The mile is an English unit of length of linear measure equal to 5,280
feet, or 1,760 yards, and standardised as exactly
1,609.344 metres by international agreement in 1959.
With qualifiers, "mile" is also used to describe or translate a wide
range of units derived from or roughly equivalent to the
Roman mile, such as the nautical mile (now 1.852 km
exactly), the Italian mile (roughly 1.852 km), and the
Chinese mile (now 500 m exactly). The Romans divided their
mile into 5,000 feet but the greater importance of furlongs in
pre-modern England meant that the statute mile was made
equivalent to 8 furlongs or 5,280 feet in 1593. This form of the
mile then spread to the British-colonized nations who continue to
employ the mile. The US Geological Survey now employs the metre for
official purposes but legacy data from its 1927 geodetic datum has
meant that a separate US survey mile (6336/3937 km)
continues to see some use. While most countries replaced the mile with
the kilometre when switching to the International System of Units, the
international mile continues to be used in some countries, such as
Liberia, Myanmar, the United Kingdom, the United States, and a number
of countries with fewer than one million inhabitants, most of which
are UK or US territories, or have close historical ties with the UK or
The mile was usually abbreviated m. in the past but is now sometimes
written as mi to avoid confusion with the SI metre; road signs in the
United Kingdom continue to use m as the abbreviation for mile. Derived
units such as miles per hour and miles per gallon, however, continue
to be universally abbreviated as mph, mpg, and so on.
2 Historical miles
2.1 Roman mile
2.2 Italian mile
2.3 Arabic mile
2.4 British and Irish miles
2.4.1 English mile
2.4.2 Welsh mile
2.4.3 Scots mile
2.4.4 Irish mile
2.5 Other historical miles
3 International mile
4 U.S. survey mile
5 Nautical mile
5.1 Related nautical units
6 Geographical mile
7 Grid system
8 Metric mile
9 Scandinavian mile
10 Comparison table
12 See also
15 Further reading
The modern English word mile derives from
Middle English myl and Old
English mīl, which was cognate with all other Germanic terms for
"miles". These derived from apocopated forms of the
Latin mīlia or
mīllia, the plural of mīle or mīlle,[n 1] literally "thousand" but
used as a clipped form of mīlle passus or passuum, the Roman mile of
one thousand paces.
The present international mile is usually what is understood by the
unqualified term "mile." When this distance needs to be distinguished
from the nautical mile, the international mile may also be described
as a "land mile" or "statute mile." In British English, the
"statute mile" may refer to the present international miles or to any
other form of English mile since the 1593
Act of Parliament
Act of Parliament which set
it as a distance of 1,760 yards. Under American law, however, the
"statute mile" refers to the US survey mile. Foreign and historical
units translated into English as miles usually employ a qualifier to
describe the kind of mile being used but this may be omitted if it is
obvious from the context, such as a discussion of the 2nd-century
Antonine Itinerary describing its distances in terms of "miles" rather
than "Roman miles."
The mile has been variously abbreviated—with and without a trailing
period—as m, M, ml, and mi. The American National Institute of
Standards and Technology now uses and recommends mi in order to avoid
confusion with the SI metre (m) and millilitre (ml). Derived units
such as miles per hour and miles per gallon, however, continue to be
abbreviated in the United States, United Kingdom, and Canada as mph,
mpg, etc. rather than mi/h or mi/gal. The
BBC style holds that "There
is no acceptable abbreviation for 'miles'" and so it should be spelt
out when used in describing areas.
