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Missolonghi
Missolonghi
(Greek: Μεσολόγγι, Mesolongi, pronounced [mesoˈloɲɟi]) is a municipality of 34,416 people (according to the 2011 census)[1] in western Greece. The town is the capital of Aetolia-Acarnania
Aetolia-Acarnania
regional unit, and the seat of the municipality of Iera Polis Messolongiou (Sacred City of Missolonghi). Missolonghi
Missolonghi
is known as the site of a dramatic siege during the Greek War of Independence, and of the death of poet Lord Byron.

Contents

1 Geography 2 Climate 3 Transport 4 Administration

4.1 Province

5 History

5.1 Greek War of Independence 5.2 Modern era

6 Media 7 Landmarks 8 Notable people 9 Historical population 10 International relations

10.1 Twin towns—sister cities

11 See also 12 References 13 External links

Geography[edit] The town is located between the Acheloos and the Evinos
Evinos
rivers and has a port on the Gulf of Patras. It trades in fish, wine, and tobacco. The Arakynthos
Arakynthos
mountains lie to the northeast. The town is almost canalized but houses are within the gulf and the swamplands. The Messolonghi-Etoliko Lagoons
Messolonghi-Etoliko Lagoons
complex lies to the west. In the ancient times, the land was part of the gulf. Climate[edit] Summers are long, hot and humid, with temperatures often surpassing 40°C and remaining above 25°C even at night. Winters are short and mild with frequent rainfalls. Transport[edit] The Greek National Road 5/E55 ( Ioannina
Ioannina
- Patras) passes north of Missolonghi. The town had a railway station on the line to Agrinio
Agrinio
but this has been abandoned since the 1970s. The local airport has a hard runway but no scheduled services. Administration[edit] The municipality Missolonghi
Missolonghi
(official name: Greek: Δήμος Ιεράς Πόλεως Μεσολογγίου) was formed at the 2011 local government reform by the merger of the following 3 former municipalities, that became municipal units:[2]

Aitoliko Missolonghi Oiniades

The municipal unit Missolonghi
Missolonghi
is subdivided into 8 communities:

Agios Georgios Agios Thomas Ano Koudouni Ellinika Evinochori Missolonghi Mousoura Retsina

The municipality has an area of 680.372 km2, the municipal unit 280.168 km2.[3] Province[edit] The province of Missolonghi
Missolonghi
(Greek: Επαρχία Μεσολογγίου) was one of the provinces of the Aetolia-Acarnania
Aetolia-Acarnania
Prefecture. Its territory corresponded with that of the current municipality Missolonghi
Missolonghi
(except part of the municipal unit Oiniades) and the municipal units Angelokastro, Arakynthos
Arakynthos
and Makryneia.[4] It was abolished in 2006. History[edit] Missolonghi
Missolonghi
was first mentioned by a Venetian called Paruta when he was describing the naval Battle of Lepanto near Nafpaktos. According to predominant historical opinion, its name came from the combination of two Italian words, mezzo and laghi which means "in the middle of lakes" or messo and laghi (Messolaghi) which means "a place surrounded by lakes". Until 1700, Missolonghi
Missolonghi
was under Venetian domination. Its inhabitants were mostly fishermen. They lived in cabins which were made of a kind of waterproof straw and reed and stood on stilts above sea water. These cabins or stilt-houses have always been called "pelades". Missolonghi
Missolonghi
was part of Aetolia
Aetolia
until the late-1820s when was Aetolia-Acarnania
Aetolia-Acarnania
created. North-west of Missolonghi
Missolonghi
are the remains of Pleuron ('Asfakovouni'), a town mentioned in Homer's works. It participated in the Trojan expedition and was destroyed in 234 BC by Demetrius II Aetolicus. The new town, which was built on the remains of old Pleuron, was one of the most important towns in Aitolia. Its monumental fortification comprised thirty towers and seven gates. The remains of the theatre and an enormous water tank with four compartments still exist. Greek War of Independence[edit] Further information: Greek War of Independence, First Siege of Missolonghi, Second Siege of Missolonghi, and Third Siege of Missolonghi

Ibrahim attacks Missolonghi
Missolonghi
by Giuseppe Pietro Mazzola

Lord Byron
Lord Byron
on his deathbed as depicted by Joseph-Denis Odevaere c. 1826

Title page of Ellinika Chronika (1824), one of the first newspapers in modern Greece, published in Missolonghi
Missolonghi
under the editorship of Swiss Philhellene Johann Jakob Meyer. Meyer was killed during the sortie.

