2 people per 100,000).[33] The world's average annual death rate from intentional violence, in recent years, has been 7.9 per 100,000 people.[34] [35] Geography[edit] Main article: Geography of Mizoram Mizoram
Mizoram
is a landlocked state in North East India
India
whose southern part shares 722[8] kilometres long international borders with Myanmar
Myanmar
and Bangladesh, and northern part share domestic borders with Manipur, Assam
Assam
and Tripura. It is the fifth smallest state of India
India
with 21,087 km2 (8,142 sq mi). It extends from 21°56'N to 24°31'N, and 92°16'E to 93°26'E.[36] The tropic of cancer runs through the state nearly at its middle. The maximum north-south distance is 285 km, while maximum east-west stretch is 115 km.[36]

Mizoram
Mizoram
landscape is mostly rolling hills with major valleys. Most villages and town are located on hill sides.

Mizoram
Mizoram
is a land of rolling hills, valleys, rivers and lakes. As many as 21 major hill ranges or peaks of different heights run through the length and breadth of the state, with plains scattered here and there. The average height of the hills to the west of the state are about 1,000 metres (3,300 ft). These gradually rise up to 1,300 metres (4,300 ft) to the east. Some areas, however, have higher ranges which go up to a height of over 2,000 metres (6,600 ft). Phawngpui
Phawngpui
Tlang also known as the Blue Mountain, situated in the south-eastern part of the state, is the highest peak in Mizoram
Mizoram
at 2,210 metres (7,250 ft).[37] About 76% of the state is covered by forests, 8% is fallows land, 3% is barren and considered uncultivable area, while cultivable and sown area constitutes the rest.[38] Slash-and-burn
Slash-and-burn
or jhum cultivation, though discouraged, remains in practice in Mizoram
Mizoram
and affects its topography.[39][40] The State of Forest Report 2015 states that Mizoram
Mizoram
has the highest forest cover as a percentage of its geographical area of any Indian state, being 88.93% forest.[41]

Chhimtuipui (top) and Tuipui river of Mizoram

Mizoram
Mizoram
terrain is, according to the Geological Survey of India, an immature topography, and the physiographic expression consists of several almost North-South longitudinal valleys containing series of small and flat hummocks, mostly anticlinal, parallel to sub-parallel hill ranges and narrow adjoining synclinal valleys with series of topographic highs. The general geology of western Mizoram
Mizoram
consists of repetitive succession of Neogene sedimentary rocks of the Surma Group and Tipam Formation such as sandstone, siltstone, mudstone and rare pockets of shell limestone. The eastern part is the Barail Group.[42] Mizoram
Mizoram
lies in seismic zone V, according to the India
India
Meteorological Department; as with other northeastern states of India, this means the state has the highest risk of earthquakes relative to other parts of India.[43] The biggest river in Mizoram
Mizoram
is Chhimtuipui, also known as Kaladan(or Kolodyne). It originates in Chin state in Burma
Burma
and passes through Saiha
Saiha
and Lawngtlai
Lawngtlai
districts in the southern tip of Mizoram, goes back to Burma's Rakhine state. Although many more rivers and streams drain the hill ranges, the most important and useful rivers are the Tlawng, Tut, Tuirial and Tuivawl which flow through the northern territory and eventually join the Barak River
Barak River
in Cachar District. The rivers have a gentle drainage gradient particularly in the south.[42] Palak lake is the biggest in Mizoram
Mizoram
and covers 30 hectares (74 acres). The lake is situated in Saiha district of southern Mizoram. It is believed that the lake was created as a result of an earthquake or a flood. The local people believe that a submerged village remains intact deep under the waters. The Tam Dil lake is a natural lake situated 85 kilometres (53 mi) from Aizawl. Legend has it that a huge mustard plant once stood in this place. When the plant was cut down, jets of water sprayed from the plant and created a pool of water, thus the lake was named Ţam Dil which means of 'lake of mustard plant'. Today the lake is an important tourist attraction and a holiday resort. The most significant lake in Mizo history, Rih Dil, is ironically located in Burma, a few kilometres from the Indo-Burma border. It was believed that departed souls pass through this lake before making their way to Pialral or heaven. Mizoram
Mizoram
is also called[citation needed] a "peninsula state" as it is surrounded by international borders on three sides. Climate[edit] Mizoram
Mizoram
has a mild climate, being relatively cool in summer 20 to 29 °C (68 to 84 °F)but progressively warmer most probably due to climate change with temperature crossing 30 degrees Celsius with winter temperatures ranging from 7 to 22 °C (45 to 72 °F). The region is influenced by monsoons, raining heavily from May to September with little rain in the dry (cold) season. The climate pattern is moist tropical to moist sub-tropical, with average state rainfall 254 centimetres (100 in) per annum. In the capital Aizawl, rainfall is about 215 centimetres (85 in) and in Lunglei, another major centre, about 350 centimetres (140 in).[42] The state is in a region where cyclones and landslides can cause weather-related emergencies.[44]

Climate data for Aizwal, the capital of Mizoram

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 20.4 (68.7) 21.7 (71.1) 25.2 (77.4) 26.8 (80.2) 26.3 (79.3) 25.5 (77.9) 25.3 (77.5) 25.5 (77.9) 25.7 (78.3) 24.7 (76.5) 23.0 (73.4) 21.0 (69.8) 24.26 (75.67)

Average low °C (°F) 11.4 (52.5) 12.8 (55) 15.6 (60.1) 17.5 (63.5) 18.1 (64.6) 18.9 (66) 19.1 (66.4) 19.1 (66.4) 19.2 (66.6) 18.0 (64.4) 15.1 (59.2) 12.2 (54) 16.42 (61.56)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 13.4 (0.528) 23.4 (0.921) 73.4 (2.89) 167.7 (6.602) 289.0 (11.378) 406.1 (15.988) 320.4 (12.614) 320.6 (12.622) 305.2 (12.016) 183.7 (7.232) 43.2 (1.701) 15.3 (0.602) 2,161.4 (85.094)

Source: [45]

Biodiversity[edit]

State symbols of Mizoram[46]

Animal Serow
Serow
(Saza)

Bird Mrs. Hume's pheasant
Mrs. Hume's pheasant
(Vavu)

Tree Indian rose chestnut (Herhse)

Flower Red Vanda
Red Vanda
(Senhri)

Vavu (Mrs. Hume's pheasant) is the state bird[47] (top) and Senhri (Renanthera imschootiana) the state flower of Mizoram.[48]

Mizoram
Mizoram
has the third highest total forest cover with 1,594,000 hectares (3,940,000 acres), and highest percentage area (90.68%) covered by forests, among the states of India, according to 2011 Forest Survey of India.[9] Tropical semi-evergreen, tropical moist deciduous, subtropical broadleaved hill and subtropical pine forests are the most common vegetation types found in Mizoram. Bamboo
Bamboo
is common in the state, typically intermixed with other forest vegetation; about 9,245 km2 (44%) of the state's area is bamboo bearing. The state and central governments of India
India
have cooperated to reserve and protect 67% of the land covered by forests, and additional 15% by management. Only 17% of the land is non-forested area for cultivation, industry, mining, housing and other commercial human activity. Satellite data suggests 91% of state's geographical area is covered by forests.[9] Jhum cultivation, or slash-and-burn practice, was a historic tradition in Mizoram
Mizoram
and a threat to its forest cover. This practice has reduced in recent decades, due to a government supported initiative to support horticultural crops such as pineapple and banana plantations.[9]

Neptunia oleracea

Mizoram
Mizoram
is host to numerous species of birds, wildlife and flora. About 640 species of birds have been identified in the state, many of which are endemic to the Himalayan foothills and southeast Asia. Of the birds found in Mizoram
Mizoram
forests, 27 are on the worldwide threatened species lists and 8 are on the critically endangered list.[49] Prominent birds spotted in Mizoram
Mizoram
include those from the families of Phasianidae, Anatidae, Ciconiidae, Threskiornithidae, Ardeidae, Pelecanidae, Phalacrocoracidae, Falconidae, Accipitridae, Otididae, Rallidae, Heliornithidae, Turnicidae, Burhinidae, Charadriidae, Scolopacidae, Jacanidae, Laridae, Columbidae, Psittacidae, Cuculidae, Strigidae, Caprimulgidae, Apodidae, Alcedinidae, Meropidae, Bucerotidae, Ramphastidae, Picidae, Pittidae, Laniidae, Campephagidae, Dicruridae, Corvidae, Paridae, Hirundinidae, Cisticolidae, Pycnonotidae, Sylviidae, Timaliidae, Sittidae, Sturnidae, Turdidae, Dicaedae, Chloropseidae, Ploceidae, Motacillidae, Fringillidae, Nectariniidae
Nectariniidae
and Muscicapidae.[49] Each of these families have many species. The state is also host to a variety of fauna, just like its sister northeastern Indian states. Mammal species observed in the Mizoram forests include slow loris (Nycticebus coucang), red serow (Capricornis rubidus), which is the state animal, goral (Nemorhaedus goral), tiger (Panthera tigris), leopard (Panthera pardus), clouded leopard ("Neofelis nebulosi"), leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis), and Asiatic black bear
Asiatic black bear
(Ursus thibetanus). Primates seen include stump-tailed macaque (Macaca arctoides), hoolock gibbon (Hylobates hoolock), Phayre's leaf monkey
Phayre's leaf monkey
(Trachypithecus phayrei) and capped langur (Trachypithecus pileatus). The state is also home to many reptiles, amphibians, fish and invertebrates.[50][51] The state has two national parks and six wildlife sanctuaries - Blue Mountain (Phawngpui) National Park, Dampa Tiger
Tiger
Reserve (largest), Lengteng Wildlife Sanctuary, Murlen National Park, Ngengpui Wildlife Sanctuary, Tawi Wildlife Sanctuary, Khawnglung Wildlife Sanctuary, and Thorangtlang Wildlife Sanctuary.[52] Demographics[edit]

Population growth 

Census Pop.

