A miracle is an event not explicable by natural or scientific laws.
Such an event may be attributed to a supernatural being (especially a
deity), magic, a miracle worker, a saint or a religious leader.
Informally, the word "miracle" is often used to characterise any
beneficial event that is statistically unlikely but not contrary to
the laws of nature, such as surviving a natural disaster, or simply a
"wonderful" occurrence, regardless of likelihood, such as a birth.
Other such miracles might be: survival of an illness diagnosed as
terminal, escaping a life-threatening situation or 'beating the odds'.
Some coincidences may be seen as miracles.
A true miracle would, by definition, be a non-natural phenomenon,
leading many rational and scientific thinkers to dismiss them as
physically impossible (that is, requiring violation of established
laws of physics within their domain of validity) or impossible to
confirm by their nature (because all possible physical mechanisms can
never be ruled out). The former position is expressed for instance by
Thomas Jefferson and the latter by David Hume. Theologians typically
say that, with divine providence,
God regularly works through nature
yet, as a creator, is free to work without, above, or against it as
well. The possibility and probability of miracles are then equal to
the possibility and probability of the existence of God.
2.2 Law of truly large numbers
2.3 Philosophical explanations
2.3.1 Aristotelian and Neo-Aristotelian
2.3.2 Baruch Spinoza
2.3.3 David Hume
2.3.4 Friedrich Schleiermacher
2.3.5 Søren Kierkegaard
2.3.6 James Keller
3 Religious views
3.2.1 Catholic Church
5 See also
6 Notes and references
6.1 General references and books
7 Further reading
8 External links
The word "miracle" is usually used to describe any beneficial event
that is physically impossible or impossible to confirm by nature.
Wayne Grudem defines miracle as "a less common kind of God's activity
in which he arouses people's awe and wonder and bears witness to
himself." Deistic perspective of God's relation to the world
defines miracle as a direct intervention of
God into the world.
A miracle is a phenomenon not explained by known laws of nature.
Criteria for classifying an event as a miracle vary. Often a religious
text, such as the
Bible or Quran, states that a miracle occurred, and
believers may accept this as a fact.
Law of truly large numbers
Law of truly large numbers and Littlewood's law
Statistically "impossible" events are often called miracles. For
instance, when three classmates accidentally meet in a different
country decades after having left school, they may consider this as
"miraculous". However, a colossal number of events happen every moment
on earth; thus extremely unlikely coincidences also happen every
moment. Events that are considered "impossible" are therefore not
impossible at all — they are just increasingly rare and dependent on
the number of individual events. British mathematician J. E.
Littlewood suggested that individuals should statistically expect
one-in-a-million events ("miracles") to happen to them at the rate of
about one per month. By Littlewood's definition, seemingly miraculous
events are actually commonplace.
Aristotelian and Neo-Aristotelian
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The Aristotelian view of
God does not include direct intervention in
the order of the natural world. Jewish neo-Aristotelian philosophers,
who are still influential today, include Maimonides, Samuel ben Judah
ibn Tibbon, and Gersonides. Directly or indirectly, their views are
still prevalent in much of the religious Jewish community.
See also: Epistemic theory of miracles
Tractatus Theologico-Politicus Spinoza claims that miracles
are merely lawlike events whose causes we are ignorant of. We should
not treat them as having no cause or of having a cause immediately
available. Rather the miracle is for combating the ignorance it
entails, like a political project.[clarification needed]
Main article: Of Miracles
According to the philosopher David Hume, a miracle is "a transgression
of a law of nature by a particular volition of the Deity, or by the
interposition of some invisible agent". The crux of his argument is
this: "No testimony is sufficient to establish a miracle, unless the
testimony be of such a kind, that its falsehood would be more
miraculous, than the fact which it endeavours to establish." Hume
defines a miracles as "a violation of the laws of nature", or more
fully, "a transgression of a law of nature by a particular volition of
the Deity, or by the interposition of some invisible agent." By this
definition, a miracle goes against our regular experience of how the
universe works. As miracles are single events, the evidence for them
is always limited and we experience them rarely. On the basis of
experience and evidence, the probability that miracle occurred is
always less than the probability that it did not occur. As it is
rational to believe what is more probable, we are not supposed to have
a good reason to believe that a miracle occurred. 
According to the
Friedrich Schleiermacher "every
event, even the most natural and usual, becomes a miracle as soon as
the religious view of it can be the dominant".