The sortie of Missolonghi
Missolonghi
by Theodoros Vryzakis
Theodoros Vryzakis
(1855)

During the Orlov Revolt
Orlov Revolt
in 1770 the fleet of Missolonghi
Missolonghi
was defeated and the town passed to the Ottomans. Missolonghi
Missolonghi
revolted on 20 May 1821 and was a major stronghold of the Greek rebels in the Greek War of Independence, being the seat of the Senate of Western Continental Greece. Its inhabitants successfully resisted a siege by Ottoman forces in 1822.[5] The second siege started on 15 April 1825[5] by Reşid Mehmed Pasha whose army numbered 30,000 men and was later reinforced by another 10,000 men led by Ibrahim Pasha, son of Muhammad Ali Pasha of Egypt. After a year of relentless enemy attacks and facing starvation, the people of Missolonghi
Missolonghi
decided to leave the beleaguered city in the "Exodus of its Guards" (The Sortie) on the night of 10 April 1826. At the time, there were 10,500 people in Missolonghi, 3,500 of whom were armed. Very few people survived the Ottoman pincer movement after the betrayal of their plan. Due to the heroic stance of the population and the subsequent massacre of its inhabitants by the Turkish-Egyptian forces, the town of Missolonghi
Missolonghi
received the honorary title of Hiera Polis (the Sacred City), unique among other Greek cities. The famous British poet and philhellene Lord Byron, who supported the Greek struggle for independence, died in Missolonghi
Missolonghi
in 1824. He is commemorated by a cenotaph,[5] containing his heart,[6] and a statue located in the town.[5] Modern era[edit]

The lagoon of the city

The town itself is very picturesque but also modern with functional, regular urban planning. Some very interesting buildings representative of traditional architecture can be seen here. People whose names were related to modern Greek history once lived in some of them. The mansion of the Trikoupis family, Palamas' House, Valvios Library, Christos and Sophia Moschandreou Gallery of Modern Art emphasize the fact that Missolonghi
Missolonghi
has always been a city of some wealth and refinement. In addition, the Centre of Culture and Art, Diexodos, which hosts cultural events and exhibitions as well as the Museum of History and Art is housed in a neo-classical building in Markos Botsaris Square and hosts a collection of paintings indicative of the struggle of Missolonghi, further boosting the city's cultural and artistic profile. The Missolonghi
Missolonghi
Byron Society also, founded in 1991 in the city, is a non profit organisation which is devoted to promoting scholarly and general understanding of Lord Byron's life and poetry as well as cultivating appreciation for other historical figures in the 19th-century international Philhellenic movement, idealists who, like Byron, gave their fortunes, talents, and lives for the cause of Greek War of Independence. The Messolonghi Byron Center is now located in the upper floor of Byron House. Today, the Entrance Gate remains intact and so does part of the fortification of the Free Besieged which was rebuilt by King Otto. Past the gate, there is the Garden of Heroes where several famous and some anonymous heroes who fought during the Heroic Sortie are buried. The Garden of Heroes is the equivalent of the Elysian Fields for modern Greece. Every year the Memorial Day for the Exodus is celebrated on Palm Sunday
Palm Sunday
(the Sunday before Easter); the Greek State is represented by high-ranking officials and foreign countries by their ambassadors. Media[edit]

Radiofonikos stathmos Mesolongiou,(radio Missolonghi
Missolonghi
92FM),Website Aixmi radio,Website[permanent dead link] Aixmi TV, Website

Landmarks[edit]

View of the Garden of Heroes

Railway station

Museum of the History and the Art of the Sacred City of Missolonghi, Website Centre of Culture and Art, Diexodos,Website Christos and Sophia Mosxandreou Gallery of Modern Art The Missolonghi
Missolonghi
Byron Society-International Research Center for Lord Byron and Philhellenism,Website

