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The Mizocz Ghetto
Mizocz Ghetto
(German: Misotsch) was a World War II ghetto set up in occupied Poland by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
for the forcible separation and mistreatment of Polish Jews. Before the Nazi-Soviet invasion of 1939 the town of Mizocz was located in the Zdołbunów
Zdołbunów
county of the Wołyń Voivodeship in the Second Polish Republic.[1] Mizocz (now Mizoch, Ukraine) is situated some 18 miles (29 km) east of Dubno, which was the County seat.[2] Jews settled in Mizocz (Yiddish: מיזאָטש) in the 18th century. In 1897, the total population of the town was 2,662 with 1,175 Jews owning factories for felt, oil and sugar production, as well as the flour mill and saw mills.[3] Some Jews emigrated during World War I. According to national census of 1921 in the newly reborn Poland there were 845 Jews in Mizocz, most of them identifying with the Turzysk Hasidism. Their numbers grew as the Polish economy improved.[3] It was an urban community between world wars like many others in eastern Poland, inhabited by Jews and Poles along with members of other minorities including Ukrainian. There was a military school in Mizocz for the officer cadets of the Battalion 11 of the Polish Army's First Brigade;[1] the Karwicki Palace (built in 1790, partly destroyed by the Bolsheviks in 1917), Hotel Barmocha Fuksa,[4] a Catholic and an Orthodox church, and a Synagogue. The nearest major city was Równo.[1] Controlled by the Red Army since September 1939, Mizocz was overrun by the Wehrmacht in the course of the 1941 German attack on the Soviet positions in eastern Poland. Some 300 Jews escaped with the retreating Russians.[3]

Contents

1 Uprising and mass killings

1.1 Photographs 1.2 Aftermath

2 References 3 Further reading 4 External links

Uprising and mass killings[edit] On October 12, 1942, the closed-off Ghetto of about 1,700 Jewish people was surrounded by Ukrainian auxiliaries and German policemen in preparation for the ghetto liquidation action and the pacification of its Jewish occupants. The Jews fought back in an uprising which may have lasted as long as two days. About half the residents were able to flee or hide during the confusion before the uprising was finally put down. On October 14, the captured survivors were transported in lorries to a secluded ravine and shot one by one.[5] Photographs[edit] The shootings were photographed.[6] The images owned by SS-Unterscharführer Schäfer until 1945 became part of the Ludwigsburg
Ludwigsburg
investigation (ZSt. II 204 AR 1218/70). They were published, and have become well known. Frequently the photographs are erroneously said to depict other Holocaust shootings.[7] Two of the photographs show the "Aktion" in progress. The photographs give clear evidence of the execution practice common during the Holocaust by bullet in Reichskommissariat Ukraine. The victims were led to the killing place in groups of around five or so individuals, and forced to lie down among the prior victims, to be shot in the back of the neck or head, with a single bullet.[6] Historians have commented upon the brutality shown in the Mizocz mass murder photographs:

In 1942 at Mizocz, in the region of Rovno in Ukraine, approximately 1,700 Jews were executed. The photographs show large numbers of people being herded into a ravine, women and children undressing, a line of naked women and children in a queue and finally their executed bodies. Two particular harrowing photographs show German police standing among heaps of naked corpses of women strewn on either side of the ravine.[7]

