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Soviet Central Asia
Central Asia
refers to the section of Central Asia
Central Asia
formerly controlled by the Soviet Union, as well as the time period of Soviet administration (1918–1991). Central Asian SSRs declared independence in 1991. In terms of area, it is nearly synonymous with Russian Turkestan, the name for the region during the Russian Empire. Soviet Central Asia
Central Asia
went through many territorial divisions before the current borders were created in the 1920s and 1930s.

Contents

1 Administrative divisions

1.1 Former divisions

1.1.1 Turkestan
Turkestan
Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic 1.1.2 Bukharan People's Soviet Republic 1.1.3 Khorezm People's Soviet Republic
Khorezm People's Soviet Republic
and SSR 1.1.4 Kara-Kirghiz Autonomous Oblast 1.1.5 Karakalpak Autonomous Oblast 1.1.6 Kazakh Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic

1.2 Soviet Republics

1.2.1 Kazakhstan 1.2.2 Kirghizia 1.2.3 Tajikistan 1.2.4 Turkmenia 1.2.5 Uzbekistan

2 Nationalist rebellions

2.1 Kokand
Kokand
Autonomy 2.2 The Alash Autonomy 2.3 Basmachi
Basmachi
revolt 2.4 Kengir Uprising 2.5 Exiles

3 Industry

3.1 Oil
Oil
and gas 3.2 Transport 3.3 Metallurgy 3.4 Cement 3.5 Hydro-electricity 3.6 Cotton 3.7 The Baikonur Cosmodrome

4 Culture, religion and ethnicity

4.1 Religion 4.2 Veil 4.3 Y-Haplogroups

4.3.1 R1a 4.3.2 R-Z93 (R1a1a1b2)

5 Multi-media 6 References 7 External links

Administrative divisions[edit] Former divisions[edit] Turkestan
Turkestan
Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic[edit] Main article: Turkestan
Turkestan
Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic

Map of Soviet Central Asia
Central Asia
in 1922 with the Turkestan ASSR
Turkestan ASSR
and the Kyrgyz ASSR

The beginning of the 18th century marked the zenith of the Kazakh Khanate. During this period the Little jüz
Little jüz
participated in the 1723–1730 war against the Dzungars, following their "Great Disaster" invasion of Kazakh territories. Under the leadership of Abul Khair Khan the Kazakhs
Kazakhs
won major victories over the Dzungar at the Bulanty River (1726) and at the Battle of Anrakay in 1729.In the 19th century, the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
began to expand, and spread into Central Asia. Following the Bolshevik Revolution
Bolshevik Revolution
of 1917, the tsars effectively ruled over most of the territory belonging to what is now the Republic of Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and Kyrgyzstan. Russia
Russia
annexed Lake Issyk Kul
Lake Issyk Kul
in north east Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
of off China
China
in the 1860s. Emerging from the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
following the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the Russian Civil War of 1918–1921, the USSR
USSR
was a union of several Soviet republics, but the synecdoche Russia
Russia
— after its largest and dominant constituent state — continued to be commonly used throughout the state's existence. Turkestan
Turkestan
Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (initially Turkestan
Turkestan
Socialist Federative Republic) (April 30, 1918 – October 27, 1924) was created from the Turkestan Krai of Imperial Russia. Its capital was Tashkent, population about 5,000,000. British and Persian forces briefly tried to reach Baku
Baku
in Azerbaijan and the Turkmen port of Krasnovodsk. Bukhara, Khiva, Samarkand, Kokand, Dushanbe
Dushanbe
and the former Trans-Caspian province would see various anti-Bolshevik risings over the next few years. In 1924, it was split into Tajik ASSR
Tajik ASSR
(now Tajikistan), Turkmen SSR (now Turkmenistan), Uzbek SSR
Uzbek SSR
(now Uzbekistan), Kara-Kirghiz Autonomous Oblast (now Kyrgyzstan), and Karakalpak Autonomous Oblast (now Karakalpakstan). Bukharan People's Soviet Republic[edit] Main articles: Bukharan People's Soviet Republic
Bukharan People's Soviet Republic
and Bukhara
Bukhara
operation (1920)

