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A military dictatorship (also known as a military junta) is a form of government different from civilian dictatorship for a number of reasons: their motivations for seizing power, the institutions through which they organize their rule and the ways in which they leave power. Often viewing itself as saving the nation from the corrupt or myopic civilian politicians, a military dictatorship justifies its position as "neutral" arbiters on the basis of their membership within the armed forces. For example, many juntas adopt titles, such as "National Redemption Council", "Committee of National Restoration", or "National Liberation Committee". Military
Military
leaders often rule as a junta, selecting one of themselves as a head.[1]

Contents

1 Types 2 Creation and evolution 3 Justification 4 Current cases 5 Past cases

5.1 Africa 5.2 North & Central America 5.3 South America 5.4 Asia 5.5 Europe 5.6 Oceania

6 See also 7 References

Types[edit] Since 1945 Latin America, Africa, Southern Europe, and the Middle East have been common areas for all military dictatorships. One of the reasons for this is the fact that the military often has more cohesion and institutional structure than most of the civilian institutions of society.[citation needed] The typical military dictatorship in Latin America
Latin America
was ruled by a junta (derived from a Spanish word which can be translated as "conference" or "board"), or a committee composed of several officers, often from the military's most senior leadership, but in other cases less senior, as evidenced by the term colonels' regime, where the military leaders remained loyal to the previous regime. Other military dictatorships are entirely in the hands of a single president, sometimes called a caudillo, normally the senior army commander. In either case, the chairman of the junta or the single commander may often personally assume office as head of state. In the Middle East, Africa
Africa
and Spain, military governments more often came to be led by a single powerful person, and were autocracies in addition to military dictatorships. Leaders like Idi Amin, Sani Abacha, Francisco Franco
Francisco Franco
and Saddam Hussein
Saddam Hussein
worked to develop a personality cult and became the faces of the nation inside and outside their countries. Creation and evolution[edit] Most military dictatorships are formed after a coup d'état has overthrown the previous government. Conversely, other military dictatorships may gradually restore significant components of civilian government while the senior military commander still maintains executive political power. In Pakistan, ruling Generals Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq
Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq
(1977–1988) and Pervez Musharraf (1999–2008) have held singular referendums to elect themselves President of Pakistan
Pakistan
for additional terms forbidden by the constitution. Justification[edit] In the past, military juntas have justified their rule as a way of bringing political stability for the nation or rescuing it from the threat of "dangerous ideologies". For example, in Latin America, Africa, and Asia the threat of communism was often used. Military regimes tend to portray themselves as non-partisan, as a "neutral" party that can provide interim leadership in times of turmoil, and also tend to portray civilian politicians as corrupt and ineffective. One of the almost universal characteristics of a military government is the institution of martial law or a permanent state of emergency. Current cases[edit]

Country Formerly Military
Military
dictatorship adopted Event

Egypt Unitary semi presidential republic July 3, 2013 2013 Egyptian coup d'état

 Ethiopia Federal dominant party parliamentary republic February 16, 2018 2018 Ethiopian state of emergency

Thailand Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy May 22, 2014 2014 Thai coup d'état

 Zimbabwe Unitary dominant party presidential republic November 21, 2017 2017 Zimbabwean coup d'état

Past cases[edit] In pre-modern times, in many societies a monarch, tribal chief, or big man could gain or maintain power through interpersonal combat, by personally leading a military force against rival factions, or by personally providing for the physical security of followers. (This might be referred to as a might makes right system.) Additionally, the ruling class was often also the warrior class. Due to the large number of historic regimes of this type that could arguably be classed as military dictatorships, the following list is limited to those administrations in power at some point since 1800. Some regimes such as Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
or Fascist Italy, while they pursued considerable aggressive and expansionist strategies, were not strictly run by the military and so are not included below. Africa[edit]

Mengistu Haile Mariam, Aman Mikael Andom
Aman Mikael Andom
and Atnafu Abate, leaders of the Ethiopian military junta

