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A mill for insc

Meanwhile, in continental Europe, France readopted machine made coins in 1639. Both machine made and hammered coins continued through the recoinage of French silver in 1641, but this time machine made coinage's time had come and hammered French coinage ended in 1645.[10] Zurich and Heidelberg experimented with coinage machinery in 1558 and 1567 respectively and the Hall mint in Tirol permanently adopted coinage machinery in 1567. Unlike the screw press used in France and England, Hall used a roller press. Here two cylindrical dies impressed designs on bullion which rolled between them. Coins were then cut from the rolled and impressed metal. This technique spread from Hall to Cologne in 1568, Dresden in 1574, Kremnica in 1577, Danzig in 1577, and other small mints. Its most significant impact occurred when Philip II of Spain used his personal funds to build a mint at Segovia which used this technique to convert silver from the Americas to coins efficiently. This allowed the king to pay his debts at a better rate than he otherwise could. The Segovia mint was owned by the King's Royal House but other Spanish mints, which were run by the National Treasury, continued hammered coinage for decades.[11]

Coins of the Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution shifted the focus of the economy from a rural to an urban, money based, enterprise.[12] The main technology of the Industrial Revolution, the Watt steam engine, also increased the overall level of economic activity.[13] Both of these factors increased the demand for money. Factories were financed by introducing paper money and credit, but low denomination coins were required to pay their workers and in England copper coins were scarce.[14] Matthew Boulton had backed Watt's development of the Steam Engine and he used it to power coin making machinery at his Soho Manufactory.[15] Boulton struck coins for the East India Company, supplied steam powered coining machinery to the Moscow mint,[16] and manufactured private tokens which circulated widely in England.Industrial Revolution shifted the focus of the economy from a rural to an urban, money based, enterprise.[12] The main technology of the Industrial Revolution, the Watt steam engine, also increased the overall level of economic activity.[13] Both of these factors increased the demand for money. Factories were financed by introducing paper money and credit, but low denomination coins were required to pay their workers and in England copper coins were scarce.[14] Matthew Boulton had backed Watt's development of the Steam Engine and he used it to power coin making machinery at his Soho Manufactory.[15] Boulton struck coins for the East India Company, supplied steam powered coining machinery to the Moscow mint,[16] and manufactured private tokens which circulated widely in England.[14] In 1797, Boulton received a contract to strike royal British copper coins called cartwheels. In 1805, he received a further contract to supply steam powered coinage machinery when the British Royal Mint left the Tower of London and established a new facility on Little Tower Hill.[16]

In the Americas and the Orient

When Spai

When Spain introduced coinage to America in 1536, coins were still hammered. The fineness of the silver in this coinage was reduced in 1732 and the Mexico City mint began striking the new coins using machinery.[17] Other Spanish American mints followed and their thaler size silver coins are widely known as Spanish Milled Dollars.[18] The Spanish Milled Dollar, and its successor the Mexican Peso, were widely used in trade with the Orient, where coins were previously cast. In what is now Vietnam, emperor Minh Mạng introduced a coin based on the Spanish Milled Dollar in 1832. The subsequent French rulers of the area had a coinage based on the Spanish Milled Dollar struck at the Paris mint.[19] Commodore Perry opened Japan to foreign trade, which was mostly paid for in Mexican pesos, in 1853. In 1870, two years after the shogunate was overthrown, the restored Emperor Meiji built a mint at Osaka and imported minting machinery from Birmingham, England for it.[20] Likewise, Spanish Milled Dollars and Mexican pesos became the primary currency used for trade in large parts of southern China during the mid 1800s. China struck similar coins for Turkestan in 1877, and for its own use in 1890.[21]

In modern practice in the United States, milling, or a milled edge, can refer to the raised edge on the coin face, applied by a special milling machine after the planchets are cut out and polished. In addition, the reeding of coins of higher value, applied by the collar holding the coin when it is stamped, can

In modern practice in the United States, milling, or a milled edge, can refer to the raised edge on the coin face, applied by a special milling machine after the planchets are cut out and polished. In addition, the reeding of coins of higher value, applied by the collar holding the coin when it is stamped, can be considered part of the milled edge.[22][23]