1951 196,202

1961 266,063

35.6%

1971 332,390

24.9%

1981 493,757

48.5%

1991 689,573

39.7%

2001 888,573

28.9%

2011 1,091,014

22.8%

Source:Census of India[7]

Mizoram
Mizoram
has a population of 1,091,014 with 552,339 males and 538,675 females.[7] This reflects a 22.8% growth since 2001 census; still, Mizoram
Mizoram
is second least populated state of India. The sex ratio of the state is 976 females per thousand males, higher than the national ratio 940. The density of population is 52 persons per square kilometre.[53] The literacy rate of Mizoram
Mizoram
in 2011 was 91.33 per cent,[53] higher than the national average 74.04 per cent, and second best among all the states of India. About 52% of Mizoram
Mizoram
population lives in urban areas, much higher than India's average. Over one third of the population of Mizoram
Mizoram
lives in Aizawl
Aizawl
district, which hosts the capital.[7][54][55] Ethnic groups[edit] The great majority of Mizoram's population consists of several ethnic tribes who are either culturally or linguistically linked. These ethnic groups are collectively known as Mizos
Mizos
(Mi means People, Zo means Hill; Mizo thus is hillmen[26]). Mizo people
Mizo people
are spread throughout the northeastern states of India, Burma
Burma
and Bangladesh. They belong to numerous tribes; however, to name a particular tribe as the largest is difficult as no concrete census has ever been undertaken. Sometime in the 16th century CE, the first batch of Mizo crossed Tiau river and settled in Mizoram
Mizoram
and they were called as Kukis
Kukis
by Bengalis.[56] The term Kuki mean the inhabitants of the interior and inaccessible mountain tracts. Sometimes grouped as Kuki-Chin tribes, The First batch were called Old Kukis
Kukis
which are the Biate
Biate
and the Hrangkhol and the second batch that followed include Lushei (or Lusei), Paite, Lai, Mara, Ralte, Hmar, Thadou, Shendus, and several other.[56] These tribes are subdivided into numerous clans, and these clans are further sub-divided into sub-clans, for example the Hmars are divided into Thiek, Faihriem, Lungtau, Darngawn, Khawbung, Zote and others. These clans sometimes have slight linguistic differences. The Bru (Reang), Chakma, Tanchangya, Chin origin of Northern Arakan Mountain, are some non-Kuki tribes of Mizoram, with some suggestion that some of these are Indo-Aryan in their origins.[56] The Bnei Menashe tribe claim Jewish descent.[57] The diversity of tribal groups reflects the historical immigration patterns. Different tribes and sub-tribes arrived in the present Mizoram, in successive waves and settled down in different parts of the state. Further, as they arrived, there were raids, fear of raids and intertribal feuds. The resulting isolation and separation created numerous tribes and sub-tribes.[56] The Mizo people
Mizo people
usually suffix their descriptive given names with their tribe. Other than tribal groups, other ethnic groups inhabit Mizoram. For example, Nepali Gorkhas were encouraged to settle in Aizawl
Aizawl
area and other parts of Mizoram
Mizoram
during the British colonial times. Thousands of their descendants are now residents of Mizoram.[58] Protected demographic category[edit] According to 2011 census, Mizoram
Mizoram
had 1,036,115 people (95% of total) classified as Scheduled Tribe, the highest concentration of protected tribal people in all states of India.[11][59] This demographic classification, given to Mizoram
Mizoram
tribes since the 1950s, has provided reservations and extra resources in education and government job opportunities, a preferential treatment as a means to accelerate their integration with mainstream society.[60] Languages[edit] Main article: Mizo language

Languages of Mizoram
Mizoram
in 2001[61][62][63]   Mizo (73.2%)   Chakma (9.01%)   Mara (3.82%)   Lai (2.7%)   Kuki (2.37%)   Tripuri (1.9%)   Hmar (1.5%)   Paite (1.5%)   Other (4%)

Mizo is the official language and the most widely used language for verbal interactions, but English, being important for education, administration, formalities and governance, is widely used. The Duhlian dialect, also known as the Lusei, was the first language of Mizoram
Mizoram
and has come to be known as the Mizo language. The language is mixed with other dialects like the Hmar, Mara, Lai, Thadou-Kuki, Paite, Gangte, etc. Christian missionaries developed the Mizo script. Writing is a combination of the Roman script and Hunterian transliteration methodology with prominent traces of a phonetics-based spelling system. There are 25 letters in the alphabet: A, AW, B, CH, D, E, F, G, NG, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, R, S, T, Ṭ (with a dot under), U, V, Z. Mizo is one of the languages with official status in India
India
(at the state level). Nepali is also spoken by Nepali immigrants to the state. The major languages spoken as per census 2001 are Mizo (650,605), Chakma (80,389), Lakher (34,731), Pawi (24,900), Kuki(21,040), Tripuri (17,580), Hmar (14,240), Paite (14,367), etc. Religion[edit]

Religion in Mizoram
Mizoram
(2011)[64][65]    Christianity
Christianity
(87.16%)    Buddhism
Buddhism
(8.51%)    Hinduism
Hinduism
(2.75%)    Islam
Islam
(1.35%)    Jainism
Jainism
(0.03%)    Sikhism
Sikhism
(0.03%)   Other or not religious (0.16%)

The majority (87%) of Mizos
Mizos
are Christians in various denominations, predominantly Presbyterian. Mizoram
Mizoram
has a Chakma Theravada
Theravada
Buddhist population of 8.5%, making them the largest minority, followed by Hindus at 2.7% according to the 2011 census.[64] There are several thousand people, mostly ethnic Mizo, who have converted to Judaism claiming to be one of the lost Judaic tribe group Bnei Menashe, with descent from the biblical Menasseh.[57] Muslims make up about 1.3% of the state population. The remaining 3,000 people are Sikhs, Jains and other religions.

Christianity

Main article: History of Christianity
Christianity
in Mizoram

Solomon's Temple

The major Christian denomination is Mizoram
Mizoram
Presbyterian
Presbyterian
Church which was established by a Welsh Missionary Rev. D.E. Jones starting in 1894.[66] By the time India
India
gained independence from British Empire, some 80% of Lushei tribe people had converted to Christianity.[67] The Mizoram
Mizoram
Presbyterian
Presbyterian
Church is one of the constituted bodies of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian
Presbyterian
Church of India
India
at Shillong
Shillong
in Meghalaya; it became the dominant sect of Christianity
Christianity
in north Mizoram
Mizoram
hills; In the southern hills of Mizoram, the Baptist Church had the dominant following.[67] Other Christian churches present in Mizoram
Mizoram
include the United Pentecostal Church, the Salvation Army, the Seventh-day Adventist Church, Kohhran Thianghlim, Roman Catholic, Lairam Isua Krista Baptist Kohhran (LIKBK), Congregational Church of India
India
(Maraland), Evangelical Church of Maraland, Independent Church of India
India
(ICI) and Evangelical Free Church of India
India
(EFCI).