Protests against military dictatorship in Pakistan

  Algeria
Algeria
(1965–1976; 1992–1994; 2011)   Benin
Benin
(1963–1964; 1965–1968; 1969–1970; 1972–1975)   Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso
(1966–1977; 1980–1991; September 17–23, 2015)   Burundi
Burundi
(1966–1974; 1976–1979; 1987–1992)  Central African Republic
Republic
(1966–1979; 1981–1986; 2003–2005; 2013–2014)   Chad
Chad
(1975–1979; 1982–1989)   Ciskei
Ciskei
(1990–1994)   Comoros
Comoros
(1999–2002)  Democratic Republic
Republic
of the Congo (1965–1971; 1971–1997)   Republic
Republic
of the Congo (1968–1969; 1977–1979)  Côte d'Ivoire (1999–2000)   Egypt
Egypt
(1953–1956; 2011–2012; 2014–present)   Equatorial Guinea
Equatorial Guinea
(1979–1987)   Ethiopia
Ethiopia
(1974–1987; 2016–2017; 2018)   The Gambia
The Gambia
(1994–1996)   Ghana
Ghana
(1966–1969; 1972–1975; 1975–1979; 1981–1993)   Guinea
Guinea
(1984–1990; 2008–2010)   Guinea-Bissau
Guinea-Bissau
(1980–1984; 1999; 2003; April 12, 2012 – May 11, 2012)   Lesotho
Lesotho
(1986–1993, 2014)   Liberia
Liberia
(1980–1986, 1990–1997, 2003–2006)   Libya
Libya
(1969–1977; 1977–2011)   Madagascar
Madagascar
(1972–1976)   Mali
Mali
(1968–1992; March 21, 2012 – April 12, 2012)   Mauritania
Mauritania
(1978–1979; 1979–1992; 2005–2007; 2008–2009)   Niger
Niger
(1974–1989; 1996; 1999; 2010–2011)   Nigeria
Nigeria
(1966–1975; 1975–1979; 1983–1985; 1985–1993; 1993–1998; 1998–1999)   Rwanda
Rwanda
(1973–1975)  Sao Tome and Principe (1995; 2003)   Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone
(1967–1968; 1992–1996; 1997–1998)   Somalia
Somalia
(1969–1976; 1980–1991)   Sudan
Sudan
(1958–1964; 1969–1971; 1985–1986; 1989–1993)   Togo
Togo
(1967–1979)   Transkei
Transkei
(1987–1994)   Uganda
Uganda
(1971–1979; 1985–1986)   Venda
Venda
(1990–1994)   Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
(2017–present)

North & Central America[edit]

  Costa Rica
Costa Rica
(1868–1870; 1876–1882; 1917–1919)   Cuba
Cuba
(1933; 1952–1959)  Dominican Republic
Republic
(1899; 1930–1961; 1963–1966)   El Salvador
El Salvador
(1885–1911; 1931–1982)   Guatemala
Guatemala
(1944–1945; 1954–1957; 1957–1966; 1970–1986)   Haiti
Haiti
(1950–1956; 1956–1957; 1986–1990; 1991–1994)   Honduras
Honduras
(1956–1957; 1963–1971; 1972–1982)   Mexico
Mexico
(1876; 1877–1880; 1884–1911)   Nicaragua
Nicaragua
(1937–1956; 1967–1979)   Panama
Panama
(1903–1904; 1968–1989)

South America[edit]

