Miroslav Hroch (born 14 June 1932 in Prague) is a Czech
historian and political theorist and a professor at the Charles
University in Prague.
Hroch earned his PhD at the
Phase A: Activists strive to lay the foundation for a national identity. They research the cultural, linguistic, social and sometimes historical attributes of a non- dominant group in order to raise awareness of the common traits—but they do this "without pressing specifically national demands to remedy deficits." Phase B: "A new range of activists emerged, who sought to win over as many of their ethnic group as possible to the project of creating a future nation." Phase C: The majority of the population forms a mass movement. "In this phase, a full social movement comes into being and movement branches into conservative- clerical, liberal and democratic wings, each with its own program."
Hroch's definition of nation: "Now the 'nation is not, of course, an eternal category, but was the product of a long and complicated process of historical development in Europe. For our purposes, let us define it at the outset as a large social group integrated not by one but by a combination of several kinds of objective relationships (economic, political, linguistic, cultural, religious, geographical, historical), and their subjective reflection in collective consciousness. Many of these ties could be mutually substituable - some playing a particularly important role in one nation-building process, and no more than a subsidiary part in others. But among them, three stand out as irreplaceable:
a 'memory' of some common past, treated as a 'destiny' of the group - or at least of its core constituents; a density of linguistic or cultural ties enabling a higher degree of social communication within the group than beyond it; a conception of the equality of all members of the group organized as a civil society."
Social preconditions of national revival in Europe, Die Vorkämpfer der nationalen Bewegungen bei den kleinen Völkern Europas, Praha, 1968, English translation 1985
^ "Prof. PhDr. Dr.h.c. Miroslav Hroch, DrSc."
WorldCat Identities VIAF: 64022826 LCCN: n81138654 ISNI: 0000 0001 1028 2062 GND: 120923904 SUDOC: 028574206 BNF: cb120382712 (data) BIBSYS: 90363346 NKC: jk01042807
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