Buddhism

According to 2001 census report there are more than 70,494 people who follow Buddhism
Buddhism
in Mizoram. The Chakmas and Tongchangya or Tanchangya have been Buddhist since[when?] historical times and there are approximately one hundred monasteries (known as vihara in Pali) in Mizoram. Of the many schools of Buddhism
Buddhism
that are exist recent time Theravada
Theravada
Buddhism
Buddhism
in Mizoram.[citation needed]

Hinduism

According to the 2001 census, there were 31,562 Hindus in Mizoram, or about 3.55%. Out of this, 26,448 were non-indigenous and 5,114 were indigenous tribal. Earlier there were significant Hindu population among the Reang (Bru) communities, but after the communal clash, many of them migrated to Tripura
Tripura
and Assam.[citation needed] In 1961, the Hindu population was about 6%.[67]

Others

There are also a few Mizos
Mizos
who practice Judaism (866 according to the 2001 census) and a modernised traditional Mizo religion called Hnam sakhua, which puts a particular emphasis on Mizo culture and seeks to revive traditional Mizo values, while at the same time attacking the influence brought about by Christianity
Christianity
on Mizo people.[citation needed] A total of 1,367 people practised the Mizo religion according to the 2001 census. This number included, in addition to the original Mizo religion (755 people), adherents of other tribal religions such as Lalchhungkua (279), Lalhnam (122), and Nunna Lalchhungkua (211).[68] Politics[edit] Main articles: Politics of Mizoram and Government of Mizoram

Mizoram
Mizoram
Assembly House

Originally village land, locally called ram, was the property of the tribal chief. The institution of chieftainship began in the 16th century. Each village behaved like a small state, and the chief was called Lal. The rule was hereditary, and there were no written laws (the first script for Mizo language was developed by Christian missionaries Lorraine and Savidge about 1895).[26] After annexation by the British in the 1890s, northern part of Mizoram was administered as the Lushai Hills
Lushai Hills
district of Assam, while southern Mizoram
Mizoram
was part of Bengal. In 1898, the southern part was transferred from Bengal to Assam. The colonial power retained the chiefs and Mizo customs, including the socially stratified hereditary transfer of political power. In 1937, under Section 6 of the Scheduled District Act, the British administration[26] consolidated executive and legislative political power to the Deputy Commissioner and District Magistrates, with village chiefs in advisory role. The political and judiciary powers of chiefs were neither final nor exclusive, thereafter. Rulings could be appealed to courts staffed with British officials. After India
India
gained independence from the colonial rule, the region was granted autonomous status in 1952, where Mizo people formulated their own laws and delivered judicial decisions. The region was renamed as Mizo District within Assam
Assam
State in April 1954 and in that year, the institution of hereditary chieftainship was abolished, and instead village courts/council were set up.[26] In the same year the Young Mizo Association was formed which is still an important institution in Mizoram. The representatives of the Lushai Hills
Lushai Hills
Autonomous District Council and the Mizo Union pleaded with the States Reorganisation Commission (SRC) to integrate the Mizo-dominated areas of Tripura
Tripura
and Manipur with the District Council in Assam. The tribal leaders in the northeast were unhappy with the final SRC recommendations and met in Aizawl
Aizawl
in 1955 to form a new political party, Eastern India
India
Tribal Union (EITU).[30] This group raised their demand for a separate state comprising all the hill districts of Assam. However, the demand was not accepted by the Government.

Mizoram Peace Accord was signed in June 1986. The Accord granted political freedoms by making Mizoram
Mizoram
a full state of India, and included infrastructure provisions such as a High Court and establishment of Mizoram University
Mizoram University
(shown).[69]

In the 1950s, the fears of Assamese hegemony and perceived lack of government concern led to growing discontent among the Mizos. The Mizos
Mizos
were particularly dissatisfied with the government's inadequate response to the 1959–60 mautam famine. The Mizo National Famine Front, a body formed for famine relief in 1959, later developed into a new political organisation, the Mizo National Front
Mizo National Front
(MNF) in 1961.[29] The Front sought sovereign independence for the Mizo territory, staging an armed insurrection with the 28 February 1966 uprising against the government.[30] The revolt was suppressed by the Government of India, which carried out airstrikes in Aizawl
Aizawl
and surrounding areas.[70][71] The secessionist Mizo National Front
Mizo National Front
was outlawed in 1967, as the Mizo Union and other organisations continued the demand for a separate Mizo state within the Republic of India. Assam
Assam
state was split, re-organised into multiple political regions, Mizo hills area was declared Mizoram
Mizoram
after the insurgency, and it received status as a Union Territory in 1972.[26] A Peace Accord was signed between central government and insurgent groups of Mizoram
Mizoram
on 30 June 1986. Per the accord, insurgents surrendered their arms and Mizoram
Mizoram
became the 23rd state of India
India
in 1986, formalised the following year. The first election of Mizoram Legislative Assembly
Mizoram Legislative Assembly
was held on 16 February 1987.[26] Elections have been held at 5 year intervals since then. The most recent Mizoram
Mizoram
elections were held for 40 seats of legislative assembly on 25 November 2013. The voter turnout was 81%. The Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
led by Lal Thanhawla was re-elected to power.[72] Lt General Nirbhay Sharma
Nirbhay Sharma
(Retd) is the Governor of Mizoram. Administration[edit] Main article: List of districts of Mizoram

District[73] Population (2011) Population Density per km2

Aizawl 400,309 117

Lunglei 161,428 35

Champhai 125,745 37

Lawngtlai 117,894 39

Mamit 86,364 29

Kolasib 83,955 56

Serchhip 64,937 47

Saiha 56,574 52

Districts of Mizoram

The Mizoram
Mizoram
State Legislative Assembly has 40 seats and the Village Councils are the grassroots of democracy and leadership in Mizoram. The state has a chief minister, council of ministers with a portfolio of ministries responsible for different priorities and role of the government.[74] There are three Autonomous District Councils (ADCs) for ethnic tribes in Mizoram, namely Chakma Autonomous District Council (in the southern part of state, bordering Bangladesh), Lai Autonomous District Council (LADC) for Lai people in the southern part of the state, and Mara Autonomous District Council (MADC) for Mara people in the southern-eastern corner. There are eight districts in Mizoram. A district of Mizoram
Mizoram
is headed by a Deputy Commissioner who is in charge of the administration in that particular district. The Deputy Commissioner is the executive head of the district, responsible for implementing government regulations, the law and order situation in the district, as well as being responsible for tax collection for the government.[75] A Superintendent of Police is responsible for the police administration of each district.[75] These officials work with the village councils in each district. Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of Mizoram

The capital city of Aizawl.

Mizoram
Mizoram
gross state domestic product (GSDP) in 2011-2012 was about ₹6,991 crore (US$1.1 billion).[8] The state's gross state domestic product (GSDP) growth rate was nearly 10% annually over 2001-2013 period. With international borders with Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and Myanmar, it is an important port state for southeast Asian imports to India, as well as exports from India.[17] The biggest contributors to state's GSDP growth are Agriculture, Public Administration and Construction work.[76] Tertiary sector of service sector continued to have the contribution to the GSDP with its share hovering between 58 per cent and 60 per cent during the past decade.[17][77] As of 2013, according to the Reserve Bank of India, 20.4% of total state population is below poverty line, about same as the 21.9% average for India. Rural poverty is significantly higher in Mizoram, with 35.4% below the poverty line compared to India's rural poverty average of 25.7; while in urban areas of Mizoram, 6.4% are below the poverty line.[16] Mizoram
Mizoram
has a highly literate work force, with literacy rate of nearly 90% and widespread use of English. The state has a total of 4,300 kilometres of roads of which 927 kilometres are high quality national highways and 700 kilometres of state highways. The state is developing its Kolodyne river for navigation and international trade. Mizoram's airport is at the capital city of Aizawl. The state is a power deficit state, with plans to develop its hydroelectric potential. After agriculture, the major employer of its people include handloom and horticulture industries. Tourism is a growth industry. In 2008, the state had nearly 7,000 registered companies. The state government has been implementing Special
Special
Economic Zones (SEZs) to encourage economic growth.[15] Agriculture[edit]

A paddy field in Zawlpui, Serchhip

Between 55% to 60% of the working population of the state is annually deployed on agriculture.[13][14] The sector's contribution to the gross state domestic product was 30% in 1994, just 14% in 2009 due to economic growth of other sectors.[78] Agriculture has traditionally been a subsistence profession in Mizoram. It is seen as a means for generate food for one's family, ignoring its potential for commerce, growth and prosperity. Rice remains the largest crop grown in Mizoram
Mizoram
by gross value of output.[79] Fruits have grown to become the second largest category, followed by condiments and spices.[78]

Jhum practice

Before 1947, agriculture in Mizoram
Mizoram
predominantly used to be slash-and-burn driven Jhum cultivation. This was discouraged by the state government, and the practice has been slowly declining.[80] A 2012 report[81] estimates the proportion of shifting cultivation area in Mizoram
Mizoram
to be about 30% - predominant part of which was for rice production (56% to 63% depending on the year). Despite dedicating largest amount of labour, jhum cultivated and non-jhum crop area to rice, the yields are low; Mizoram
Mizoram
average rice yields per acre is about 70% of India's average rice yield per acre and 32% of India's best yield. Mizoram
Mizoram
produces about 26% of rice it consumes every year, and it buys the deficit from other states of India.[14] The crop area used for jhum cultivation rotates in Mizoram; that is, the area slashed and burnt for a crop is abandoned for a few years and then jhumias return to slash and burn the same plot after a few years of non-use. The primary reasons for cyclical jhum cultivation includes, according to Goswami et al.,[81] personal, economic, social and physical. Jhum cultivation
Jhum cultivation
practice offers low crop yields and is a threat to the biome of Mizoram; they suggest increased government institutional support, shift to higher income horticultural crops, assured supply of affordable food staples for survival as means to further reduce jhum cultivation.