The philosopher Søren Kierkegaard, following Hume and Johann Georg
Hamann, a Humean scholar, agrees with Hume's definition of a miracle
as a transgression of a law of nature, but Kierkegaard, writing as
his pseudonym Johannes Climacus, regards any historical reports to be
less than certain, including historical reports of miracles, as all
historical knowledge is always doubtful and open to approximation.
James Keller states that "The claim that
God has worked a miracle
God has singled out certain persons for some benefit
which many others do not receive implies that
God is unfair."
According to Buddhists, they do not worship a being, who performs
miracles, but they believe that human mind can be trained to reveal
powers, which can be described as miraculous. As for
Jesus and Virgin Mary performed miracles on God's
behalf, including healing disabilities such as paralysis, walking on
water and transforming water into wine. According to a 2011 poll by
the Pew Research Center, more than 90 percent of evangelical
Christians believe miracles still take place as well. While
God as sometimes intervening in human activities,
Muslims see Allah as a direct cause of all events.“God’s
overwhelming closeness makes it easy for Muslims to admit the
miraculous in the world.” 
The Haedong Kosung-jon of Korea (Biographies of High Monks) records
Beopheung of Silla had desired to promulgate
Buddhism as the
state religion. However, officials in his court opposed him. In the
fourteenth year of his reign, Beopheung's "Grand Secretary", Ichadon,
devised a strategy to overcome court opposition.
Ichadon schemed with
the king, convincing him to make a proclamation granting Buddhism
official state sanction using the royal seal.
Ichadon told the king to
deny having made such a proclamation when the opposing officials
received it and demanded an explanation. Instead,
confess and accept the punishment of execution, for what would quickly
be seen as a forgery.
Ichadon prophesied to the king that at his
execution a wonderful miracle would convince the opposing court
faction of Buddhism's power. Ichadon's scheme went as planned, and the
opposing officials took the bait. When
Ichadon was executed on the
15th day of the 9th month in 527, his prophecy was fulfilled; the
earth shook, the sun was darkened, beautiful flowers rained from the
sky, his severed head flew to the sacred Geumgang mountains, and milk
instead of blood sprayed 100 feet in the air from his beheaded corpse.
The omen was accepted by the opposing court officials as a
manifestation of heaven's approval, and
Buddhism was made the state
religion in 527 CE.
The Honchō Hokke Reigenki (c. 1040) of
Japan contains a collection of
Buddhist miracle stories.
Miracles play an important role in the veneration of Buddhist relics
in Southern Asia. Thus, Somawathie Stupa in Sri Lanka is an
increasingly popular site of pilgrimage and tourist destination thanks
to multiple reports about miraculous rays of light, apparitions and
modern legends, which often have been fixed in photographs and movies.
Main articles: Miracles of
Jesus and Gift of miracles
The gospels record three sorts of miracles performed by Jesus:
exorcisms, cures, and nature wonders. In the
Gospel of John
Gospel of John the
miracles are referred to as "signs" and the emphasis is on God
demonstrating his underlying normal activity in remarkable ways.
In the New Testament, the greatest miracle is the resurrection of
Jesus, the event central to Christian faith.
Jesus explains in the
New Testament that miracles are performed by
faith in God. "If you have faith as small as a mustard seed, you can
say to this mountain, 'move from here to there' and it will move."
Gospel of Matthew
Gospel of Matthew 17:20). After
Jesus returned to heaven, the book of
Acts records the disciples of
Jesus praying to
God to grant that
miracles be done in his name, for the purpose of convincing onlookers
that he is alive. (Acts 4:29–31).
Other passages mention false prophets who will be able to perform
miracles to deceive "if possible, even the elect of Christ" (Matthew
24:24). 2 Thessalonians 2:9 says, "And then shall that Wicked be
revealed, whom the Lord shall consume with the spirit of His mouth,
and shall destroy with the brightness of His coming: Even him, whose
coming is after the working of Satan with all power and signs and
lying wonders, and with all deceivableness of unrighteousness in them
that perish; because they received not the love of the Truth, that
they might be saved." Revelation 13:13,14 says, "And he doeth great
wonders, so that he maketh fire come down from heaven on the earth in
the sight of men, and deceiveth them that dwell on the earth by the
means of those miracles which he had power to do in the sight of the
beast; saying to them that dwell on the earth, that they should make
an image to the beast, which had the wound by a sword, and did live."