The remains of the Golden Milestone, the zero mile marker of the Roman
road network, in the Roman Forum
The Roman mile (mille passus, lit. "thousand paces";
abbr. m.p.; also milia passuum[n 2] and mille) consisted of a
thousand paces as measured by every other step—as in the total
distance of the left foot hitting the ground 1,000 times. The ancient
Romans, marching their armies through uncharted territory, would often
push a carved stick in the ground after each 1,000 paces. Well-fed and
harshly driven Roman legionaries in good weather thus created longer
miles. The distance was indirectly standardised by Agrippa's
establishment of a standard
Roman foot (Agrippa's own) in 29 BC,
and the definition of a pace as 5 feet. An Imperial Roman mile
thus denoted 5,000 Roman feet. Surveyors and specialized
equipment such as the decempeda and dioptra then spread its use. In
modern times, Agrippa's Imperial Roman mile was empirically estimated
to have been about 1,481 metres (4,851 English feet or
1,617 English yards) in length. In Hellenic areas of the
Empire, the Roman mile (Greek: μίλιον, mílion) was used beside
Greek units as equivalent to 8 stadia of 600 Greek feet.
The mílion continued to be used as a Byzantine unit and was also used
as the name of the zero mile marker for the Byzantine Empire, the
Milion, located at the head of the Mese near Hagia Sophia.
The Roman mile also spread throughout Europe, with its local
variations giving rise to the different units below.
Also arising from the Roman mile is the "milestone". All roads
radiated out from the
Roman Forum throughout the Empire – 50,000
miles of stone-paved roads. At every mile was placed a shaped stone,
on which was carved a Roman numeral, indicating the number of miles
from the center of Rome – the Forum. Hence, one always knew how far
one was from Rome.
The Italian mile (miglio, pl. miglia) was traditionally
considered a direct continuation of the Roman mile, equal to 1000
paces, although its actual value over time or between regions
could vary greatly. It was often used in international contexts
from the Middle Ages into the 17th century and is thus also known
as the "geographical mile", although the geographical mile is now
a separate standard unit.
Main article: Arabic mile
Arabic mile (الميل, al-mīl) was not the common Arabic unit
of length; instead,
Arabs and Persians traditionally used the longer
parasang or "Arabic league". The
Arabic mile was, however, used by
medieval geographers and scientists and constituted a kind of
precursor to the nautical or geographical mile. It extended the Roman
mile to fit an astronomical approximation of 1 arcminute of latitude
measured directly north-and-south along a meridian. Although the
precise value of the approximation remains disputed, it was somewhere
between 1.8 and 2.0 km.
British and Irish miles
See also: yard
The "old English mile" of the medieval and early modern periods varied
but seems to have measured about 1.3 international miles
(1.9 km). The English long continued the Roman computations
of the mile as 5000 feet, 1000 paces, or 8 longer divisions, which
they equated with their "furrow's length" or furlong.
The origins of
English units are "extremely vague and uncertain",
but seem to have been a combination of the Roman system with native
British and Germanic systems both derived from multiples of the
barleycorn.[n 3] Probably by the reign of Edgar in the 10th century,
the nominal prototype physical standard of English length was an
arm-length iron bar (a yardstick) held by the king at
Winchester; the foot was then one-third of its length.
Henry I was said to have made a new standard in 1101 based on his
own arm. Following the issuance of Magna Carta, the barons of
Parliament directed John and his son to keep the king's standard
measure (Mensura Domini Regis) and weight at the Exchequer, which
thereafter verified local standards until its abolition in the 19th
century. New brass standards are known to have been constructed under
Henry VII and Elizabeth I.
Arnold's c. 1500 Customs of London recorded a mile shorter than
previous ones, coming to 0.947 international miles or
The English statute mile was established by a Weights and Measures
Act of Parliament
Act of Parliament in 1593 during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I.
The act on the
Composition of Yards and Perches had shortened the
length of the foot and its associated measures, causing the two
methods of determining the mile to diverge. Owing to the
importance of the surveyor's rod in deeds and surveying undertaken
under Henry VIII, decreasing the length of the rod by
1⁄11 would have amounted to a significant tax increase.