Horticulture

Oil palm in Mamit

In horticulture and floriculture, Mizoram
Mizoram
is a significant producer and global exporter of Anthurium
Anthurium
(over 7 million a year) and roses. It is also a significant producer and domestic supplier of banana, ginger, turmeric, passion fruit, orange and chowchow.[15] Mizoram
Mizoram
has accomplished this horticulture success and exports in 2009, with just 6% of its cultivated land dedicated to horticulture and floriculture, indicating a large potential for further growth and economic integration with other Indian states as well export driven economy.[82] In 2013, the area dedicated to horticulture and floriculture increased to 9.4% of 1.2 million hectares potential.[8] The agricultural productivity is very low in Mizoram.[83] The state gets a lot of rain, but its soil is porous and irrigation infrastructure very inadequate; this has affected it crop yield and reliability.[13] The yield issue that can be addressed by building irrigation infrastructure and adoption of better crop technologies. The state also has very low consumption of fertiliser and pesticides, which scholars[83] suggest offers an opportunity for organic farming particularly of vegetables and fruits. Forestry, fisheries and sericulture[edit] Mizoram
Mizoram
is one of the leading producers of bamboo in India, has 27 species of bamboo, and supplies 14% of India's commercial bamboo.[8][17] Forest products contribute about 5% to the state's gross product. The state produces about 5200 metric tonnes of fish a year, about 12% of potential that can be sustainably achieved.[8] Sericulture is an important handicraft industry engaged by nearly 8,000 families in over 300 Mizo villages.[17]

Mizoram
Mizoram
produces over 7 million tonnes of Anthurium
Anthurium
(shown), supplying the domestic market as well as exporting it to UAE, UK and Japan. The majority of producers and income earners from this business are Mizoram
Mizoram
women.[15][84]

Industry[edit] Mizoram
Mizoram
faces difficulties in the advancement of industries. Lack of transport infrastructure is one of the major drawbacks. Other problems faced by the state includes shortage of electricity, capital, telecommunication and export market access. Mizoram
Mizoram
has two industrial estates at Zuagtui and Kolasib.[17] Another software technology park is being established in Mizoram
Mizoram
University campus.[85] The state government has acquired 127 acres of land in Khawnuam for development of the Indo- Myanmar
Myanmar
border trade township.[17]

A school campus in Mizoram

Education infrastructure[edit] Main article: Education in Mizoram The first primary school was set up in 1898 at Aizawl
Aizawl
by Christian missionaries. The state has long enjoyed higher literacy rates than average literacy rates for India. In 1961, the literacy was 51%.[86] By 2011 census, it had reached 92%, compared to 74% average for India.[8] Mizoram
Mizoram
is second only to Kerala.[87] There were 3,894 schools in Mizoram
Mizoram
as of 2012. Of these, 42% are publicly owned and managed by Central/State governments, 28% are private without government subsidies, 21% are private with government subsidies, and the rest are primary and middle schools that are government financed by run by three Autonomous District Councils of Mizoram. The teacher-pupil ratio is about 1:20 for primary, 1:9 for middle School, 1:13 for high, and 1:15 for higher secondary schools.[8] There are several educational establishments under the umbrella of the Ministry of Education, including universities, colleges and other institutions. Within Mizoram
Mizoram
University, there are 29 undergraduate departments including 2 professional institutions affiliated with the university. The state had 22 other colleges, and the total college enrolment was approximately 10,600 students in 2012.[8] Other well known institutes are National Institute of Technology Mizoram, ICFAI University, Mizoram, College of Veterinary Sciences & Animal Husbandry, Selesih, Aizawl, Mizoram
Mizoram
and Regional Institute of Paramedical and Nursing Aizawl. Energy infrastructure[edit] Mizoram
Mizoram
is not self-sufficient in power. In 2012, the state had a demand for 107 MW of power, but had an effective installed capacity of only 29.35 MW. To bridge the gap, it purchased electricity from the national grid of India.[88] Of the total installed power generation capacity, all 29.35 MW came from hydel. The state also has 22.92 MW of thermal power and 0.50 MW of Diesel generating set as of March 2012. The thermal and diesel generating stations were kept on standby mode owing to their high cost of operation, and because it was cheaper to buy the power from India's grid than to operate these standby units.[88] The hydroelectric power potential of Mizoram
Mizoram
was assessed to be about 3600 MW in 2010,[89] and about 4500 MW in 2012.[90] If even half of this is realised, the state could supply all its citizens and industry with 24/7 electricity, as well as earn income from India's national grid. The topography of Mizoram
Mizoram
hydroelectric resources is ideal for power projects. The following rivers are suited for hydel projects with minimal impact on its biosphere - Tuivai, Tuivawl, Tlawng, Tut, Serlui, Tuirial, Kolodyne, Tuichang, Tuipui, Tiau and Mat. Beyond the major rivers, Mizoram
Mizoram
has many small but perennial streams and rivulets with ideal condition for developing micro/mini and small hydroelectric projects.[89] The state has proposed projects to attract private investments on Build, Own, Operate and Transfer (BOOT) basis with financial assistance in rehabilitating its citizens were they to be affected by the project. The largest proposed project is expected to be on Kolodyne (460 MW), and there are dozens of small to micro projects that have been identified.[89] By 2014, the state had signed memorandums to build and add 835 MW of electricity generation projects - Tuivai SHP with VGF (210 MW) in Champhai
Champhai
district, Kolodyne-II SHP with NHPC (460 MW) in Sahai district, Bairabi
Bairabi
with Sikaria Power (80 MW) in Kolasib
Kolasib
district, Tuirini with SPNL (38 MW) in Aizawl
Aizawl
district, and Tuivawl with SPML as well (42 MW) in Aizawl
Aizawl
district.[90][91] Transport infrastructure[edit] The state is the southern most in India's far northeast, placing Mizoram
Mizoram
in a disadvantageous position in terms of logistical ease, response time during emergencies, and its transport infrastructure. Prior to 1947, the distance to Kolkata
Kolkata
from Mizoram
Mizoram
was shorter; but ever since, travel through Bangladesh
Bangladesh
has been avoided, and traffic loops through Assam
Assam
an extra 1,400 kilometres to access the economic market of West Bengal. This remoteness from access to economic markets of India
India
is balanced by the state's closeness to southeast Asian market and its over 700 kilometres of international boundary.

Road Network: In 2012, Mizoram
Mizoram
had a road network of around 8,500 kilometres (5,300 mi) including unsurfaced village roads to surfaced national highways; and there were 106,000 registered motor vehicles.[8] The village roads are primarily single lane or unmetalled tracks that are typically lightly trafficked. Mizoram
Mizoram
had 871 kilometres of national highways, 1,663 kilometres of state highways and 2,320 kilometres of surfaced district roads. All of Mizoram's 23 urban centres and 59% of its 764 villages are connected by all weather roads. However, landslide and weather damage to these roads is significant in parts.[92] The State is connected to the Indian network through Silchar
Silchar
in Assam
Assam
through the National Highway 54. Another highway, NH-150 connects the state's Seling
Seling
Mizoram
Mizoram
to Imphal
Imphal
Manipur and NH-40A links the State with Tripura. A road between Champhai
Champhai
and Tiddim in Burma
Burma
has been proposed and is awaiting co-operation from the Burmese authorities.