Revelation 16:14 says, "For they are the spirits of devils, working
miracles, which go forth unto the kings of the earth and of the whole
world, to gather them to the battle of that great day of God
Almighty." Revelation 19:20 says, "And the beast was taken, and with
him the false prophet that wrought miracles before him, with which he
deceived them that had received the mark of the beast, and them that
worshipped his image. These both were cast alive into a lake of fire
burning with brimstone." These passages indicate that signs, wonders,
and miracles are not necessarily committed by God. These miracles not
God are labeled as false(pseudo) miracles though which
could mean that they are deceptive in nature and are not the same as
the true miracles committed by God.
Christianity miracles were the most often attested
motivations for conversions of pagans; pagan Romans took the existence
of miracles for granted; Christian texts reporting them offered
miracles as divine proof of the Christian God's unique claim to
authority, relegating all other gods to the lower status of
daimones: "of all worships, the Christian best and most
particularly advertised its miracles by driving out of spirits and
laying on of hands". The
Gospel of John
Gospel of John is structured around
miraculous "signs": The success of the Apostles according to the
Eusebius of Caesarea
Eusebius of Caesarea lay in their miracles: "though
laymen in their language", he asserted, "they drew courage from
divine, miraculous powers". The conversion of Constantine by a
miraculous sign in heaven is a prominent fourth-century example.
Since the Age of Enlightenment, miracles have often needed to be
rationalized: C.S. Lewis, Norman Geisler, William Lane Craig, and
other 20th-century Christians have argued that miracles are reasonable
and plausible. For example, Lewis said that a miracle is something
that comes totally out of the blue. If for thousands of years a woman
can become pregnant only by sexual intercourse with a man, then if she
were to become pregnant without a man, it would be a
There have been numerous claims of miracles by people of most
Christian denominations, including but not limited to faith healings
and casting out demons.
Miracle reports are especially prevalent in
Roman Catholicism and Pentecostal or Charismatic churches.
See also: Marian apparition, Eucharistic Miracle, Stigmata, Weeping
statue, Moving statues, Visions of
Jesus and Mary, Incorruptibility,
and Perceptions of religious imagery in natural phenomena
Catholic Church believes miracles are works of God, either
directly, or through the prayers and intercessions of a specific saint
or saints. There is usually a specific purpose connected to a miracle,
e.g. the conversion of a person or persons to the Catholic faith or
the construction of a church desired by God. The Church says that it
tries to be very cautious to approve the validity of putative
Catholic Church says that it maintains particularly
stringent requirements in validating the miracle's authenticity.
The process is overseen by the Congregation for the Causes of
Catholic Church has listed several events as miracles, some of
them occurring in modern times. Before a person can be accepted as a
saint, they must be confirmed as having performed two miracles
posthumously. In the procedure of beatification of Pope John Paul II,
who died in 2005, the Vatican announced on 14 January 2011 that Pope
Benedict XVI had confirmed that the recovery of Sister Marie
Parkinson's disease was a miracle.
Among the more notable miracles approved by the Church are several
Eucharistic miracles wherein the sacramental bread and wine are
transformed into Christ's flesh and blood, such as the
Lanciano and cures in Lourdes.
According to 17th century documents, a young Spanish man's leg was
miraculously restored to him in 1640 after having been amputated two
and a half years earlier.
Another miracle approved by the Church is the
Miracle of the Sun,
which is said to have occurred near Fátima, Portugal on October 13,
1917. According to legend, between 70,000 and 100,000 people, who were
gathered at a cove near Fátima, witnessed the sun dim, change colors,
spin, dance about in the sky, and appear to plummet to earth,
radiating great heat in the process. After the ten-minute event, the
ground and the people's clothing, which had been drenched by a
previous rainstorm, were both dry.
Velankanni (Mary) can be traced to the mid-16th century and is
attributed to three miracles: the apparition of Mary and the Christ
Child to a slumbering shepherd boy, the curing of a lame buttermilk
vendor, and the rescue of Portuguese sailors from a violent sea
In addition to these, the
Catholic Church attributes miraculous causes
to many otherwise inexplicable phenomena on a case-by-case basis. Only
after all other possible explanations have been asserted to be
inadequate will the Church assume divine intervention and declare the
miracle worthy of veneration by their followers. The Church does not,
however, enjoin belief in any extra-Scriptural miracle as an article
of faith or as necessary for salvation.