Parliament instead opted to maintain the mile of 8 furlongs (which
were derived from the rod) and to increase the number of feet per mile
from the old Roman value. The applicable passage of the statute
Mile shall contain eight Furlongs, every
Poles,[n 4] and every Pole shall contain sixteen Foot and an
half." The statute mile therefore contained 5,280 feet or
1,760 yards. The distance was not uniformly adopted. Robert
Morden had multiple scales on his 17th-century maps which included
continuing local values: his map of Hampshire, for example, bore two
different "miles" with a ratio of 1 : 1.23 and his map of
Dorset had three scales with a ratio of 1 : 1.23 : 1.41.
In both cases, the traditional local units remained longer than the
The Welsh mile (milltir or milldir) was 3 miles and
1470 yards long (6.17 km). It comprised 9000 paces
(cam), each of 3
Welsh feet (troedfedd) of 9 inches,
usually reckoned as equivalent to the English inch. Along with other
Welsh units, it was said to have been codified under Dyfnwal the Bald
and Silent and retained unchanged by Hywel the Good. Along with
other Welsh units, it was discontinued following the conquest of Wales
by the English under Edward I in the 13th century.
Edinburgh's "Royal Mile"—running from the castle to Holyrood
Abbey—is roughly a Scots mile long.
The Scots mile is longer than the English mile, as mentioned by
Robert Burns in the first verse of his poem "Tam o' Shanter". It
comprised 8 (Scots) furlongs divided into 320 falls or
faws (Scots rods). It varied from place to place but the most
accepted equivalencies are 1,976 Imperial yards (1.123
statute miles or 1.81 km).
It was legally abolished three times: first by a 1685 act of the
Scottish Parliament, again by the 1707 Treaty of Union with
England, and finally by the Weights and Measures Act 1824. It
had continued in use as a customary unit through the 18th century but
had become obsolete by its final abolition.
Main article: Irish mile
Irish mile (míle or míle Gaelach) measured 2240 yards:
approximately 1.27 statute miles or 2.048 kilometres. It was used
in Ireland from the 16th century plantations until the 19th century,
with residual use into the 20th century. The units were based on
"English measure" but used a linear perch measuring 7 yards
(6.4 m) as opposed to the English rod of 5.5 yards (5.0 m).
Other historical miles
Various historic miles and leagues from an 1848 German textbook, given
in feet, metres, and fractions of a meridian
Scalebar on a 16th-century map made by Mercator. The scalebar is
expressed in "Hours walking or common Flemish miles", and includes
three actual scales: small, medium and big Flemish miles
The Dutch mile (Mijl) has had different definitions throughout
history. One of the older definitions was 5600 ells. But the length of
an ell was not standardised, so that the length of a mile could range
between 3280 m and 4280 m. The Dutch mile also has had
historical definitions of one hour's walking (Uur gaans), which meant
around 5 km, or 20,000 Amsterdam or Rhineland feet (respectively
5660 m or 6280 m). Besides the common Dutch mile, there is
also the geographical mile. 15 geographical Dutch miles equal one
degree of longitude on the equator. Its value changed as the
circumference of the earth was estimated to a better precision. But at
the time of usage, it was around 7157 m. The metric system was
introduced in the Netherlands in 1816, and the metric mile became a
synonym for the kilometer, being exactly 1000 m. Since 1870, the
term "mile" was replaced by the equivalent "kilometer". Today, the
word "mile" is no longer used, apart from some old proverbs.
The German mile (Meile) was 24,000 German feet. The standardised
Austrian mile used in southern Germany and the
Austrian Empire was
7.586 km; the Prussian mile used in northern Germany was
7.5325 km. Following its standardisation by
Ole Rømer in the
late 17th century, the Danish mile (mil) was precisely equal to the
Prussian mile and likewise divided into 24,000 feet. These were
sometimes treated as equivalent to 7.5 km. Earlier values had
varied: the Sjællandske miil, for instance, had been 11.13 km.
The Germans also used a longer version of the geographical mile.
