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The Info List - Middle Pleistocene


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The Middle Pleistocene
Pleistocene
is an informal, unofficial subdivision of the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
Epoch,[2] from 781,000 to 126,000 years ago.[3] The base of the Middle Pleistocene
Pleistocene
succeeds the Calabrian Stage (the beginning of the Brunhes–Matuyama reversal) and precedes the Tarantian Stage or Upper Pleistocene, which in turn spans from the beginning of the last interglacial ( Marine isotopic stage
Marine isotopic stage
5) to the base of the Holocene
Holocene
(~10.5 ka).

Contents

1 Definition process

1.1 Ionian 1.2 Chibanian

2 Faunal stages 3 See also 4 References

Definition process[edit] Around the start of this century, the ICS Subcommission on Quaternary Stratigraphy had intended to formally divide the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
Epoch into three subepochs/subseries: the Early/Lower Pleistocene, the Middle Pleistocene
Pleistocene
and the Late/Upper Pleistocene. In 2009, however, the ICS's governing body (the IUGS), overuled this approach, preferring instead to divide the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
Epoch into four ages/stages. Some GSSP
GSSP
candidate sites were selected and informal names based on these locations were proposed. This resulted in the 2009 proposal that the Middle Pleistocene
Pleistocene
subepoch/subseries should be replaced by the Ionian age/stage, the start/base of which would be defined at a location in Italy.[2] Ionian[edit]

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The Ionian stage includes all of the European Sicilian Stage and the first part of the Tyrrhenian Stage. Suitable sections for defining the base of the Ionian Stage are located in southern Italy. During Lower and Middle Pleistocene
Pleistocene
the Adriatic-Ionian margin was characterized by high sedimentation rates, in response to intense differential tectonic subsidence and massive sedimentary yield. Specifically, candidate sections are the “Montalbano Jonico” Section (Bradanic Trough, Basilicata
Basilicata
Region) and the “Valle di Manche Nord” Section (San Mauro Marchesato, Crotone Basin, Calabria
Calabria
Region). In the former, a spectacular succession of marls laid in the Apennine foredeep is exposed which, however, are unfortunately unsuitable for magnetostratigraphic analyses. The latter, which is represented by a shallowing-upward succession that developed in an outer-shelf environment, has the bonus of a sharp biomagnetostratigraphic record, which provides tighter age control. Besides these exposures, a number of Ocean Drilling Program
Ocean Drilling Program
cores drilled either in the Ionian Sea (Site 964) and in the Sicily Channel-Capo Rossello area (Site 963) are available, which correlate well with the on-land sections mentioned above based on a significant number of criteria (magnetostratigraphy, biostratigraphy, sapropel stratigraphy, stable isotopes, Tephrochronology). The interval corresponding to the Ionian Stage is especially well represented in Site 963, where no turbidites and/or hiatuses are recognized. Presently, the Montalbano Ionico section is possibly the main candidate for defining the Lower - Middle Pleistocene
Pleistocene
boundary, when a reliable magnetostratigraphic record is found. The oldest known human's DNA dates to the Middle Pleistocene. Chibanian[edit] In November 2017, the Chibanian (defined at a site in Chiba Prefecture, Japan) replaced the Ionian as the Subcommission on Quaternary
Quaternary
Stratigraphy's preferred GSSP
GSSP
proposal for the age/stage that should replace the Middle Pleistocene
Pleistocene
subepoch/subseries. Until the Chibanian is ratified by the IUGS, the Chibanian will remain an unofficial informal, proposed stratigraphic division[4] and Middle Pleistocene
Pleistocene
remains the ICS's unofficial name for this time period and series of rocks.[3] Faunal stages[edit]

North American land mammal ages within the Middle Pleistocene: South American land mammal ages within the Middle Pleistocene: Asian land mammal ages within the Middle Pleistocene: European land mammal ages within the Middle Pleistocene:

See also[edit]

100,000-year problem

References[edit]

^ Fan, Junxuan; Hou, Xudong. "International Chronostratigraphic Chart". International Commission on Stratigraphy. Retrieved February 11, 2018.  ^ a b "Formal subdivision of the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
Series/Epoch". Subcommission on Quaternary
Quaternary
Stratigraphy (International Commission on Stratigraphy). 4 January 2016. Retrieved 17 March 2018.  ^ a b "International Chronostratigraphic Chart v2017/02". International Commission on Stratigraphy. 2017. Retrieved 17 March 2018.  ^ "Japan-based name 'Chibanian' set to represent geologic age of last magnetic shift". The Japan Times. 14 November 2017. Retrieved 17 March 2018. 