Notable people[edit]

The tomb of Markos Botsaris
Markos Botsaris
(copy by Georgios Bonanos; the original by David d'Angers
David d'Angers
is located in Athens)

Lord Byron
Lord Byron
died here in 1824 and is commemorated by a cenotaph and a statue[5] Epameinontas Deligeorgis
Epameinontas Deligeorgis
(1829–1879), former Prime Minister of Greece John Lykoudis (1910–1980), major and medical doctor involved in the treatment of peptic ulcer disease Miltiadis Malakasis (1869–1943), poet Kostis Palamas
Kostis Palamas
(1859–1943), Greek poet, co-author of the Olympic Hymn Anastasios Papoulas
Anastasios Papoulas
(1859–1935), Greek general and commander-in-chief in the Greco-Turkish War (1919–1922) Antonis Travlantonis (1895–1896), Greek educator, former director of Zosimaia School Charilaos Trikoupis (1832–1896), Prime Minister of Greece Nikolaos Trikoupis (1869–1956), Greek general Spyridon Trikoupis (1788–1873), Prime Minister of Greece, father of Charilaos Trikoupis Charalambos Tseroulis (1879–1929), Greek general Dimitrios Valvis
Dimitrios Valvis
(1814–1886), Prime Minister of Greece Zinovios Valvis
Zinovios Valvis
(1800–1872), Prime Minister of Greece Sperantza Vrana (1926–2009), actress

Historical population[edit]

Avgotaracho (Botargo) of Missolonghi

Year City Municipal unit Municipality

1981 11,375 - -

1991 10,916 16,859 -

2001 13,791 17,988 -

2011 14,386 18,482 34,416

International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Italy Twin towns—sister cities[edit] Missolonghi
Missolonghi
is twinned with:

Schöfflisdorf, Switzerland Famagusta, Cyprus Kalavryta, Greece Lawrence, Kansas, United States Gedling, UK

Morphou, Cyprus Naousa, Greece Psara, Greece Hydra, Greece Mani, Greece

See also[edit]

List of settlements in Aetolia-Acarnania

References[edit]

^ a b c "Απογραφή Πληθυσμού - Κατοικιών 2011. ΜΟΝΙΜΟΣ Πληθυσμός" (in Greek). Hellenic Statistical Authority.  ^ Kallikratis law Greece
Greece
Ministry of Interior (in Greek) ^ "Population & housing census 2001 (incl. area and average elevation)" (PDF) (in Greek). National Statistical Service of Greece. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-09-21.  ^ "Detailed census results 1991" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-03.  (39 MB) (in Greek) (in French) ^ a b c d e  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Missolonghi". Encyclopædia Britannica. 18 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 607.  ^  Reynolds, Francis J., ed. (1921). "Missolonghi". Collier's New Encyclopedia. New York: P.F. Collier & Son Company. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Missolonghi.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1879 American Cyclopædia
American Cyclopædia
article Missolonghi.

Cultural
Cultural
Centre Of Missolonghi
Missolonghi
(in Greek) Municipality of Missolonghi
Missolonghi
(in Greek) Information about Missolonghi
Missolonghi
(in English) News from Missolongi (in Greek) Missolonghi
Missolonghi
Travel and Business Guide (in Greek) The Acheloos delta forms the Missolongi Lagoon

Sights and Activities in Missolongi

Places adjacent to Missolonghi

Arakynthos Makryneia

Aitoliko

Messolonghi (municipal unit)

Chalkeia

Gulf of Patras

v t e

Administrative division of the Western Greece
Greece
Region

Area 11,350 km2 (4,380 sq mi) Population 679,796 (as of 2011) Municipalities 19 (since 2011) Capital Patras

Regional unit of Achaea

Aigialeia Erymanthos Kalavryta Patras West Achaea

Regional unit of Aetolia-Acarnania

Agrinio Aktio-Vonitsa Amfilochia Missolonghi Nafpaktia Thermo Xiromero

Regional unit of Elis

Ancient Olympia Andravida-Kyllini Andritsaina-Krestena Ilida Pineios Pyrgos Zacharo