Lengpui Airport
Lengpui Airport
Building

Airport: Mizoram
Mizoram
has an airport, Lengpui Airport
Lengpui Airport
(IATA: AJL), near Aizawl
Aizawl
and its runway is 3,130 feet long at an elevation of 1,000 feet.[93] Aizawl
Aizawl
airport is linked from Kolkata
Kolkata
– a 60-minute flight. Inclement weather conditions mean that at certain times the flights are unreliable. Mizoram
Mizoram
can also be reached via Assam's Silchar
Silchar
Airport, which is about 200 kilometres (120 mi) (around 6 hours) by road to Aizawl. Railway: There is a rail link at Bairabi railway station but it is primarily for goods traffic. The nearest practical station to Mizoram is at Silchar
Silchar
in Assam. Bairabi
Bairabi
is about 110 kilometres (68 mi) and Silchar
Silchar
is about 180 kilometres (110 mi) from the state capital. The Government is now planning to start a broad gauge Bairabi Sairang
Sairang
Railway connection for better connectivity in the state.[citation needed] Helicopter: A Helicopter service by Pawan Hans
Pawan Hans
has been started which connects the Aizawl
Aizawl
with Lunglei, Lawngtlai, Saiha, Chawngte, Serchhip, Champhai, Kolasib, Khawzawl, Mamit
Mamit
and Hnahthial.[94][95] Water Ways: Mizoram
Mizoram
is in the process of developing water ways with the port of Akyab
Akyab
Sittwe
Sittwe
in Burma
Burma
along its biggest river, Chhimtuipui. It drains into Burma's Rakhine state, and finally enters the Bay of Bengal at Akyab, which is a popular port in Sittwe, Burma. The Indian government considers it a priority to set up inland water ways along this river to trade with Burma. The project is known as the Kaladan Multi-modal Transit Transport Project.[96] India
India
is investing $103 million to develop the Sittwe
Sittwe
port on Burma's northern coast, about 160 kilometres (99 mi) from Mizoram. State Peace and Development Council of Burma
Burma
has committed $10 million for the venture.[97] The project is expected to be complete in 2015, and consists of two parts.[98] First, river Kaladan (or Kolodyne, Chhimtuipui) is being dredged and widened from the port at Sittwe
Sittwe
to Paletwa, in Chin province, adjacent to Mizoram. This 160 km inland waterway will enable cargo ships to enter, upload and offload freight in Paletwa, Myanmar; this is expected to be complete in 2014. As second part of the project, being constructed in parallel, includes a 62 km two-lane highway from Paletwa (also known as Kaletwa or Setpyitpyin) to Lomasu, Mizoram. Additionally, an all weather multilane 100 km road from Lomasu to Lawngtlai
Lawngtlai
in Mizoram
Mizoram
is being built to connect it with the Indian National Highway 54. This part of the project is slated to be complete by 2015. Once complete, this project is expected to economically benefit trade and horticulture exports of Mizoram, as well as improve economic access to 60 million people of landlocked northeast India
India
and Myanmar.[98]

Education[edit]

Aizawl
Aizawl
Theological College (ATC), Mizoram

Main article: Education in Mizoram See also: List of institutions of higher education in Mizoram Mizoram
Mizoram
schools are run by the state and central government or by private organisation. Instruction is mainly in English and Mizo. Under the 10+2+3 plan, students may enroll in general or professional degree programs after passing the Higher Secondary Examination (the grade 12 examination). Mizoram
Mizoram
has one Central University ( Mizoram
Mizoram
University), one engineering college (National Institute of Technology Mizoram) and one private university (a branch of the Institute of Chartered Financial Analysts of India). Culture[edit] The culture of the Mizo tribes and its social structure has undergone tremendous change over 100 years, since the arrival of Christianity
Christianity
in the late 1890s. Contemporary people of Mizoram
Mizoram
celebrate Christmas, Easter and other Christian celebrations replacing many of old tribal customs and practices. The growth of Christianity, scholars state,[99] was shaped from a foundation of cultural, religious and socio-political structure. One such foundation cultural element of Mizo people
Mizo people
was Hnatlang, states Hlawndo, which literally means social work, united labour or community labour (the word hna‘ means job or work in the Mizo language; and tlang‘ means together and mutual). The tribal members who were absent from such social work (for reasons other than illness and disability) were penalised — a form of strong peer pressure. Jhum cultivation and raids on neighbouring tribes required Hnatlang, the spirit of united labour and equal sharing of the end result. A consequence of Hnatlang was the culture of Tlawmngaihna, which does not have a direct English translation. Tlawmngaihna as cultural concept incorporates behaviour that is self-sacrificing, self-denying, doing what an occasion demands unselfishly and without concern for inconvenience caused, persevering, stoical, stout-hearted, plucky, brave, firm, independent, loath to lose one's good reputation.[100][101][102] Thus, after a fire or landslide or flood damage, the Mizo culture is one of spontaneous humble social work without demands or expectations. Several other cultural elements of ancient Mizo tribes, some of which became less prevalent after arrival of Christianity, included:[101][103]

Zawlbuk: a place near the chief's home, which served as defence camp in times of war, as well as "bachelor house" where the youth gathered and centre of village life.[101][103] Pathian: the term for god, to whom prayers and hymns were recited. The evil spirits were called ramhuai.[103] Nula-rim: the method of courtship in ancient culture. Courtship, pre-marital sex and polygamy were accepted. The man and the woman could have many partners. If the woman got pregnant, the man was required either marry or pay a substantial sum called Sawnman. If the woman's parents discover the relationship, they had a right to demand a payment called Khumpuikaiman. While pre-marital sex was accepted, a woman who was virgin at marriage was more highly esteemed than one who wasn't.[101] Pathlawi: a young married man who engaged in extra-marital relationships, something that was acceptable in traditional Mizo society.[101] Ramrilekha: a boundary drawing that identified a chief's tenured land called ram. Only the chief owned the land, and this ownership was hereditary. The tribe and village worked and harvested the land.[101][103]

In modern Mizoram, much of the social life often revolves around church. Community establishments exist in urban centres that arrange social events, sports event, musical concerts, comedy shows and other activities. Traditional festivals[edit]

Darkhuang, Zamluang or jamluang — a traditional musical instrument found in Mizoram.Other instruments include khuang (drum), dar (cymbals), as well as bamboo-based phenglawng, tuium and tawtawrawt.[104]

Traditional festivals in Mizoram
Mizoram
often revolved around stages of jhum cultivation or the seasons.[105] Community festivals were called kut in the local language, and there were major and minor kuts such as Chapchar Kut, Thalfavang Kut, Mim Kut and Pawl Kut. Chapchar Kut was the festival of spring (February/March), just before jhum started and land was cut-and-burnt for a new crop. Chapchar Kut was most anticipated by youth, a major festival and involved dancing and feasts. Thalfavang Kut celebrated completion of weeding of the jhum crop fields.[106] Mim Kut was the festival dedicated to ancestors after first maize crop was collected, while Pawl Kut celebrated the end of harvest and the start of new year. These festivals slowly disappeared as Christianity
Christianity
became established in Mizoram. Chapchar Kut was reintroduced and revived in 1973 by Mizo people
Mizo people
to celebrate their heritage. Before Christianity
Christianity
arrived in Mizoram, home-brewed alcohol and many meat delicacies were part of the Chapchar celebrations. Now, with Mizoram's state law as a dry state, the youth busy themselves with music and community dancing.[107] Along with reviving traditional festivals, the community has been reviving traditional dances at these festivals, for example, dances such as Cheraw, Khuallam, Chheihlam and Chai.[108] Dance[edit]

Dance of Mizoram

Mizoram
Mizoram
has many traditional dances, such as:

Cheraw — a dance that involves men holding bamboo close to the floor. They tap the sticks open and close with the rhythm of music. Women in colourful dresses dance on top, stepping in between and out of the bamboo with the music. It requires co-ordination and skill.[101] Khuallam — a mixed-gender dance that traditionally celebrated successfully hunting with swaying cloth with singing and music.[109] Chheihlam — typically performed over cool evenings with rice beer, people sit in a circle with two or more dancers in the centre; they sing with impromptu often humorous compositions about recent events or guests between them with music and dancers keeping up. The song was called Chheih Hla. Mizo people
Mizo people
have tried to introduce Chheihlam dance during church sermons with controversy.[110] Chai — an important dance at the Chapchar Kut, this places the musicians in the centre while men and women in colourful dresses alternate and form a circle; the women held the men at their waist, while men held the women at their shoulders; they step forward to move in circles while swaying left and right with the music. A song may be sung which is also called Chai.[101]

Music[edit] Main article: Music of Mizoram Mizo traditional tunes are very soft and gentle, with locals claiming that they can be sung the whole night without the slightest fatigue. The guitar is a popular instrument and Mizos
Mizos
enjoy country style music. Within the church services are drums, commonly used and known locally as "khuang".[citation needed] The "khuang" is made from wood and animal hide and are often beaten enough to instigate a trance-like state with worshipers as they dance in a circular fashion. Mizos
Mizos
enjoy singing and, even without musical instruments, they enthusiastically sing together, clapping hands or by using other rhythmic methods. Informal instruments are called chhepchher.[citation needed] Sports[edit]

Lammual Stadium

Mizoram's first football league debuted in October 2012. The Mizoram Premiere League had eight teams during the 2012-2013 season and is the highest level league in Mizoram. The eight clubs include Aizawl, Chanmari, Dinthar, FC Kulikawn, Luangmual, Mizoram, RS Annexe, and Reitlang. The season starts each year in October and wraps up with the finals in March.[111] Tourism[edit]

Waterfall Krishna

Main article: Tourism in Mizoram See also: Tourism in North East India Visitors to Mizoram
Mizoram
are required to obtain an 'inner line permit' under the special permit before visiting. Domestic and international visitors face different requirements.

