HistoryThe Military Ordinariate of the Philippines was initially erected as a Military Vicariate on December 8, 1950 as per decree by Pope Pius XII via the Consistoriat Decree ''Ad consulendum''.''Statutes of the Military Ordinariate of the Philippines'' Article II in ''Legislazione sugli Ordinariati Castrensi'', Eduardo Baura, ed., Milano: Giuffrè Editore, 1992, p. 201. It was accepted by the Philippine Government in a diplomatic Agreement which took effect through the exchange of ''Notes Verbal'' in 1952 between then-Secretary of Foreign Affairs (Philippines), Foreign Secretary Jaime Elizalde and the Papal Nuncio to the Philippines Archbishop Egidio Vagnozzi. Rufino Jiao Santos, then-Auxiliary Bishop of Manila, took possession of the Vicariate and became the first Military Vicar in Philippine history. On April 12, 1986, Pope John Paul II promulgated the Apostolic Constitution ''Spirituale militum curæ'', which took effect on July 21, 1986. This Papal document was unique as it began a new structure for all Military Vicariates all over the world, elevating these to the level of Ordinariates, thus giving them the same status as territorial Dioceses. The Ordinariate has its own ''Curia (religion), curia'' and it exercises its pastoral ministry through Military, Police, and Philippine Coast Guard, Bureau of Jail Management and Penology, and Bureau of Fire Protection Chaplains assigned to the different branches of services of Filipino uniformed men and women. The exact number of faithful under this jurisdiction is a classified information, but it is approximately 90 percent of the servicemen and women. The mostly Diocesan clergy of the Ordinariate carry officers' ranks, and are assigned to the different Armed Forces of the Philippines, AFP, Philippine National Police, PNP, and Philippine Coast Guard, Bureau of Jail Management and Penology, and Bureau of Fire Protection command posts nationwide.
Subjects* All Catholic Chaplains in active Military, Police, or Coast Guard service. * All civilian Catholic priests, diocesan or religious, who are properly and officially appointed as Volunteer Chaplains in the service of the Military Ordinariate. * All Catholic laity in active Military, Police, or Coast Guard service. * All Catholic civilian human resources and non-uniformed personnel, their spouses and children, residing either inside or outside any Military, Police, or Coast Guard installation. * All families of Catholic laity in active Military, Police, or Coast Guard service; namely, the spouses, children, servants and those who habitually live in the same house, whether inside or outside any Military, Police, or Coast Guard installation. * All Catholics living within any Military, Police, or Coast Guard installation, or in homes reserved by the Government for Military, Police, or Coast Guard personnel and their families. * All Catholics living or working in military hospitals, hospices for the elderly, or similar institutions. * All Catholics, whether or not members of a religious institute, who permanently carry out a task committed them by the Military Ordinary, or with his consent.
Territorial possessionsThough not bound to any particular geographical area, the Military Ordinariate has several buildings under its jurisdiction, almost all of which are within military or police instalments. The Ordinariate's principal church is the Saint Ignatius Military Cathedral in Camp Aguinaldo, Camp General Emilio Aguinaldo, Quezon City, Philippines, while its pro-cathedral for the Police is the Saint Joseph Pro-Cathedral in Camp Crame (across Camp Aguinaldo on the other side of Epifanio de los Santos Avenue, EDSA). The Ordinariate also owns the large Shrine of St. Therese, Doctor of the Church, situated near Villamor Airbase, Ninoy Aquino International Airport#Terminal 3, NAIA Terminal 3, and Resorts World Manila in Pasay.
ChaplainsPriests who wish join the Chaplain Services of the Armed Forces, the National Police, and the Coast Guard are required to fulfil the standard requirements of both the service branch they are entering and the Church. The endorsement of the Military Ordinary is amongst the most important of the ecclesiastical requirements; the Ordinary submits the names of applicants for a "call to active duty" (CAD). He gives to Chaplains and civilian priests working for the services the canonical faculties to exercise their spiritual ministry among subjects of the Military Ordinariate. Military chaplain, Chaplains in active duty are given the initial rank of Captain or its equivalent in other branches of the services. They enjoy the prerogatives and privileges of the rest of the officers belonging to the same grade or rank in the service. Chaplains in active service who are not incardinated into the Military Ordinariate may be subject to recall by the Bishop of their respective diocese of origin, even without cause. On the other hand, the Ordinary may also withdraw his endorsement for cause. The chaplain whose endorsement has thus been withdrawn is to report to their Diocesan Bishop or Religious Superior as soon as possible. Chaplains whose tour of active service is terminated are to return to their respective dioceses or religious orders, or as otherwise advised or directed by their original Bishop or Superior.
Military OrdinaryThe Military Ordinary must be a Filipino people, Filipino-born member of the nation's Catholic Church hierarchy, Church hierarchy, and is appointed by the Holy See after consultation with government. The Pope freely nominates the Military Ordinary– normally a Bishop (Catholic Church), bishop– or institutes or confirms the candidate legitimately chosen according to the 1983 Code of Canon Law, Canon Law. He belongs by right to the Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines and is subject to the Congregation for Bishops.''Statutes of the Military Ordinariate of the Philippines'' Article III, Section 2.3 in ''Legislazione sugli Ordinariati Castrensi'', Eduardo Baura, ed., Milano: Giuffrè Editore, 1992, p. 202.
Former Military Ordinaries* † Cardinal Rufino Jiao Santos (1951–1973) – Appointed as the Archdiocese of Manila, Archbishop of Manila * † Archbishop Mariano Gaviola (1974–1981) – Appointed as the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Lipa, Archbishop of Lipa * † Bishop Pedro G. Magugat, MSC (1981–1985) – Died on February 26, 1995 * Archbishop Ramon Arguelles, Ramón Arguelles (1995–2004) – Appointed as the Archdiocese of Lipa, Archbishop of Lipa * † Bishop Leopoldo S. Tumulak (2005–2017) – Died on June 17, 2017 * Bishop Oscar Jaime Florencio (2018–present)
See also*Roman Catholicism in the Philippines