The archival description of the entire set of photographs by the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
(USHMM) includes the following statements. Photograph #17876: "According to the Zentrale Stelle in Germany (Zst. II 204 AR 1218/70), these Jews were collected by the German Gendarmerie and Ukrainian Schutzmannschaft
Schutzmannschaft
during the liquidation of the Mizocz ghetto, which held roughly 1,700 Jews."[8] Photograph #17877: "Naked Jewish women, some of whom are holding infants, wait in a line before their execution by Ukrainian auxiliary police."[8] Photograph #17879: a "German policeman prepares to complete a mass execution by shooting two Jewish children."[8] Photograph #17878: "German police officer shoots Jewish women still alive after a mass execution (Zst. II 204 AR 1218/70)."[8][9] Aftermath[edit] The killings did not stop there. Mizocz was the site of the OUN-UPA massacre of about 100 Poles by Ukrainian nationalists in late August 1943. Some 60 percent of the homes were set on fire and burned.[10] Among the victims was Ukrainian carpenter Mr Zachmacz and his entire family, murdered along with the Poles because he refused to enter the fray. His eight-year-old son survived hiding with the Poles.[1] Following World War II, at the insistence of Joseph Stalin during Tehran Conference
Tehran Conference
confirmed (as not negotiable) at the Yalta Conference of 1945, Poland's borders were redrawn and Mizocz – then again, Mizoch
Mizoch
(Cyrillic: Мизоч) – was incorporated into the Ukrainian SSR
Ukrainian SSR
of the Soviet Union. The remaining Polish population was expelled and resettled back to new Poland by the NKVD
NKVD
before the end of 1946.[1] The Jewish community was never restored. The USSR officially ceased to exist on 31 December 1991.[11][12] References[edit]

^ a b c d e Mielcarek, Andrzej; Wołyń (May 2006). "The town of Mizocz" [Miasteczko Mizocz]. Instytut Kresowy. Strony o Wołyniu (The Volhynian Pages) – via Internet Archive, 2014-07-17.  ^ JewishGen, Jewish Communities in Volhynia JewishGen
JewishGen
Database, New York. ^ a b c Shmuel Spector, Geoffrey Wigoder, The Encyclopedia of Jewish Life Before and During the Holocaust page 832. Google Books. ^ Wołyń (2015). "Miasteczko Mizocz". Roman Aftanazy, "Dzieje rezydencji na dawnych kresach Rzeczypospolitej", Vol. 5, Województwo wołyńskie", 1994, pp. 247-253. Wołyń - przegląd. Also in: Ilustrowany przewodnik po Wołyniu by Dr Mieczysław Orłowicz, Łuck 1929. Retrieved 19 April 2015.  ^ Shmuel Spector, quoting the memoirs of Peretz Goldstein, The Jews of Volhynia and Their Reaction to Extermination. ^ a b The USHMM
USHMM
collections (2012), Photographs of the Mizocz shootings. Zst. Photograph No.: #17878. #17877, #17876, #17879). Retrieved 4 December 2017. ^ a b Struk, Janina (2004). Photographing the Holocaust. I.B.Tauris. pp. 72–73. ISBN 1860645461.  ^ a b c d The USHMM
USHMM
collections: Zentrale Stelle. "4 photos found for the query "Mizocz" on database". Recognize Someone?. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM) – via Internet Archive, 2012-08-17.  ^ Morrison, Wayne (2013). Criminology, Civilisation and the New World Order. Routledge. p. 86. ISBN 113533112X.  ^ Szolc (2015). "Mizocz". Gmina Mizocz, powiat Zdołbunów, województwo wołyńskie. Republika.pl. Retrieved 19 April 2015.  ^ Sylwester Fertacz (2005), "Krojenie mapy Polski: Bolesna granica" (Carving of Poland's map). Magazyn Społeczno-Kulturalny Śląsk. Retrieved from the Internet Archive
Internet Archive
on 5 June 2016. ^ Simon Berthon, Joanna Potts (2007). Warlords: An Extraordinary Re-Creation of World War II. Da Capo Press. p. 285. ISBN 0306816504. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)

Further reading[edit]

Didi-Huberman, Georges, and Lillis, Shane B., Images in Spite of All: Four photographs from Auschwitz, Chicago : University of Chicago Press, 2008 ISBN 978-0-226-14816-8 Struk, Janina, Photographing the Holocaust: Interpretations of the evidence, London ; New York : I.B. Tauris, 2004 ISBN 1-86064-546-1 Spector, Shmuel, The Jews of Volhynia and Their Reaction to Extermination, Published in Yad Vashem Studies 15 (1983) Desbois, Patrick, The Holocaust
The Holocaust
by Bullets, New York, Palgrave McMillan, 2008 ISBN 0-230-60617-2