Domestic tourists

The state requires Inner Line Pass. This is available from the Liaison Officer, Government of Mizoram
Government of Mizoram
in Kolkata, Silchar, Shillong, Guwahati and New Delhi. Those arriving by air can obtain a 15-day visit pass at Lengpui
Lengpui
airport, Aizawl
Aizawl
by submitting photographs and paying the fee of ₹120 (US$1.80).[112]

International tourists

Almost all foreign nationals can also get visitor pass on arrival, and face the same requirements as domestic tourists. However, they additionally have to register themselves with state police within 24 hours of arrival, a formality that most resorts can provide. Citizens of Afghanistan, China and Pakistan and foreign nationals having their origin in these countries are required to get the pass through the Indian consulate or from the Ministry of Home Affairs in New Delhi, before they arrive in Mizoram.[112] Mizoram
Mizoram
is a place with flora and fauna rich landscape and pleasant climate.[113] The tourism ministry regulates the maintenance and upgrade of tourist lodges throughout the state.[citation needed] The state is a bird watcher's destination. For Mrs. Hume's pheasant (Syrmaticus humiae), Mizoram
Mizoram
is a stronghold.[114] Wild water buffalo, Sumatran rhinoceros, elephants and other mammals have been spotted in the past.[115][116][117] Issues[edit] Alcohol prohibition[edit] In 1996 the government of Mizoram
Mizoram
banned liquor. The church leaders ( Mizoram
Mizoram
Kohhran Hruaitute Committee) argue that state government should keep the ban and not seek to amend the law, while others argue prohibition should be lifted.[118] However, it has been difficult to enforce the ban due to the high demand for alcohol.[119] In 2008, the Mizoram
Mizoram
Excise and Narcotics (Wine) Rules amended the ban of 1996 to allow the manufacture, export, sale, possession and consumption of wine in Mizoram
Mizoram
made from grapes and guava[120] which would help the economy of the state, reduce fruit waste from farms, and encourage large scale commercialisation. In 2011 the bill was amended to include apple, ginger, passion fruit, peach and pear wine.[121] In 2013, the state assembly unanimously passed a resolution to study the impact of liquor prohibition.[122] In 2014, the state's narcotics minister noted that the liquor ban had produced some serious problems in Mizo society due to the drinking of spurious and unhealthy (locally made) liquor, known as zu. The government suggested it would introduce an amended liquor bill allowing retail shops to operate in Aizawl
Aizawl
and other district headquarters to sell liquor — but not in bars. Furthermore, they would not consult the powerful church on the issue.[119] The amended bill was proposed to be tabled for state legislative assembly discussion after May 2014. The Mizoram
Mizoram
Liquor (Prohibition and Control) Act, 2014 (Act No. 8 of 2014) was enacted on 10 July 2014 which received the assent of the governor of Mizoram
Mizoram
on 11 July 2014 repealed the Mizoram
Mizoram
Liquor Total Prohibition Act, 1995, except the Mizoram
Mizoram
Excise and Narcotics (Wine) Rules, 2008. Rat problems[edit] Every 50 years, the Mautam
Mautam
bamboo blooms and its high-protein seeds lead to an explosion in the black rat population in the jungle, also referred to as the rat flood, which has historically destroyed entire villages' food supplies after rats move on to farm fields and devour crops. The 1958–59 plague provoked a rural uprising during which the indigenous Mizo people
Mizo people
launched a violent 20-year rebellion against the federal government. The dispute only saw final resolution in 1986.[123] The 48 year rat problem re-occurred in Mizoram
Mizoram
over 2006-08.[124] The crops suffered massive damage, with yields at 30 year lows; the crop yields recovered sharply to pre-mautam levels in 2009 after the mautam passed.[125] Media and communication[edit]

See also Newspapers in Mizoram.

Mizoram's media is growing quickly. Internet access is average, and private television cable channels are popular.[citation needed] Doordarshan, the national television service of India
India
provides terrestrial broadcasting services and All India
India
Radio broadcast programmes related to the indigenous culture and local news. Broadband access is available. In addition to these, there are several websites in local dialects. Print journalism remains a popular news medium in Mizoram; local newspapers include Vanglaini and The Zozam Times. Mizoram
Mizoram
News In English: Zoram Observer is a website dedicated to Mizoram
Mizoram
and other Zo tribes spread across Northeast India
India
and rest of the world. Notable people[edit]

Lalsangzuali Sailo Brig. T. Sailo Laldenga Zoramthanga Lal Thanhawla Joy L.K Pachuau Margaret Ch. Zama Lalrindika Ralte Jeje Lalpekhlua Shylo Malsawmtluanga Robert Lalthlamuana

See also[edit]

Geography portal Asia portal South Asia portal India
India
portal Mizoram
Mizoram
portal

Tourism in North East India Outline of India Bibliography of India India
India
– book Aizawl Champhai Kolasib Lunglei Khawbung Mizo Hlakungpui Mual Mizo language Mizo music Mizo National Front Phawngpui
Phawngpui
Tlang Mautam Northeast India Seven Sister States

References[edit]

