Military tactics are the science and art of organizing a military
force, and the techniques for combining and using weapons and military
units to engage and defeat an enemy in battle. Changes in
philosophy and technology have been reflected in changes to military
tactics. In contemporary military science, tactics are the lowest of
three planning levels: (i) strategic, (ii) operational, and (iii)
tactical. The highest level of planning is strategy: how force is
translated into political objectives by bridging the means and ends of
war. The intermediate level, operational, the conversion of strategy
into tactics, deals with formations of units. In the vernacular,
tactical decisions are those made to achieve the greatest immediate
value; strategic decisions are those made to achieve the greatest
overall value, irrespective of the immediate results of a tactical
2 See also
4 External links
War I observation post disguised as a tree.
Military tactics answer the questions of how best to deploy and employ
forces on a small scale. Some practices have not changed since the
dawn of warfare: assault, ambushes, skirmishing, turning flanks,
reconnaissance, creating and using obstacles and defenses, etc. Using
ground to best advantage has not changed much either. Heights, rivers,
swamps, passes, choke points, and natural cover, can all be used in
multiple ways. Before the nineteenth century, many military tactics
were confined to battlefield concerns: how to maneuver units during
combat in open terrain. Nowadays, specialized tactics exist for many
situations, for example for securing a room in a building.
Technological changes can render existing tactics obsolete, and
sociological changes can shift the goals and methods of warfare,
requiring new tactics. Tactics define how soldiers are armed and
trained. Thus technology and society influence the development of
types of soldiers or warriors through history: Greek Hoplite, Roman
Legionary, Medieval Knight, Turk-Mongol Horse Archer, Chinese
Crossbowman, or an Air
Cavalry trooper. Each – constrained by his
weaponry, logistics and social conditioning – would use a
battlefield differently, but would usually seek the same outcomes from
their use of tactics. The First World
War forced great changes in
tactics as advances in technology rendered prior tactics useless.
Ancient Macedonian battle tactics
List of military tactics
^ Clausewitz, Carl (1832). On War.
^ Rogers, Clifford J. (2006). "Strategy, Operational Design, and
Tactics". In Bradford, James C. International Encyclopedia of Military
History. New York: Routledge.
Paddy Griffith (1994).
Battle Tactics of the Western Front: The
British Army's Art of Attack, 1916–18. Yale University Press.
Johnson, Rob, Michael Whitby, John France (2010). How to win on the
battlefield : 25 key tactics to outwit, outflank, and outfight
the enemy. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-25161-4. CS1
maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
Muhm, Gerhard. "German Tactics in the Italian Campaign".
Gerhard Muhm : La Tattica nella campagna ass d’Italia, in LINEA
GOTICA AVAMPOSTO DEI BALCANI, (Hrsg.) Amedeo Montemaggi - Edizioni
Civitas, Roma 1993.
Contemporary Marine tactics for war fighting
Napoleon's tactics and strategy
Small Unit Actions during German Campaign in Russia