External links[edit]

Mizoch, Ukraine at JewishGen

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The Holocaust
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List of 277 Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland
Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland
(1939–1942) Będzin Białystok Brest Częstochowa Grodno Kielce Kraków Lwów Łódź Lubartów Lublin Międzyrzec Podlaski Mizocz Nowy Sącz Pińsk Radom Siedlce Sambor Słonim Sosnowiec Stanisławów Tarnopol Wilno Warsaw

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Physicians

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Ghetto command

Auerswald Biebow Blösche Bürkl Konrad Palfinger von Sammern-Frankenegg Stroop

Einsatzgruppen

Wolfgang Birkner Blobel Felix Landau Schaper Schöngarth von Woyrsch

Personnel

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By camp

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Organizations

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Einsatzgruppen
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Collaboration

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Jewish

Jewish Ghetto Police Żagiew ("Torch Guard") Group 13 Kapos Judenräte

Russian

Waffen-SS "RONA" Waffen-SS "Russland" Ostlegionen, Bataillone (Cossack Division, Russian "ROA")

Ukrainian

Ukrainian Auxiliary Police SS Galizien Ukrainian Liberation Army Schutzmannschaft
Schutzmannschaft
(Battalion 118, Brigade Siegling, 30. Waffen SS Grenadier Division) Trawnikimänner

Other nationalities

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Latvian Auxiliary Police
(Arajs Kommando) Lithuanian Auxiliary Police Battalions
Lithuanian Auxiliary Police Battalions
(Schutzmannschaft, Ypatingasis būrys) Pieter Menten
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(Nederlandsche SS)

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Organizations

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Uprisings

Ghetto uprisings Białystok Częstochowa Sobibór Treblinka Warsaw Ghetto
Warsaw Ghetto
Uprising

Leaders

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Polish, East German, and Soviet trials

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Memorials

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Crimes

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Major perpetrators

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Nazi occupation and organizations

Einsatzgruppen Police Regiment South Reichskommissariat Ukraine

Collaborators

Individuals Hryhoriy Vasiura Vladimir Katriuk Petro Voinovsky Petro Zakhvalynsky

Organizations Schutzmannschaft Ukrainian Auxiliary Police Nachtigall Battalion

Ghettos, camps and prisons

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Resistance and survivors

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Evidence Graebe affidavit

Concealment and denial

Sonderaktion 1005

Investigations and trials

Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
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Righteous Among the Nations

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Memorials

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Babi Yar
memorials List of Babi Yar
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See also History of the Jews in Carpathian Ruthenia Transnistria Governorate

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People

Director

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Commanders of Einsatzgruppen

Humbert Achamer-Pifrader Walther Bierkamp Horst Böhme Erich Ehrlinger Wilhelm Fuchs Heinz Jost Erich Naumann Arthur Nebe Otto Ohlendorf Friedrich Panzinger Otto Rasch Heinrich Seetzen Franz Walter Stahlecker Bruno Streckenbach

Commanders of Einsatzkommandos, Sonderkommandos

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Other members

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Collaborators

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Groups

German

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Non-German

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Crimes

Belarus

Łachwa Ghetto Minsk Ghetto Slutsk Affair

Estonia

Kalevi-Liiva

Latvia

Burning of the Riga synagogues Dünamünde Action Jelgava Pogulianski Rumbula Liepāja (Šķēde)

Lithuania

Ninth Fort Kaunas June 1941 Kaunas 29 October 1941 Ninth Fort
Ninth Fort
November 1941 Ponary

Poland

Operation Tannenberg Intelligenzaktion AB-Aktion Operation Reinhard

Russia

Gully of Petrushino Zmievskaya Balka Lokot Autonomy

Ukraine

Babi Yar Drobytsky Yar Drohobycz Kamianets-Podilskyi Lviv pogroms Mizocz Ghetto Odessa

Records

The Black Book Commissar Order Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
trial Generalplan Ost Jäger Report Korherr Report Special
Special
Prosecution Book-Poland (Sonderfahndungsbuch Polen) Eins

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