Middle Pleistocene
Pleistocene
at the GeoWhen database

v t e

Quaternary
Quaternary
Period

Pleistocene
Pleistocene
Epoch Holocene
Holocene
Epoch

Early Middle Late

Preboreal Boreal Atlantic Subboreal Subatlantic

v t e

Geologic history of Earth

Cenozoic
Cenozoic
era¹ (present–66.0 Mya)

Quaternary
Quaternary
(present–2.588 Mya)

Holocene
Holocene
(present–11.784 kya) Pleistocene
Pleistocene
(11.784 kya–2.588 Mya)

Neogene
Neogene
(2.588–23.03 Mya)

Pliocene
Pliocene
(2.588–5.333 Mya) Miocene
Miocene
(5.333–23.03 Mya)

Paleogene (23.03–66.0 Mya)

Oligocene
Oligocene
(23.03–33.9 Mya) Eocene
Eocene
(33.9–56.0 Mya) Paleocene
Paleocene
(56.0–66.0 Mya)

Mesozoic
Mesozoic
era¹ (66.0–251.902 Mya)

Cretaceous
Cretaceous
(66.0–145.0 Mya)

Late (66.0–100.5 Mya) Early (100.5–145.0 Mya)

Jurassic
Jurassic
(145.0–201.3 Mya)

Late (145.0–163.5 Mya) Middle (163.5–174.1 Mya) Early (174.1–201.3 Mya)

Triassic
Triassic
(201.3–251.902 Mya)

Late (201.3–237 Mya) Middle (237–247.2 Mya) Early (247.2–251.902 Mya)

Paleozoic
Paleozoic
era¹ (251.902–541.0 Mya)

Permian
Permian
(251.902–298.9 Mya)

Lopingian
Lopingian
(251.902–259.8 Mya) Guadalupian
Guadalupian
(259.8–272.3 Mya) Cisuralian
Cisuralian
(272.3–298.9 Mya)

Carboniferous
Carboniferous
(298.9–358.9 Mya)

Pennsylvanian (298.9–323.2 Mya) Mississippian (323.2–358.9 Mya)

Devonian
Devonian
(358.9–419.2 Mya)

Late (358.9–382.7 Mya) Middle (382.7–393.3 Mya) Early (393.3–419.2 Mya)

Silurian
Silurian
(419.2–443.8 Mya)

Pridoli (419.2–423.0 Mya) Ludlow (423.0–427.4 Mya) Wenlock (427.4–433.4 Mya) Llandovery (433.4–443.8 Mya)

Ordovician
Ordovician
(443.8–485.4 Mya)

Late (443.8–458.4 Mya) Middle (458.4–470.0 Mya) Early (470.0–485.4 Mya)

Cambrian
Cambrian
(485.4–541.0 Mya)

Furongian (485.4–497 Mya) Series 3 (497–509 Mya) Series 2 (509–521 Mya) Terreneuvian
Terreneuvian
(521–541.0 Mya)

Proterozoic
Proterozoic
eon² (541.0 Mya–2.5 Gya)

Neoproterozoic era (541.0 Mya–1 Gya)

Ediacaran
Ediacaran
(541.0-~635 Mya) Cryogenian (~635-~720 Mya) Tonian (~720 Mya-1 Gya)

Mesoproterozoic era (1–1.6 Gya)

Stenian (1-1.2 Gya) Ectasian (1.2-1.4 Gya) Calymmian (1.4-1.6 Gya)

Paleoproterozoic era (1.6–2.5 Gya)

Statherian (1.6-1.8 Gya) Orosirian
Orosirian
(1.8-2.05 Gya) Rhyacian (2.05-2.3 Gya) Siderian
Siderian
(2.3-2.5 Gya)

Archean
Archean
eon² (2.5–4 Gya)

Eras

Neoarchean (2.5–2.8 Gya) Mesoarchean (2.8–3.2 Gya) Paleoarchean
Paleoarchean
(3.2–3.6 Gya) Eoarchean
Eoarchean
(3.6–4 Gya)

Hadean
Hadean
eon² (4–4.6 Gya)

 

 

kya = thousands years ago. Mya = millions years ago. Gya = billions years ago.¹ = Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
eon. ² = Precambrian
Precambrian
supereon. Source: (2017/02). International Commission on Stratigraphy. Retrieved 13 July 2015. Divisions of Geologic Time—Major Chronostratigraphic and Geochronologic Units USGS Retrie

.