^ "Governor of Mizoram". mizoram.nic.in.  ^ "Census Population". Census of India. Ministry of Finance India. Retrieved 7 August 2012.  ^ "Report of the Commissioner for linguistic minorities: 50th report (July 2012 to June 2013)" (PDF). Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India. Archived from the original (pdf) on 8 July 2016. Retrieved 30 October 2016.  ^ Sajnani, Encyclopaedia of Tourism Resources in India, Volume 1, ISBN 81-78350173, page 241 ^ About Mizoram
Mizoram
DIRECTORATE OF INFORMATION & PUBLIC RELATIONS, Government of Mizoram ^ " Mizoram
Mizoram
To Be 23rd State Of India, Tribal Customs Protected". APN News. Retrieved 20 August 2012.  ^ a b c d "CHAPTER 2 SIZE, GROWTH RATE AND RURAL-URBAN DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION IN MIZORAM" (PDF). Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 20 June 2014.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k ECONOMIC SURVEY, MIZORAM 2012-13 Planning & Programme Implementation, Department Government of Mizoram (2013) ^ a b c d 9.19 Mizoram
Mizoram
Archived 26 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine. India
India
State of Forest Report 2011, Govt of India
India
(2012) ^ J.M. Lloyd, History of the Church in Mizoram: Harvest in the Hills (Aizawl: Synod publication Board, 1991, 2), OCLC 29798339 ^ a b Demographic Status of Scheduled Tribe
Scheduled Tribe
Population of India
India
Table 1.1, Ministry of Tribal Affairs, Govt of India
India
(2013) ^ "Mizoram", Population by religious communities, IN: Census, 2001 . ^ a b c State Agriculture Plan Agriculture Department, Government of Mizoram
Mizoram
(2013) ^ a b c Agriculture Statistical Abstract 2012-2013 Directorate of Agriculture, Government of Mizoram
Government of Mizoram
(2013) ^ a b c d Mizoram
Mizoram
Economy IBEF, New Delhi
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(2010) ^ a b "See 2012 data in 3rd set of Table 162, Number and Percentage of Population Below Poverty Line". Reserve Bank of India, Government of India. 2013. Archived from the original on 7 April 2014. Retrieved 20 April 2014.  ^ a b c d e f g Mizoram
Mizoram
Snapshot IBEF India ^ Lalthangliana B (2001) The History of Mizos
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in India, Burma
Burma
and Bangladesh. ^ a b c C. Nunthara (2002), Mizoram: Society and Polity, ISBN 978-8173870590, pp 51-55 ^ Chatterjee, Suhas (1994). Making of Mizoram: Role of Laldenga. M.D. Publications. p. 1. ISBN 978-81-85880-38-9. Retrieved 28 August 2013.  ^ Singleton, Grant; Belmain, Steve; Brown, Peter; Hardy, Bill, eds. (2010). Rodent Outbreaks: Ecology and Impacts. International Rice Research Institute. pp. 22–. ISBN 978-971-22-0257-5. Retrieved 28 August 2013.  ^ RAMAKRISHNAN and PATNAIK, Jhum: Slash and Burn Cultivation, India International Centre Quarterly, Vol. 19, No. 1/2, INDIGENOUS VISION: PEOPLES OF INDIA ATTITUDES TO THE ENVIRONMENT (SPRING-SUMMER 1992), pp. 215-220 ^ a b c Chatterjee, Suhas (1 January 1995). Mizo Chiefs and the Chiefdom. M.D. Publications. pp. 1–3. ISBN 978-81-85880-72-3. Retrieved 28 August 2013.  ^ John Shakespeare, The Lushei Kuki Clans at Google Books, pages 60, 144-158, 200-220 ^ Lalrinnunga Hmar (2010), MIGRATION AND SOCIAL FORMATION OF THE MIZO, Ph.D. Thesis (Awarded), THE NORTH EASTER HILL UNIVERSITY SHILLONG, Chapter 5, pages 115-140 ^ a b c d e f g h Michael Sailo (2006), Administration of Justice in Mizoram, ISBN 978-8183240598, Chapter 2 ^ Ved Prakash (2007), Encyclopaedia of North-East India, Vol. 1 (ISBN 978-81-269-0703-8), 4 (ISBN 978-81-269-0706-9) & 5 (ISBN 978-81-269-0707-6) ^ Mizoram
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History, National Informatics Centre, Government of India (2012) ^ a b Kumāra, Braja Bihārī (1 January 1998). Small States Syndrome in India. Concept. p. 75. ISBN 978-81-7022-691-8. Retrieved 28 August 2013.  ^ a b c Dommen, A. J. (1967). Separatist Tendencies in Eastern India. Asian Survey, Vol. 7, No. 10 (Oct. 1967), 726-739 ^ Stepan, Alfred; Linz, Juan J; Yadav, Yogendra (20 January 2011). Crafting State-Nations: India
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and Other Multinational Democracies. JHU Press. pp. 105–. ISBN 978-0-8018-9723-8. Retrieved 28 August 2013.  ^ Baruah, Sanjib (2007). Durable Disorder: Understanding the Politics of Northeast India. Oxford University Press.  ^ Mizoram
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Violence Statistics, India
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Fatalities 1994-2014 SATP (2014) ^ Global Burden of Armed Violence Chapter 2, Geneva Declaration, Switzerland (2011) ^ http://www.thetalkingstream.com/2016/07/12/mizoram-a-look-back/ ^ a b Rintluanga Pachuau, pagal Mizoram: A Study in Comprehensive Geography, ISBN 978-81-7211-264-6, Chapter 3 ^ Hamlet Bareh, Encyclopaedia of North-East India: Mizoram, Volume 5, ISBN 8170997925, pp 173-175 ^ HYDRO ELECTRIC POWER POLICY OF MIZORAM Government of Mizoram
Government of Mizoram
(2010), page 2 ^ T. R. Shankar Raman, Effect of Slash-and-Burn Shifting Cultivation on Rainforest Birds in Mizoram, Northeast India
India
Conservation Biology, Vol. 15, No. 3 (Jun. 2001), pp. 685-698 ^ Grogan, P., Lalnunmawia, F., & Tripathi, S. K. (2012), Shifting cultivation in steeply sloped regions: a review of management options and research priorities for Mizoram
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state Northeast India, Agroforestry systems, 84(2), 163-177 ^ "Total Forest and Tree Cover has Increased; Increase in Carbon Stock an Assurance to Negotiators at Cop 21: Javadekar". pib.nic.in.  ^ a b c Geology and mineral resources of Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura
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(PDF) (Report). Miscellaneous publication No. 30 Part IV. 1 (Part-2). Geological Survey of India, Government of India. 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 May 2013. Retrieved 20 June 2014.  ^ Seismic zoning map (Map). India
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Meteorological Department. Archived from the original on 3 June 2014. Retrieved 20 June 2014.  ^ Mizoram
Mizoram
National Disaster Management Authority, Govt of India
India
(2011) ^ "Monthly mean maximum & minimum temperature and total rainfall based upon 1901–2000 data" (PDF). India
India
Meteorology Department. p. 8. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 April 2015. Retrieved 20 June 2014.  ^ " Mizoram
Mizoram
at a glance". National Informatics Centre:Mizoram. Retrieved 5 May 2015.  ^ Mizoram
Mizoram
at a glance Government of India ^ State Flower Government of Mizoram ^ a b Birds of Meghalaya
Meghalaya
Avibase (2013) ^ Pawar, S. and Birand, A. (2001), A survey of amphibians, reptiles and birds in Northeast India, CERC Technical Report 6, Centre for Ecological Research and Conservation, Mysore ^ Choudhury (2001), Primates in Northeast India: An overview of their Distribution and Conservation Status, In: ENVIS Bulletin: Wildlife and Protected Areas, Non-Human Primates of India. (Editor: Gupta) 1(1): 92-101 ^ WILDLIFE SANCTUARY Department of Tourism, Government of Mizoram (2013) ^ a b " Mizoram
Mizoram
Profile" (PDF). Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 20 June 2014.  ^ "Classification of urban areas and rural areas in Mizoram" (PDF). The Mizoram
Mizoram
Gazette. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 April 2013. Retrieved 27 August 2012.  ^ "Alphabetical list of towns & their population, Mizoram" (PDF). India: Census. Retrieved 27 August 2012.  ^ a b c d THE LAND SYSTEMS OF MIZORAM, Govt of Mizoram
Mizoram
(2007) ^ a b Zote, Mona (2005), Heaven in Hell: A paradox, India International Centre Quarterly, Vol. 32, No. 2/3, pp 203-212. ^ Hamlet Bareh, Encyclopaedia of North-East India: Mizoram, Volume 5, ISBN 8170997925, pp 260-261 ^ SCHEDULED TRIBES Chapter 4.2 Planning Commission, Govt of India (2012) ^ Scheduled Tribes Archived 20 June 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Ministry of Tribal Affairs, Govt of India
India
(2013) ^ "Distribution of the 22 Scheduled Languages". Census of India. Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. 2001. Retrieved 4 January 2014.  ^ "Census Reference Tables, A-Series - Total Population". Census of India. Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. 2001. Retrieved 4 January 2014.  ^ [1] Census 2011 Non scheduled languages ^ a b "Population by religion community - 2011". Census of India, 2011. The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Archived from the original on 25 August 2015.  ^ " Mizoram
Mizoram
Population Sex Ratio in Mizoram
Mizoram
Literacy rate data". www.census2011.co.in.  ^ T Raatan, Encyclopaedia of North-east India: Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Mizoram; ISBN 978-8178350684 ^ a b c C. Nunthara (2002), Mizoram: Society and Polity, ISBN 978-8173870590, pp 59-63 ^ Table ST-14a, Indian Census 2001 ^ Memorandum of Settlement ( Mizoram
Mizoram
Accord), United Nations ^ Lalchungnunga (1994). Mizoram
Mizoram
politics of regionalism and national integration. Reliance.  ^ "Memories of inferno still remain fresh", News link, IN, 6 March 2007 . ^ "Assembly Elections December 2013 Results". ECI. Election Commission of India. Archived from the original on 12 December 2013.  ^ Districts Government of Mizoram ^ Council of Ministers Govt of Mizoram ^ a b Districts in Mizoram
Mizoram
Govt of Mizoram
Mizoram
(2012) ^ " Mizoram
Mizoram
GSDP a thang chak NLUP inrêlbawlna sum a tam lo". Vanglaini. Retrieved 24 August 2012.  ^ " Mizoram
Mizoram
per capita income". Indian Express. Retrieved 20 August 2012.  ^ a b Birthal, Unlocking the potential of Agriculture in northeastern hill region of India, Ind. Journal of Agri. Econ., Vol 65, No. 3, July-Sept 2010, pp 335 ^ Dikshit, K. R., & Dikshit, J. K. (2014), Agriculture in North-East India: Past and Present, In North-East India: Land, People and Economy (pp. 587-637), ISBN 978-94-007-7054-6, Springer Netherlands ^ " Mizoram
Mizoram
to implement new land use policy". Sify News. Retrieved 20 August 2012.  ^ a b Goswami, K., Choudhury, H. K., & Saikia, J. (2012), Factors influencing farmers' adoption of slash and burn agriculture in North East India, Forest Policy and Economics, 15, pp 146-151 ^ Economic and Financial Developments in Mizoram
Mizoram
Reserve Bank of India (2013) ^ a b Kumar et al. (2013), Prospects of organic agriculture in eastern himalayan region-A case study of Mizoram, Progressive Agriculture, Vol 13, Issue 2, pp 139-150 ^ Singh and Punitha, Entrepreneurship Development through Anthurium Flower – A Case Study of Mizoram, North-East India, Indian Res. J. Ext. Edu. 12 (3), September 2012, pp 74-78 ^ "Northeast's fourth software technology park in Mizoram". Assam Tribune. Retrieved 20 August 2012.  ^ C. Nunthara (2002), Mizoram: Society and Polity, ISBN 978-8173870590, pp 37-39 ^ India
India
Gov. " India
India
2010 - A Reference Annual". India
India
Gov Website. Retrieved 10 August 2012.  ^ a b ANNUAL REPORT FOR 2011-12 Power & Electricity Department, Government of Mizoram
Government of Mizoram
(2013) ^ a b c HYDRO ELECTRIC POWER POLICY OF MIZORAM - 2010 Govt of Mizoram ^ a b Hydro Power Potential & its Development, POWER & ELECTRICITY DEPARTMENT, GOVERNMENT OF MIZORAM ^ Lalfakzuala. " Bairabi
Bairabi
Dam Project 80MW leh Tlawng
Tlawng
Hep 55MW Tan Mou Ziakfel". DIPR Mizoram. Retrieved 13 August 2012.  ^ Dilapidated roads snap Mizoram
Mizoram
lifeline The Assam
Assam
Tribune ^ Aijawl airport The Air Database (2011) ^ "Mizorama helicopter service Tur chief minister in Hawng". Mizoram DIPR. Archived from the original on 12 December 2013. Retrieved 14 August 2012.  ^ "Nilaini atangin 'Helicopter Service". The Zozam Times. Retrieved 20 August 2012.  ^ Kaladan Multi-modal Transit Transport Project Ministry of Development of Northeastern Region, Govt of India ^ "Govt to spend $100 million on linking Mizoram
Mizoram
to Burma", Financial Express, archived from the original on 18 February 2007 . ^ a b Nava Thakuria, Northeast India
India
Anticipates Seaport, The Diplomat (20 January 2014) ^ Z. Hlawndo, A STUDY OF THE CULTURAL FACTORS IN THE FOREIGN MISSIONS THINKING OF THE MIZORAM PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, Ph.D. Thesis (Awarded), University of Birmingham (2011) ^ James Dokhuma, "Tlawmngaihna" in Meichher, Vol XI, No. 11, April 1976 ^ a b c d e f g h Nevill Parry, Lushai Custom: A monograph on customs and ceremonies at Google Books ^ K. Thanzauva, Mizo Tlawmngaihna and Nishkama Karma, in United Theological College Magazine, 1984. ^ a b c d Suhas Chatterjee (1995), Mizo Chiefs and the Chiefdom, ISBN 978-8185880723 ^ Thanmawia HERITAGE OF MIZO TRADITIONAL MUSIC (AN OVERVIEW) Government of Mizoram ^ Rintluanga Pachuau, Mizoram: A Study in Comprehensive Geography, ISBN 81-7211-264-5, pp 8-10 ^ Thalfavang Kut Department of Tourism, Mizoram
Mizoram
Government ^ Chapchar Kut Government of Mizoram ^ CHAPCHAR KUT Dept of Tourism, Govt of Mizoram ^ Kurian, J. C., & Varte, R. T. (1995), CREROW AND KHUALLAM DANCES OF MIZOS, Encyclopaedic Profile of Indian Tribes, Vol 1, ISBN 978-8171412983, Chapter 8 ^ Zama, Margaret (2006), Globalization and the Mizo Story, Indian Folklife, No 22, pp 10-11 ^ Khanna, Rakesh. " Mizoram
Mizoram
with Rakesh Khanna: Wandering through the busy streets of the capital of Mizoram--its colourful neighbourhoods leaning jauntily on the steep hillsides, with hardly a piece of litter in sight--you will realise that there's a lot going on in the city". Proquest Central. Living Media India, Limited. Retrieved 5 October 2014.  ^ a b ENTRY FORMALITIES Department of Tourism, Govt of Mizoram ^ Choudhury, A.U. (2008) A pocket guide to the birds of Mizoram. Gibbon Books & The Rhino Foundation for Nature in North East India, Guwahati, IN. 122pp. [Supported by Oriental Bird Club, UK] ^ Choudhury, A.U. (2002). Survey of Mrs Hume's pheasant
Hume's pheasant
in North East India. Technical Report No. 5. The Rhino Foundation for Nature in NE India, Guwahati, IN. 30pp. [Final report to the Oriental Bird Club, UK] ^ Choudhury, AU (1997), "The status of the Sumatran rhinoceros in north-eastern India", Oryx, 31 (2): 151–52, doi:10.1017/s0030605300022043 . ^ Choudhury, A.U. (2010). The vanishing herds: wild water buffalo. Gibbon Books & The Rhino Foundation for Nature in NE India, Guwahati, IN. 184pp. [Supported by CEPF & Taiwan Forestry Bureau] ^ Choudhury, AU (2001), "The wild elephant Elephas maximus in Mizoram", J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 98 (3): 439–41 . ^ " Mizoram
Mizoram
Church no to liquor ban Act amendment Aizawl". webindia123. Suni Systems. 6 June 2009. Retrieved 25 December 2012.  ^ a b Mizoram
Mizoram
likely to lift liquor ban The Times of India ^ The Mizoram
Mizoram
Excise & Narcotics (Wine) Rules, 2008 ^ Mizoram
Mizoram
amends liquor law The Shillong
Shillong
Times ^ Mizoram
Mizoram
Assembly clears Liquor Prohibition (Amendment) Bill Business Standard (23 July 2013) ^ "Indian farmers braced for rat plague", The daily Telegraph, UK . ^ PHOTOS: Rat Attack in India
India
Set Off by Bamboo
Bamboo
Flowering National Geographic (March 2009) ^ Aplin, K., & Lalsiamliana, J. (2010), Chronicles and impacts of the 2005–09 mautam in Mizoram, in Rodent outbreaks: Ecology and Impacts, International Rice Research Institute, ISBN 978-971-22-0257-5, pp 13-48