St. Thomas Aquinas, a prominent Doctor of the Church, divided miracles
into three types in his Summa contra Gentiles:
These works that are done by
God outside the usual order assigned to
things are wont to be called miracles: because we are astonished
(admiramur) at a thing when we see an effect without knowing the
cause. And since at times one and the same cause is known to some and
unknown to others, it happens that of several who see an effect, some
are astonished and some not: thus an astronomer is not astonished when
he sees an eclipse of the sun, for he knows the cause; whereas one who
is ignorant of this science must needs wonder, since he knows not the
cause. Wherefore it is wonderful to the latter but not to the former.
Accordingly a thing is wonderful simply, when its cause is hidden
simply: and this is what we mean by a miracle: something, to wit, that
is wonderful in itself and not only in respect of this person or that.
God is the cause which is hidden to every man simply: for we have
proved above that in this state of life no man can comprehend Him by
his intellect. Therefore properly speaking miracles are works done by
God outside the order usually observed in things.
Of these miracles there are various degrees and orders. The highest
degree in miracles comprises those works wherein something is done by
God, that nature can never do: for instance, that two bodies occupy
the same place, that the sun recede or stand still, that the sea be
divided and make way to passers by. Among these there is a certain
order: for the greater the work done by God, and the further it is
removed from the capability of nature, the greater the miracle: thus
it is a greater miracle that the sun recede, than that the waters be
The second degree in miracles belongs to those whereby
something that nature can do, but not in the same order: thus it is a
work of nature that an animal live, see and walk: but that an animal
live after being dead, see after being blind, walk after being lame,
this nature cannot do, but
God does these things sometimes by a
miracle. Among these miracles also, there are degrees, according as
the thing done is further removed from the faculty of nature.
The third degree of miracles is when
God does what is wont to be done
by the operation of nature, but without the operation of the natural
principles: for instance when by the power of
God a man is cured of a
fever that nature is able to cure; or when it rains without the
operation of the principles of nature.
In Hinduism, miracles are focused on episodes of liberation of the
spirit. A key example is the revelation of
Krishna to Arjuna,
Arjuna to rejoin the battle against his
cousins by briefly and miraculously giving
Arjuna the power to see the
true scope of the Universe, and its sustainment within Krishna, which
requires divine vision. This is a typical situation in Hindu mythology
wherein "wondrous acts are performed for the purpose of bringing
spiritual liberation to those who witness or read about them."
Hindu sages have criticized both expectation and reliance on miracles
as cheats, situations where people have sought to earn a benefit
without doing the work necessary to merit it. Miracles continue to
be occasionally reported in the practice of Hinduism, with an example
of a miracle modernly reported in Hinduism being the Hindu milk
miracle of September 1995, with additional occurrences in 2006 and
2010, wherein statues of certain Hindu deities were seen to drink milk
offered to them.The scientific explanation for the incident, attested
by Indian academics, was that the material was wicked from the
offering bowls by capillary action.
Islamic view of miracles and Miracles of Muhammad
See also: Occasionalism
"Miracle" in the
Quran can be defined as a supernatural intervention
in the life of human beings. According to this definition,
miracles are present "in a threefold sense: in sacred history, in
Muhammad himself and in relation to revelation".
Quran does not use the technical
Arabic word for miracle
(Muʿd̲j̲iza) literally meaning "that by means of which [the
Prophet] confounds, overwhelms, his opponents". It rather uses the
term 'Ayah' (literally meaning sign). The term Ayah is used in the
Qur'an in the above-mentioned threefold sense: it refers to the
"verses" of the Qur'an (believed to be the divine speech in human
language; presented by
Muhammad as his chief Miracle); as well as to
miracles of it and the signs (particularly those of creation).
To defend the possibility of miracles and God's omnipotence against
the encroachment of the independent secondary causes, some medieval
Muslim theologians such as
Al-Ghazali rejected the idea of cause and
effect in essence, but accepted it as something that facilitates
humankind's investigation and comprehension of natural processes. They
argued that the nature was composed of uniform atoms that were
"re-created" at every instant by God. Thus if the soil was to fall,
God would have to create and re-create the accident of heaviness for
as long as the soil was to fall. For Muslim theologians, the laws of
nature were only the customary sequence of apparent causes: customs of
Sufi biographical literature records claims of miraculous accounts of
men and women. The miraculous prowess of the
Sufi holy men includes
firasa (clairvoyance), the ability to disappear from sight, to become
completely invisible and practice buruz (exteriorization). The holy
men reportedly tame wild beasts and traverse long distances in a very
short time span. They could also produce food and rain in seasons of
drought, heal the sick and help barren women conceive.