  Argentina
Argentina
(1930–1932; 1943–1946; 1955–1958; 1966–1973; 1976–1983)   Bolivia
Bolivia
(1839–1843; 1848; 1857–1861; 1861; 1864–1872; 1876–1879; 1899; 1920–1921; 1930–1931; 1936–1940; 1946–1947; 1951–1952; 1964–1966; 1970–1979; 1980–1982)   Brazil
Brazil
(1889–1894; 1930; 1964–1985)   Chile
Chile
(1924–1925; 1925; 1932; 1973–1990)   Colombia
Colombia
(1953–1958)   Ecuador
Ecuador
(1876–1883; 1935–1938; 1947; 1963–1966; 1972–1979)   Paraguay
Paraguay
(1940–1948; 1954–1989)   Peru
Peru
(1842–1844; 1865–1867; 1872; 1879–1881; 1914–1915; 1930–1939; 1948–1956; 1962–1963; 1968–1980; 1992–2000)   Suriname
Suriname
(1980–1988)   Uruguay
Uruguay
(1865–1868; 1876–1879; 1933–1938; 1973–1985)   Venezuela
Venezuela
(1858–1859; 1859–1861; 1861–1863; 1908–1913; 1922–1929; 1931–1935; 1948–1958)

Asia[edit]

  Bangladesh
Bangladesh
(1975–1981; 1982–1990)  Burma (Myanmar) (1962–1974; 1988–2011)   Cambodia
Cambodia
(1970–1975)   Indonesia
Indonesia
(1967–1998) Pahlavi Iran
Iran
(1953–1957; 1978–1979)   Iraq
Iraq
(1933–1935; 1937–1938; 1949–1950; 1952–1953; 1958–1963; 1963–1979) Empire
Empire
of Japan
Japan
(1940–1945)   South Korea
South Korea
(1961–1963, 1980) Kingdom of Laos
Laos
(1959–1960)   Pakistan
Pakistan
(1958–1971; 1977–1988; 1999–2008)   Philippines
Philippines
(1898, 1972–1981)   Syria
Syria
(1949; 1951–1954; 1961–1972) Republic
Republic
of China (1912–1949) (1927-1949)/ Republic
Republic
of China (Taiwan) (1949-1987)   Thailand
Thailand
(1933; 1947–1948; 1951; 1957; 1958–1969; 1971–1973; 1976–1979; 1991–1992; 2006–2008; 2014–present)   Turkey
Turkey
(1960–1961; 1971–1973; 1980–1983; 2016)   South Vietnam
South Vietnam
(1963–1967)  North Yemen (1962–1967; 1974–1982)   North Korea
North Korea
(1948-present)

Europe[edit]

Kingdom of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
(1934–1935; 1944–1946)   France
France
(1870–1871) German Empire
Empire
(1916–1918)   Greece
Greece
(1925–1926; 1967–1974)   Poland
Poland
(1926–1935; 1981–1983)   Portugal
Portugal
(1926–1933) Kingdom of Romania
Romania
(1940–1944) Russian Empire
Empire
(1918–1920)   Spain
Spain
(1923–1930; 1936–1975)

Oceania[edit]

  Fiji
Fiji
(1987–1999; 2006–2014)

See also[edit]

Military
Military
rule (other) Khakistocracy Films depicting Latin American military dictatorships List of political leaders who held active military ranks in office

References[edit]

^ Cheibub, José Antonio; Jennifer Gandhi; James Raymond Vreeland (April 1, 2010). " Democracy
Democracy
and dictatorship revisited". Public Choice. 143 (1–2): 67–101. doi:10.1007/s11127-009-9491-2. ISSN 0048-5829. Retrieved March 24, 2014. 

v t e

Authoritarian and totalitarian forms of government

Forms

Absolute monarchy Autocracy Benevolent dictatorship Constitutional dictatorship Corporate republic Counterintelligence state Dictablanda Dictatorship Dominant-party state Mafia state Military
Military
dictatorship Ochlocracy One-party state Oligarchy Police state Theocracy Tsarist autocracy

Concepts

Authoritarian democracy Authoritarian socialism Despotism Enlightened absolutism Fascism Illiberal democracy Imperialism Inverted totalitarianism Nazism Right-wing authoritarianism Soft despotism Stalinism Third Positionism Totalitarian democracy Tyranny Tyranny of

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