Regional governor Apostolos Katsifaras
Apostolos Katsifaras
(reelected 2014) Decentralized Administration Peloponnese, Western Greece
Greece
and the Ionian

v t e

Subdivisions of the municipality of Missolonghi

Municipal unit of Aitoliko

Agios Ilias Aitoliko Chrysovergi Fragkoulaiika Stamna

Municipal unit of Missolonghi

Agios Georgios Agios Thomas Ano Koudouni Ellinika Evinochori Missolonghi Mousoura Retsina

Municipal unit of Oiniades

Gouria Katochi Lesini Mastro Neochori Pentalofo

v t e

  Prefectural capitals of Greece

Agios Nikolaos Alexandroupoli Amfissa Argostoli Arta Athens Chalcis Chania Chios Corfu Corinth Drama Edessa Ermoupoli Florina Grevena Heraklion Igoumenitsa Ioannina Kalamata Karditsa Karpenisi Kastoria Katerini Kavala Kilkis Komotini Kozani Lamia Larissa Lefkada Livadeia Missolonghi Mytilene Nafplion Pallini Patras Piraeus Polygyros Preveza Pyrgos Rethymno Rhodes Serres Sparta Thessaloniki Trikala Tripoli Vathy Veria Volos Xanthi Zakynthos

v t e

Former provinces of Greece

Grouped by region and prefecture

Attica

East and West Attica

Attica

Piraeus

Aegina Hydra Kythira Piraeus Troizinia

West Attica

Megaris

Central Greece

Boeotia

Livadeia Thebes

Euboea

Chalcis Istiaia Karystia

Phocis

Dorida Parnassida

Phthiotis

Domokos Locris Phthiotis

Central Macedonia

Chalkidiki

Arnaia Chalkidiki

Imathia

Imathia Naousa

Kilkis

Kilkis Paionia

Pella

Almopia Edessa Giannitsa

Serres

Fyllida Serres Sintiki Visaltia

Thessaloniki

Lagkadas Thessaloniki

Crete

Chania

Apokoronas Kissamos Kydonia Selino Sfakia

Heraklion

Kainourgio Malevizi Monofatsi Pediada Pyrgiotissa Temenos Viannos

Lasithi

Ierapetra Lasithi Mirampello Siteia

Rethymno

Agios Vasileios Amari Mylopotamos Rethymno

East Macedonia and Thrace

Evros

Alexandroupoli Didymoteicho Orestiada Samothrace Soufli

Kavala

Kavala Nestos Pangaio Thasos

Rhodope

Komotini Sapes

Epirus

Ioannina

Dodoni Konitsa Metsovo Pogoni

Thesprotia

Filiates Margariti Souli Thyamida

Ionian Islands

Corfu

Corfu Paxoi

Kefallinia

Ithaca Kranaia Pali Sami

North Aegean

Lesbos

Lemnos Mithymna Mytilene Plomari

Samos

Ikaria Samos

Peloponnese

Arcadia

Gortynia Kynouria Mantineia Megalopoli

Argolis

Argos Ermionida Nafplia

Laconia

Epidavros Limira Gytheio Lacedaemon Oitylo

Messenia

Kalamai Messini Pylia Trifylia

South Aegean

Cyclades

Andros Kea Milos Naxos Paros Syros Thira Tinos

Dodecanese

Kalymnos Karpathos Kos Rhodes

Thessaly

Larissa

Agia Elassona Farsala Larissa Tyrnavos

Magnesia

Almyros Skopelos Volos

Trikala

Kalampaka Trikala

West Greece

Achaea

Aigialeia Kalavryta Patras

Aetolia-Acarnania

Missolonghi Nafpaktia Trichonida Valtos Vonitsa-Xiromero

Elis

Elis Olympia

West Macedonia

Kozani

Eordaia Kozani Voio

Note: not all prefectures were subdivided into provinces.

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 129138334 LCCN: n90715828 GND: 4393351-8 SUDOC: 032493452 BNF:

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