Descriptions of miracles (Hebrew Ness, נס) appear in the Tanakh.
Examples include prophets, such as
Elijah who performed miracles like
the raising of a widow's dead son (1 Kings 17:17–24) and Elisha
whose miracles include multiplying the poor widow's jar of oil (2
Kings 4:1–7) and restoring to life the son of the woman of Shunem (2
Kings 4:18–37). The
Torah describes many miracles related to Moses
during his time as a prophet and the Exodus of the Israelites. Parting
the Red Sea, and facilitating the
Plagues of Egypt
Plagues of Egypt are among the most
During the first century BCE, a variety of religious movements and
splinter groups developed amongst the Jews in Judea. A number of
individuals claimed to be miracle workers in the tradition of Moses,
Elijah, and Elisha, the Jewish prophets. The Talmud provides some
examples of such Jewish miracle workers, one of whom is Honi HaM'agel,
who was famous for his ability to successfully pray for rain.
There are people who obscure all miracles by explaining them in terms
of the laws of nature. When these heretics who do not believe in
miracles disappear and faith increases in the world, then the Mashiach
will come. For the essence of the Redemption primarily depends on this
– that is, on faith
Rebbe Nachman of Breslov
Chasidic communities are rife with tales of miracles that follow
a yechidut, a spiritual audience with a tzadik: barren women become
pregnant, cancer tumors shrink, wayward children become pious.
Many Hasidim claim that miracles can take place in merit of partaking
of the shirayim (the leftovers from the rebbe's meal), such as
miraculous healing or blessings of wealth or piety.
Thomas Paine, one of the Founding Fathers of the American Revolution,
wrote “All the tales of miracles, with which the Old and New
Testament are filled, are fit only for impostors to preach and fools
Thomas Jefferson, principal author of the Declaration of Independence
of the United States, edited a version of the
Bible in which he
removed sections of the
New Testament containing supernatural aspects
as well as perceived misinterpretations he believed had been added by
the Four Evangelists. Jefferson wrote, "The establishment of
the innocent and genuine character of this benevolent moralist, and
the rescuing it from the imputation of imposture, which has resulted
from artificial systems, [footnote: e.g. The immaculate conception of
Jesus, his deification, the creation of the world by him, his
miraculous powers, his resurrection and visible ascension, his
corporeal presence in the Eucharist, the Trinity; original sin,
atonement, regeneration, election, orders of Hierarchy, etc. —T.J.]
invented by ultra-Christian sects, unauthorized by a single word ever
uttered by him, is a most desirable object, and one to which Priestley
has successfully devoted his labors and learning."
John Adams, second President of the United States, wrote, "The
question before the human race is, whether the
God of nature shall
govern the world by his own laws, or whether priests and kings shall
rule it by fictitious miracles?"
American Revolutionary War
American Revolutionary War patriot and hero
Ethan Allen wrote "In
those parts of the world where learning and science have prevailed,
miracles have ceased; but in those parts of it as are barbarous and
ignorant, miracles are still in vogue".
Robert Ingersoll wrote, "Not 20 people were convinced by the reported
miracles of Christ, and yet people of the nineteenth century were
coolly asked to be convinced on hearsay by miracles which those who
are supposed to have seen them refused to credit."
Elbert Hubbard, American writer, publisher, artist, and philosopher,
wrote "A miracle is an event described by those to whom it was told by
people who did not see it."
Richard Dawkins has criticised the belief in miracles as a
subversion of Occam's Razor.
Mathematician Charles Hermite, in a discourse upon the world of
mathematical truths and the physical world, stated that "The synthesis
of the two is revealed partially in the marvellous correspondence
between abstract mathematics on the one hand and all the branches of
physics on the other" 
A Course in Miracles
Act of God
Hindu milk miracle
Magic and religion
Our Lady of Lourdes
Miracles by C.S. Lewis
Miracles of Joseph Smith
Pieter De Rudder
Signs and wonders
Spontaneous remission ("medical miracles")
Notes and references
^ The Everything Mary Book: The Life and Legacy of the Blessed Mother
by Jenny Schroedel, John Schroedel 2006 ISBN 1-59337-713-4 page
^ Halbersam, Yitta (1890). Small Miracles. Adams Media Corp.