The Saxon Post mile (kursächsische Postmeile or Polizeimeile,
introduced on occasion of a survey of the Saxon roads in the 1700s,
corresponded to 2000 Dresden rods, equivalent to 9.062 kilometres.
The Hungarian mile (mérföld or magyar mérföld) varied from
8.3790 km to 8.9374 km before being standardised as
The Portuguese mile (milha) used in Portugal and Brazil was
2.0873 km prior to metrication.
The Russian mile (миля or русская миля, russkaya
milya) was 7.468 km, divided into 7 versts.
Croatian mile (hrvatska milja), first devised by the Jesuit
Stjepan Glavač on a 1673 map, is the length of an arc of the equator
subtended by 1/10° or 11.13 km exactly. The previous
Croatian mile, now known as the "ban mile" (banska milja), had been
the Austrian mile given above.
The Ottoman mile was 1,894.35 m (1.17709 mi), which was equal to
5,000 Ottoman foot. After 1933, the Ottoman mile was replaced with the
modern Turkish mile (1,853.181 m).
The international mile is precisely equal to
7003160934400000000♠1.609344 km (or 25146/15625 km as a
fraction). It was established as part of the 1959 international
yard and pound agreement reached by the United States, the United
Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa, which
resolved small but measurable differences that had arisen from
separate physical standards each country had maintained for the
yard. As with the earlier statute mile, it continues to comprise
1,760 yards or 5,280 feet.
The old Imperial value of the yard was used in converting measurements
to metric values in India in a 1976 Act of the Indian Parliament.
However, the current National Topographic Database of the Survey of
India is based on the metric
WGS-84 datum, which is also used by
the Global Positioning System.
The difference from the previous standards was 2 ppm, or about
3.2 millimeters (1⁄8 inch) per mile. The U.S. standard
was slightly longer and the old Imperial standards had been slightly
shorter than the international mile. When the international mile was
introduced in English-speaking countries, the basic geodetic datum in
America was the
North American Datum
North American Datum of 1927 (NAD27). This had been
constructed by triangulation based on the definition of the foot in
Mendenhall Order of 1893, with
1 foot = 1200/3937 metres and the definition was
retained for data derived from NAD27, but renamed the U.S. survey foot
to distinguish it from the international foot.[n 5]
The exact length of the land mile varied slightly among
English-speaking countries until the international yard and pound
agreement in 1959 established the yard as exactly 0.9144 metres,
giving a mile exactly 1,609.344 metres. The U.S. adopted this
international mile for most purposes, but retained the pre-1959 mile
for some land-survey data, terming it the U. S. survey mile. In the
United States, statute mile normally refers to the survey mile,
about 3.219 mm (1⁄8 inch) longer than the international
mile (the international mile is exactly 0.0002% less than the U.S.
While most countries replaced the mile with the kilometre when
switching to the International System of Units, the international mile
continues to be used in some countries such as Liberia, Myanmar,
the United Kingdom and the United States. It is furthermore
used in a number of countries with vastly less than a million
inhabitants, most of which are UK or US territories, or have close
historical ties with the UK or US: American Samoa, Bahamas,
Belize, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands,
Dominica, Falkland Islands, Grenada, Guam, The N.
Mariana Islands, Samoa, St. Lucia, St. Vincent & The
Grenadines, St. Helena, St. Kitts & Nevis, the Turks
& Caicos Islands, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The mile is
even encountered in Canada, though this is predominantly in rail
transport and horse racing, as the roadways have been metricated since
U.S. survey mile
The U.S. survey mile is 5,280 survey feet, or about
1,609.347 metres. In the United States, statute mile formally
refers to the survey mile, but for most purposes, the difference
between the survey mile and the international mile is
insignificant—one international mile is
6999999998000000000♠0.999998 U.S. survey miles—so statute mile can
be used for either. But in some cases, such as in the U.S. State Plane
Coordinate Systems (SPCSs), which can stretch over hundreds of
miles, the accumulated difference can be significant, so it is
important to note that the reference is to the U.S. survey mile.