Further reading[edit]

B. Hamlet, Encyclopaedia of North-East India: Mizoram, Volume 5, ISBN 8170997925 C. Nunthara, Mizoram: Society and Polity, ISBN 978-8173870590 T. Raatan, Encyclopaedia of North-east India: Arunachal Pradesh Manipur
Manipur
Mizoram, ISBN 978-8178350684 Zoramdinthara, Mizo Fiction: Emergence and Development, ISBN 978-93-82395-16-4

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mizoram.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Mizoram.

Government

Official website Official Tourism Site of Mizoram

General information

Mizoram
Mizoram
Encyclopædia Britannica entry Mizoram
Mizoram
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Geographic data related to Mizoram
Mizoram
at OpenStreetMap

Places adjacent to Mizoram

Assam Manipur

Tripura

Mizoram

Chin State, Myanmar

Chittagong Division, Bangladesh

v t e

State of Mizoram

Capital: Aizawl

State symbols

Animal: serow Bird: Hume's pheasant Flower: Vanda Tree: Mesua ferrea

Government

Governors Chief Ministers Legislative Assembly High Court Police

Topics

History Geography Highest point Music Tourism Politics

Assembly election results

Economy People Education Language Literature

Districts

Aizawl Champhai Kolasib Lawngtlai Lunglei Mamit Saiha Serchhip

Urban Areas

Aizawl Bairabi Biate Champhai Darlawn Hnahthial Kolasib Khawhai Khawzawl Lawngtlai Lengpui Lunglei Mamit North Kawnpui North Vanlaiphai Saiha Sairang Saitual Serchhip Thenzawl Tlabung Vairengte Zawlnuam

Infrastructure

Lengpui
Lengpui
Airport Kaladan Multi-Modal Transit Transport Project Tuirial Dam Serlui B Dam Bairabi
Bairabi
Sairang
Sairang
Railway

Education

Mizoram
Mizoram
University National Institute of Technology Mizoram Colleges Schools

Tourism

Reiek Vantawng Falls Palak Dil Hmuifang Solomon's Temple, Aizawl Tam Dil

Protected areas

Murlen National Park Phawngpui
Phawngpui
National Park Dampa Tiger
Tiger
Reserve

v t e

Northeast India

States

Arunachal Pradesh Assam Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Sikkim Tripura

Cities

Agartala Aizawl Dispur Dimapur Gangtok Guwahati Imphal Itanagar Kohima Shillong Silchar

Protected Areas

Kaziranga National Park Namdapha National Park Orang National Park Manas National Park Dibru-Saikhowa National Park Nameri National Park Balphakram National Park Nokrek National Park Mouling National Park Keibul Lamjao National Park Sirohi National Park Murlen National Park Ntangki National Park Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary Sipahijola Wildlife Sanctuary Gorumara National Park Singalila National Park Neora Valley National Park Jaldapara National Park

Mountains

Kangchenjunga Naga Hills Patkai Hills Khasi Hills Lushai Hills Assam
Assam
Himalaya Garo Hills Jongsong Peak Gimmigela Chuli Kabru Kirat Chuli Mount Pandim Paohanli Peak Pauhunri Siniolchu

Lakes

Khecheopalri Lake Gurudongmar Lake Lake Tsongmo Loktak Lake Chandubi Lake Dipor Bil Son Beel Rudrasagar Lake Bijoy sagar

Monasteries

Pemayangtse Monastery Tawang Monastery Zang Dhok Palri Phodang Rumtek Monastery Enchey Monastery Tashiding Monastery Dubdi Monastery Ralang Monastery

Others

Seven Sister States Tourism in North East India Tourism in Assam Tourism in Mizoram

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States and union territories of India

States

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Union Territories

Andaman and Nicobar Islands Chandigarh Dadra and Nagar Haveli National Capital Territory of Delhi Daman and Diu Lakshadweep Puducherry

Capitals in India Proposed states and territories Historical Regions British Provinces

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 243112126 GND: 4282128-9 BNF:

.