^ a b Miracles on the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
^ Grudem, Wayne (1994). Systematic Theology.
^ "Definition of Miracles". Bible.org. Retrieved 2017-11-22.
^ Benedictus de Spinoza. "Chapter 6: Of Miracles". Thelogico-Political
Treatise. translated by Robert Willis.
^ "Second Speech: The Nature of Religion". On Religion: Speeches to
its Cultured Despirers. London: Paul, Trench, Trubner. 1893.
^ Hume and Kierkegaard by Richard Popkin
^ Kierkegaard on Miracles Archived 2010-06-06 at the Wayback Machine.
^ Keller, James. "A Moral Argument against Miracles",
Philosophy. vol. 12, no 1. Jan 1995. 54–78
^ "What Do the World's Religions Say About Miracles?". National
Geographic Channel. 2016-04-28. Retrieved 2017-11-22.
^ The Cambridge Companion to Miracle. Cambridge. 2011.
^ Korea: a religious history, James Huntley Grayson, p. 34
^ Keene, Donald. Twenty Plays of the Nō Theater. Columbia University
Press, New York, 1970. Page 238.
^ Funk, Robert W. and the
Jesus Seminar. The acts of Jesus: the search
for the authentic deeds of Jesus. HarperSanFrancisco. 1998.
Introduction, p. 1–40
^ see e.g. Polkinghorne op cit. and a commentary on the Gospel of
John, such as William Temple's Readings in St John's Gospel (see e.g.
p. 33) or Tom Wright's John for Everyone
^ Ramsay MacMullen, Christianizing the Roman Empire, AD 100-400
^ MacMullen 1984:40.
^ Quoted in MacMullen 1984:22.
^ "Are Miracles Logically Impossible?". Come Reason Ministries,
Convincing Christianity. Retrieved 2007-11-21.
^ ""Miracles are not possible," some claim. Is this true?".
ChristianAnswers.net. Retrieved 2007-11-21.
^ Paul K. Hoffman. "A Jurisprudential Analysis Of Hume's "in
Principal" Argument Against Miracles" (PDF). Christian Apologetics
Journal, Volume 2, No. 1, Spring, 1999; Copyright ©1999 by Southern
Evangelical Seminary. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 26,
2007. Retrieved 2007-11-21.
^ Van Biema, David (10 April 1995). "Modern Miracles Have Strict
Rules". Pathfinder.com. Archived from the original on 13 July
^ Falasca, Stefania (2004). "The necessity of miracles".
^ "Pope Benedict Paves Way to Beatification of John Paul II".
bbc.news.co.uk. 14 January 2011. Retrieved 14 January 2011.
Messori, Vittorio (2000): Il miracolo. Indagine sul più
sconvolgente prodigio mariano. – Rizzoli: Bur.
Velankanni shrine miracle Archived 2011-01-28 at the Wayback
^ Aquinas, St. Thomas. Contra Gentiles, lib. III cap. 101.
^ a b c David L. Weddle (2010). Miracles: Wonder and Meaning in World
Religions. pp. 35–70. ISBN 0-81479-483-1.
^ a b c Denis Gril, Miracles, Encyclopedia of the Quran
^ a b A.J. Wensinck, Muʿd̲j̲iza, Encyclopedia of Islam
^ Robert G. Mourison, The Portrayal of Nature in a Medieval Qur’an
Commentary, Studia Islamica, 2002
^ The heirs of the prophet: charisma and religious authority in
Shi'ite Islam By Liyakatali Takim
^ SAINTS AND MIRACLES
^ Mishnah Ta'anit 3:8 Hebrew text at Mechon-Mamre
^ Nosson of Breslov, Rebbe. Kitzur Likutey Moharan (Abridged Likutey
Moharan) Vol. 1 (Kindle 414-417). Breslov Research Institute
^ The encyclopedia of Jewish myth, magic and mysticism, Geoffrey W.
Dennis, p. 49
^ The Writings of Thomas Paine, Volume 4, page 289, Putnam & Sons,
1896 OCLC 459072720
^ Jeremy Kosselak (November 1998). The Exaltation of a Reasonable
Deity: Thomas Jefferson’s
Bible of Christianity. (Communicated by:
Dr. Patrick Furlong). Indiana University South Bend – Department of
History. IUSB.edu, Retrieved 2007-02-19
^ R.P. Nettelhorst. Notes on the Founding Fathers and the Separation
of Church and State. Quartz Hill School of Theology. Theology.edu
^ Letter to William Short (31 October 1819), published in "The Works
Thomas Jefferson in Twelve Volumes", Federal Edition, Paul
Leicester Ford, ed., New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1904, Vol. 12, pp.