The United States redefined its yard in 1893, but this resulted in
U.S. and Imperial measures of distance having very slightly different
North American Datum
North American Datum of 1983 (NAD83), which replaced the NAD27, is
defined in meters. State Plane Coordinate Systems were then updated,
National Geodetic Survey
National Geodetic Survey left individual states to decide
which (if any) definition of the foot they would use. All State Plane
Coordinate Systems are defined in meters, and 42 of the 50 states only
use the metre-based State Plane Coordinate Systems. However, eight
states also have State Plane Coordinate Systems defined in feet, seven
of them in U.S. Survey feet and one in international feet. State
legislation in the U.S. is important for determining which conversion
factor from the metric datum is to be used for land surveying and real
estate transactions, even though the difference (2 ppm) is hardly
significant, given the precision of normal surveying measurements over
short distances (usually much less than a mile). Twenty-four states
have legislated that surveying measures be based on the U.S. survey
foot, eight have legislated that they be based on the international
foot, and eighteen have not specified which conversion factor to
On the utility of the nautical mile.
Each circle shown is a great circle—the analog of a line in
spherical trigonometry—and hence the shortest path connecting two
points on the globular surface. Meridians are great circles that pass
through the poles.
Main article: Nautical mile
The nautical mile was originally defined as one minute of arc along a
meridian of the Earth. Navigators use dividers to step off the
distance between two points on the navigational chart, then place the
open dividers against the minutes-of-latitude scale at the edge of the
chart, and read off the distance in nautical miles. The Earth is
not perfectly spherical but an oblate spheroid, so the length of a
minute of latitude increases by 1% from the equator to the poles.
Using the WGS84 ellipsoid, the commonly accepted Earth model for many
purposes today, one minute of latitude at the WGS84 equator is 6,046
feet and at the poles is 6,107.5 feet. The average is about 6,076 feet
(about 1,852 metres or 1.15 statute miles).
In the United States the nautical mile was defined in the 19th century
as 6,080.2 feet (1,853.249 m), whereas in the United
Kingdom, the Admiralty nautical mile was defined as 6,080 feet
(1,853.184 m) and was about one minute of latitude in the
latitudes of the south of the UK. Other nations had different
definitions of the nautical mile, but it is now internationally
defined to be exactly 1,852 metres (6,076.11548556 feet).
Related nautical units
The nautical mile per hour is known as the knot. Nautical miles and
knots are almost universally used for aeronautical and maritime
navigation, because of their relationship with degrees and minutes of
latitude and the convenience of using the latitude scale on a map for
The data mile is used in radar-related subjects and is equal to 6,000
feet (1.8288 kilometres). The radar mile is a unit of time (in the
same way that the light year is a unit of distance), equal to the time
required for a radar pulse to travel a distance of two miles (one mile
each way). Thus, the radar statute mile is 10.8 μs and the radar
nautical mile is 12.4 μs.
Main article: Geographical mile
The geographical mile is based upon the length of a meridian of
latitude. The German geographical mile (geographische Meile) was
previously 1⁄15° of latitude (7.4127 km).
Cities in the continental United States often have streets laid out by
miles. Detroit, Indianapolis, Chicago, Phoenix, Philadelphia, Las
Vegas, Los Angeles, and Miami, are several examples. Typically the
largest streets are about a mile apart, with others at smaller
intervals. In the
Manhattan borough of New York City "streets" are
close to 20 per mile, while the major numbered "avenues" are about six
per mile. (Centerline to centerline, 42nd
Street to 22nd
supposed to be 5250 feet while 42nd
Street to 62nd
Street is supposed
to be [clarification needed] 5276 ft 8 in.)
Main article: Metric mile
The informal term "metric mile" is used in sports such as track and
field athletics and speed skating to denote a distance of 1,500 metres
(4,921 ft). In United States high-school competition, the term is
sometimes used for a race of 1,600 metres (5,249 ft).
Main article: Scandinavian mile
Scandinavian mile (mil) remains in common use in Norway and
Sweden, where it has meant precisely 10 km since metrication
occurred in 1889. It is used in informal situations and in
measurements of fuel consumption, which are often given as litres per
mil. In formal situations (such as official road signs) and where
confusion may occur with international miles, it is avoided in favour
The Swedish mile was standardised as 36,000 Swedish feet or
10.687 km in 1649; before that it varied by province from about 6
to 14.485 km.
Before metricationThe Norwegian mile was 11.298 km.
The traditional Finnish peninkulma was translated as mil in Swedish
and also set equal to 10 km during metrication in 1887, but is
much less commonly used.
A comparison of the different lengths for a "mile", in different
countries and at different times in history, is given in the table
below. Leagues are also included in this list because, in terms of
length, they fall in between the short West European miles and the
long North, Central and Eastern European miles.
Biblical and Talmudic units of measurement
mille passus, milliarium
Roman units of measurement
Over the course of time, the length of a yard changed several times
and consequently so did the English, and from 1824, the imperial mile.
The statute mile was introduced in 1592 during the reign of Queen
Until 1 July 1959 the imperial mile was a standard length worldwide.
The length given in metres is exact.
From 1959 also called the U.S. Survey Mile. From then its only utility
has been land survey, before it was the standard mile. From 1893 its
exact length in meters was: 3600/3937 × 1760
approx. 1 minute of arc
Measured at a circumference of 40,000 km. Abbreviation: NM, nm
1 meridian minute
1 equatorial minute
Although the NM was defined on the basis of the minute, it varies from
the equatorial minute, because at that time the circumferences of the
equator was only able to be estimated at 40,000 km
Under the reign of
Emperor Septimius Severus, this replaced the Roman
mile as the official unit of distance in the Gallic and Germanic
provinces, although there were regional and temporal variations.
French lieue (post league)
2000 "body lengths"
general or metric league
= 2500 tresas = 5000 varas
1⁄25° of a circle of longitude
Units of measurement in France before the French Revolution
Chile, (Guatemala, Haiti)
= 36 cuadros = 5400 varas
English land league
Germanic rasta, also doppelleuge
= 40 ladres
Argentina, Buenos Aires
= 6,000 varas
Seeleuge (nautical league)
1⁄20° of a circle of longitude
3 nautical miles
Spain and Chile
Spanish customary units
= 3 Millas
= 20,000 feet
= 3 millas = 15,000 feet
= 5,000 varas = 2,500 bracas
Fersah (Turkish league)
4 Turkish miles
Derived from Persian Parasang.
9000 cam ( = 27 000 troedfedd = 243 000 inches)
eclipsed by the conquest of Wales by Edward I
= 3 milhas = 24 estadios
new league, since 1766
= 8,000 varas
(state survey mile)
4 meridian minutes
Kingdom of Hanover
Duchy of Brunswick
1⁄15 equatorial grads
4 equatorial minutes
Obsolete Russian units of measurement
kleine / neue Postmeile
(small/new postal mile)
German Empire, North German Confederation, Grand Duchy of Hesse,
(German state mile)
Denmark, Hamburg, Prussia
primarily for Denmark defined by Ole Rømer
Austrian units of measurement
mittlere Post- / Polizeimeile
(middle post mile or police mile)
Electorate of Hesse
5 meridian minutes
5 equatorial minutes
(old state mile)
(old state mile)
metric mile, Scandinavian mile
still commonly used today, e. g. for road distances.; equates to
In normal speech, "mil" means a
Scandinavian mile of 10 km.
6 meridian minutes
6 equatorial minutes
was equivalent to 3000 Rhenish rods.
1066.8 m – verst, see also Obsolete Russian units of
Even in English-speaking countries that have moved from the Imperial
to the metric system (for example, Australia, Canada, and New
Zealand), the mile is still used in a variety of idioms. These
A country mile is used colloquially to denote a very long distance.