^ John Adams, letter to Thomas Jefferson, June 20, 1815
^ Ethan Allen, Reason, the Only Oracle of Man, 1784
^ "Ingersoll on Talmage.; The Brooklyn Clergyman's
Before a Large Audience". New York Times. April 24, 1882. Retrieved
^ Elbert Hubbard, The Philistine (1909)
^ Richard Dawkins. The
^ Kline, Mathematics: the Loss of Certainty, p 345
General references and books
Colin Brown. Miracles and the Critical Mind. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans,
1984. (Good survey).
Colin J. Humphreys, Miracles of Exodus. Harper, San Francisco, 2003.
Chavda, Mahesh, Only Love Can Make a Miracle. Charlotte: Mahesh Chavda
Krista Bontrager, "It’s a Miracle! Or, is it?", Reasons.org
Eisen, Robert (1995).
Gersonides on Providence, Covenant, and the
Chosen People. State University of New York Press.
Goodman, Lenn E. (1985). Rambam: Readings in the
Philosophy of Moses
Maimonides. Gee Bee Tee.
Kellner, Menachem (1986). Dogma in Medieval Jewish Thought. Oxford
C. S. Lewis. Miracles: A Preliminary Study. New York, Macmillan Co.,
C. F. D. Moule (ed.). Miracles: Cambridge Studies in their Philosophy
and History. London, A.R. Mowbray 1966, ©1965 (Good survey of
Biblical miracles as well).
Miracle Worker: A Historical and
Theological Study. IVP, 1999. (Best in its field).
Woodward, Kenneth L. (2000). The Book of Miracles. New York: Simon
& Schuster. ISBN 0-684-82393-4.
Keener, Craig S. (2011). Miracles: The Credibility of the New
Testament Accounts. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic.
ISBN 978-0--801-03952-2. OCLC 699760418.
Miracle Mongers and Their Methods: A Complete Expose
Prometheus Books; Reprint edition (March 1993) originally published in
1920 ISBN 0-87975-817-1.
Andrew Dickson White
Andrew Dickson White (1896 first edition. A classic work constantly
History of the Warfare of
Christendom, See chapter 13, part 2, Growth of Legends of Healing: the
Saint Francis Xavier as a typical example.
Rory Roybal Miracles or Magic?. Xulon Press, 2005.
Graves, Wilfred (2007). Popular and elite understandings of miracles
in enlightened England. A dissertation submitted to the Center for
Advanced Theological Studies in partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Pasadena, CA:
Fuller Theological Seminary, School of Theology.
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Miracles
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Miracles.
Look up miracle in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Miracles article in the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Skepdic.com, Skeptic's Dictionary on miracles
Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Miracle". Catholic
Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Miracle". Encyclopædia Britannica
(11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
"Miracle" in the Interdisciplinary Encyclopedia of
The history of thinking about miracles in the West
Mukto-mona.com, an Indian Skeptic's explanation of miracles: By
Yuktibaadi, compiled by Basava Premanand
Andrew Lang, Psychanalyse-paris.com, "
Science and 'Miracles'", The
Religion Chapter II, Longmans, Green, and Co., London, New
York and Bombay, 1900, pp. 14–38.
Almut Hoefert (ed.): Miracles, Marvels and Monsters in the Middle
History Books, published in 2016 by the professional
portal of the historical sciences in Switzerland, info-clio.ch) 
Hume on Miracles
Philosophy of religion
Concepts in religion
Problem of evil
Conceptions of God
Existence of God
Fine-tuning of the Universe
Divine command theory
Theories about religions
Problem of evil
Best of all possible worlds
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Anselm of Canterbury
Augustine of Hippo
Gaunilo of Marmoutiers
Pico della Mirandola
King James VI and I
Marcion of Sinope
Gottfried W Leibniz
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Karl C F Krause
Georg W F Hegel
W. K. Clifford
J L Mackie
George I Mavrodes
William L Rowe
Dewi Z Phillips
Robert Merrihew Adams
Peter van Inwagen
William Lane Craig
Ali Akbar Rashad
Criticism of religion
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