"A miss is as good as a mile" (failure by a narrow margin is no better
than any other failure)
"Give him an inch and he'll take a mile" – a corruption of
"Give him an inch and he'll take an ell" (the person in
question will become greedy if shown generosity)
"Missed by a mile" (missed by a wide margin)
"Go a mile a minute" (move very quickly)
Talk a mile a minute" (speak at a rapid rate)
"To go the extra mile" (to put in extra effort)
"Miles away" (lost in thought, or daydreaming)
"Milestone" (an event indicating significant progress)
Chinese mile (里)
Medieval weights and measures
^ Scandinavian miles probably derived from Middle Low German, while
the terms in Romance languages developed variously from the singular
^ A partitive genitive construction literally meaning "one thousand of
^ The c. 1300 Composition of Yards and Perches, a statute of
uncertain date usually reckoned as an enactment of Edward I
or II, notionally continued to derive
English units from three
barleycorns "dry and round" to the inch and this statute remained
in force until the 1824 Weights and Measures Act establishing the
Imperial system. In practice, official measures were verified using
the standards at the
Exchequer or simply ignored.
^ "Pole" being another name for the rod.
^ When reading the document it helps to bear in mind that 999,998 =
3,937 × 254.
^ a b OED (2002), "mile, n.1".
^ AHD (2006), "mile, 1".
^ a b Thompson (2008), B.6..
^ Butcher (2014), p. C-16.
^ "Numbers" bbc.co.uk
^ Lease (1905), p. 211.
^ Soren (1999), p. 184.
^ Smith (1875), p. 171.
^ a b 1.
^ Zupko (1981), "Miglio".
^ Andrews (2003), p. 70.
^ a b c Klein (1988), p. 69.
^ a b c d Chisholm (1864), p. 8.
^ a b c NPL.
^ Chisholm (1864), p. 37.
^ Chisolm (1864), p. 8.
^ Chisholm (1864), p. 4.
^ Zupko (1977), pp. 10–11, 20–21.
^ Burke (1978), Ch. 9.
^ Adams (1990).
^ Statutes at large from the first year of King Edward the fourth to
the end of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. Vol. II. 1763.
p. 676. Retrieved 29 November 2011.
^ Act 35 Eliz. I cap. 6, s. 8.
^ Norgate (1998).
^ Morden (1695).
^ Owen (1841), Book II, Ch. XVII, §5.
^ Owen (1841), Book II, Ch. XVII, §2.
Edinburgh 2000 visitors' guide. Collins. 1999. p. 31.
^ a b "mile". Dictionary of the Scottish Language – Scottish
^ "fall, faw". Dictionary of the Scottish Language – Dictionary of
the Older Scottish Tongue.
^ "Act for a standard of miles" (June 16, 1685). APS viii: 494, c.59.
^ Union with England Act 1707 (c. 7), art. 17.
^ Rowlett (2005), "Irish mile".
^ a b c Rowlett (2005), "mil 4".
^ "Historie der Postsäulen" (in German). Forschungsgruppe
Kursächsische Postmeilensäulen e.V. und 1. Sächsischer
Postkutschenverein e.V. Retrieved 5 February 2017.
^ Rowlett (2005), "milha".
^ (in Croatian) "Centuries of Natural Science in Croatia : Theory
and Application". Kartografija i putopisi.
^ (in Croatian) Vijenac Archived 2009-01-16 at the Wayback Machine.
Mrvice s banskoga stola
^ "Schedule I, Part VI", Weights & Measures Act of
^ 1,760 yards × 0.9144 m/yard.
^ Barbrow (1976), pp. 16–17, 20.
^ Bigg (1964).
^ Schedule to the Standards of Weights and Measures Act, 1976.
^ Survey of India, "National Map Policy – 2005 Archived
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