Flag of the Bukharan PSR

In March 1918, activists of the Young Bukharian Movement informed the Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
that the Bukharans were ready for the revolution and that the people were awaiting liberation. The Red Army
Red Army
marched to the gates of Bukhara
Bukhara
and demanded that the emir surrender the city to the Young Bukharans. As Russian sources report, the emir responded by murdering the Bolshevik delegation, along with several hundred Russian inhabitants of Bukhara
Bukhara
and the surrounding territories. The majority of Bukharans did not support an invasion and the ill-equipped and ill-disciplined Bolshevik army fled back to the Soviet stronghold at Tashkent. However, the emir had won only a temporary respite. As the civil war in Russia
Russia
wound down, Moscow
Moscow
sent reinforcements to Central Asia. On 2 September 1920, an army of well-disciplined and well equipped Red Army troops under the command of Bolshevik general Mikhail Frunze
Mikhail Frunze
attacked the city. After four days of fighting, the emir's citadel (Arc) was destroyed, the Red flag was raised from the top of Kalyan Minaret, and the Emir
Emir
Alim Khan was forced to flee to his base at Dushanbe
Dushanbe
in Eastern Bukharan, and finally to Kabul, Afghanistan. A nearby anti-Bolshevik stronghold in the Tadjik/Moslem village of Khangir (qingir) declared its independence shortly afterwards, but soon surrendered after a 14-day siege by Russian and Bokhkori Bolsheviks. It was then quickly re-integrated back into Communist Bokhorah. The Bukharan People's Republic
Bukharan People's Republic
was proclaimed on 8 October 1920 under Faizullah Khojaev. The overthrow of the Emir
Emir
was the impetus for the Basmachi
Basmachi
Revolt, an anti-Russian rebellion. In 1922, most of the territory of the republic was controlled by Basmachi, surrounding the city of Bukhara. Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
would later purge and exile many of the local Bukhori
Bukhori
people as well as most of the local Jewish
Jewish
community from the former Bukharan People's Soviet Republic. Prior to the establishment of the state of Israel, the Bukharian Jews were one of the most isolated Jewish
Jewish
communities in the world. With the establishment of Soviet rule on the territory in 1917, Jewish life seriously deteriorated. Throughout the 1920s and 1930s, thousands of Jews, fleeing religious oppression, confiscation of property, summary arrests, and repressions, fled to Palestine. Khorezm People's Soviet Republic
Khorezm People's Soviet Republic
and SSR[edit] Main article: Khorezm People's Soviet Republic

Flag of the Khorezm PSR

The Khorezm People's Soviet Republic
Khorezm People's Soviet Republic
was created as the successor to the Khanate of Khiva
Khiva
in February 1920 and officially declared on 26 April 1920. On 20 October 1923, it was transformed into the Khorezm Socialist Soviet Republic. The Khorezm SSR
Khorezm SSR
only survived until 17 February 1925, when it was divided between the Uzbek SSR, Turkmen SSR, and Karakalpak Autonomous Oblast as part of the reorganization of Central Asia
Central Asia
by Moscow
Moscow
according to nationalities. Kara-Kirghiz Autonomous Oblast[edit] Main article: Kara-Kirghiz Autonomous Oblast The Kara-Kyrgyz Autonomous Oblast (Кара-Киргизская АО) was created on 14 October 1924 within the Russian SFSR
Russian SFSR
from the predominantly Kazakh and Kyrgyz parts of the Turkestan
Turkestan
Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. On 15 May 1925 it was renamed into the Kyrgyz Autonomous Oblast. On 11 February 1926 it was reorganized into the Kyrgyz ASSR. On 5 December 1936 it became the Kyrgyz SSR, one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union. Karakalpak Autonomous Oblast[edit] Main article: Karakalpak Autonomous Oblast The Karakalpak Autonomous Oblast was created on February 19, 1925 by separating lands of the ethnic Karakalpaks
Karakalpaks
from the Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic and Khoresm People's Soviet Republic. Initially located within the Kazakh Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, the Karakalpak A.O. was transferred to the RSFSR
RSFSR
from July 20, 1930 to March 20, 1932, at which time it was elevated to the Karakalpak Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. The Karakalpak ASSR was joined to the Uzbek SSR
Uzbek SSR
on December 5, 1936. Kazakh Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic[edit] Main article: Kazakh Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic The Kazakh ASSR was an autonomous republic of the Soviet Union. It became the Kazakh SSR
Kazakh SSR
on December 5, 1936. Its original name was the Kirgiz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. This ASSR was established on 26 August 1920, and was a part of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
(RSFSR) In 1925 it was renamed the Kazakh Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. In 1929 the city of Almaty
Almaty
(Alma-Ata) was designated as the capital of the ASSR. Soviet Republics[edit] Kazakhstan[edit] Main article: Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic

Flag and Coat of Arms of Kazakhstan

The Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic, also known as Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
was established on December 5, 1936. It was initially called Kyrgyz ASSR (Kirghiz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic) and was a part of the Russian SFSR. On April 15–19, 1925, it was renamed Kazakh ASSR and on December 5, 1936 it became a Union Republic of the USSR
USSR
called Kazakh SSR
Kazakh SSR
in the culminating act of the national delimitation in the Soviet Union. During the 1950s and 1960s Soviet citizens were urged to settle in the "Virgin Lands" of the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic. The influx of immigrants (mostly Russians
Russians
and Ukrainians, but also some forcibly resettled ethnic minorities, such as the Volga Germans and the Chechens) skewed the ethnic mixture and enabled non- Kazakhs
Kazakhs
to outnumber natives. The influx also deprived the Kazakhs
Kazakhs
of much pasture land, making it increasingly difficult to sustain the nomadic way of life. Industry, and especially mining, developed. Russian and European culture began to influence Kazakh society.[1] In 1924, the borders of political units in Central Asia
Central Asia
were changed along ethnic lines determined by Lenin's Commissar
Commissar
for Nationalities, Joseph Stalin. The Turkestan
Turkestan
ASSR, the Bukharan People's Republic, and the Khorezm People's Republic were abolished and their territories were divided into eventually five separate Soviet Socialist Republics, one of which was the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic. The next year the Uzbek SSR
Uzbek SSR
became one of the republics of the Soviet Union. Almaty
Almaty
is the largest city in Kazakhstan, with a population of 1,226,000 (as of 1 August 2005).[2] The Ethnic groups in a 2003 census were: Kazakh 43.6%, Russian 40.2%, Uyghur 5.7%, Tatar 2.1%, Korean 1.8%, Ukrainian 1.7%, German 0.7%. Kyzil Orda / Kyzylorda
Kyzylorda
was founded in 1820 as a Kokand
Kokand
fortress of Ak-Mechet (also spelt Aq Masjid, Aq Mechet, 'white mosque'). The name comes from the Kazakh for 'Red center'. Uralsk
Uralsk
/ Oral was founded in 1613 by Cossacks, was originally named Yaitsk, after the Yaik River. The city was put under siege during the Russian Civil War. It has a population of 210,600. It is the capital of the West Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
Province. Ethnic composition is dominated by Russians
Russians
(54%), Kazakhs
Kazakhs
(34%), along with a few Ukrainians
Ukrainians
and Germans. Kirghizia[edit] Main article: Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic

Flag and Coat of Arms of Kirghizia

The Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic
Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic
(sometimes spelled Kyrgyz), also known as Kirghizia, was one of fifteen constituent republics of the Soviet Union. Established on 14 October 1924 as the Kara-Kyrgyz Autonomous Oblast of the Russian SFSR, it was transformed into the Kyrgyz ASSR (Kyrgyz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic) on 1 February 1926, still being a part of the Russian SFSR. Today it is the independent state of Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
in Central Asia. Kyrgyz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Kyrgyz ASSR) was the name of two different national entities within Russian SFSR, in the territories of modern Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and Kyrgyzstan. On 5 December 1936, it became a separate constituent republic of the USSR
USSR
as the Kyrgyz Soviet Socialist Republic during the final stages of the national delimitation in the Soviet Union. Frunze was both the capital and the largest city of Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
and the Kirghiz ASSR, with a population of approximately 900,000 in 2005. In 1862 Tsarist
Tsarist
Russia
Russia
destroyed the local fort and began to settle the area with Russian migrants. Over the years many fertile black soil farms were developed by the Tsarists and, later, the process carried on by the USSR. In 1926, the city became the capital of the newly established Kirghiz ASSR and was renamed Frunze after the Bolshevik hero, Mikhail Frunze, who was one of Lenin's close associates, who was born in Bishkek
Bishkek
until Kirghiz independence in 1991. Tajikistan[edit] Main article: Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic

Flag and Coat of Arms of Tajikistan

The Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic, also named Tajikistan
Tajikistan
(or by its Russian spelling, Tadzhikistan) was one of the new states created in Central Asia
Central Asia
in 1924 was Uzbekistan, which had the status of a Soviet socialist republic. In 1929 Tajikistan
Tajikistan
was detached from Uzbekistan and given full status as a Soviet socialist republic. The city of Dushanbe
Dushanbe
would become an important regional hub on the border with Afghanistan. Tajikistan
Tajikistan
has 3 exclaves, all of them located in the Fergana
Fergana
Valley region where Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan
Tajikistan
and Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
meet. The largest is Vorukh
Vorukh
(with an area between 95 – 130 km²/37 – 50 sq mi, population estimated between 23,000 and 29,000, 95% Tajiks
Tajiks
and 5% Kyrgyz, distributed among 17 villages), located 45 kilometres (28 mi) south of Isfara
Isfara
on the right bank of the Karafshin river, in Kyrgyz territory. Another exclave in Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
is a small settlement near the Kyrgyz railway station of Kairagach. The last is the village of Sarvan, which includes a narrow, long strip of land (about 15 km (9.3 mi) long by 1 km (over ½ mi) wide) alongside the road from Angren to Kokand; it is surrounded by Uzbek territory. There are no foreign enclaves within Tajikistan. In 1931, the city formerly known as "Dyushambe", was renamed "Stalinabad" (after Joseph Stalin), but in 1961, as part of Nikita Khrushchev's de-Stalinization initiative, the city was renamed Dushanbe. The Soviets
Soviets
transformed the area into a centre for cotton and silk production, and relocated tens of thousands of people to the city from around the Soviet Union. The population also increased with thousands of ethnic Tajiks
Tajiks
migrating to Tajikistan
Tajikistan
following the transfer of Bukhara
Bukhara
and Samarkand
Samarkand
to the Uzbek SSR. Dushanbe
Dushanbe
later became the home to a university and the Tajik Academy of Sciences. Dushanbe
Dushanbe
also had a relatively high military population during the war with Afghanistan. Turkmenia[edit] Main article: Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic

Flag and Coat of Arms of Turkmenia

The Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic
Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic
which is also known as Turkmenia (or sometimes known as Turkmenistan) was one of fifteen constituent republics of the Soviet Union. It was initially established on August 7, 1921 as Turkmen Oblast of the Turkestan
Turkestan
ASSR. On May 13, 1925 it was transformed into Turkmen SSR
Turkmen SSR
and became a separate republic of the Soviet Union. Today it is the independent state of Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
in Central Asia. The Communist Party
Communist Party
of the Turkmen SSR
Turkmen SSR
was the ruling communist party of the Turkmen SSR, and a part of the Communist Party
Communist Party
of the Soviet Union. From 1985 it was led by Mr Saparmurat Niyazov, who in 1991 renamed the party to the Democratic Party of Turkmenistan, which is no longer a communist party . The current Communist Party
Communist Party
of Turkmenistan is illegal.[3] Ashkhabad has a population of 695,300 (2001 census estimate) and has a primarily Turkmen population, with minorities of ethnic Russians, Armenians, and Azeris. It is 920 km from the second largest city in Iran, Mashhad. The principal industries are cotton textiles and metal working. Merv
Merv
/ Mary is an ancient city with a Its population was 123,000 in 1999. It has interesting Regional Museum and lies near the remains of the ancient city of Merv, which in corrupted form gives its name to the modern town. Carpets
Carpets
from the region of Merv
Merv
are sometimes considered superior to the Persian ones. Uzbekistan[edit] Main article: Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic

Flag and Coat of Arms of Uzbekistan

The Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic, also referred to as Uzbekistan was created in 1924 when the new national boundaries separating the Uzbek and Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republics cut off the eastern end of the Fergana
Fergana
Valley, as well as the slopes surrounding it. This was compounded in 1928 when the Tajik ASSR
Tajik ASSR
became a fully-fledged republic, the Tajik SSR, and the area around Khodjend was made a part of it. This blocked the valley's natural outlet and the routes to Samarkand
Samarkand
and Bukhara, but none of these borders was of any great significance so long as Soviet rule lasted. The Uzbek SSR
Uzbek SSR
included the Tajik ASSR
Tajik ASSR
until 1929, when the Tajik ASSR was upgraded to an equal status. In 1930, the Uzbek SSR
Uzbek SSR
capital was relocated from Samarkand
Samarkand
to Tashkent. In 1936, the Uzbek SSR
Uzbek SSR
was enlarged with the addition of the Karakalpak ASSR
Karakalpak ASSR
taken from the Kazakh SSR
Kazakh SSR
in the last stages of the national delimitation in the Soviet Union. Further bits and pieces of territory were transferred several times between the Kazakh SSR
Kazakh SSR
and the Uzbek SSR
Uzbek SSR
after World War II. During the Great Purges of Joseph Stalin, many thousands of Chechens, Koreans
Koreans
and Crimean Tatars
Crimean Tatars
were exiled to the Uzbek SSR. The State Anthem of the Uzbek SSR
Uzbek SSR
was the national anthem of Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
when it was a republic of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and known as the Uzbek SSR. The city of Tashkent
Tashkent
began to industrialize in the 1920s and 1930s, but industry increased tremendously during World War II, with the relocation of factories from western Russia
Russia
to preserve the Soviet industrial capacity from the hostile invading Nazis. The Russian population increased dramatically as well, with evacuees from the war zones increasing the population to well over a million. (The Russian community would eventually comprise more than half of the total residents of Tashkent
Tashkent
by the 1980s.) On April 26, 1966, Tashkent
Tashkent
was destroyed by an earthquake and over 300,000 were left homeless. At the time of the collapse of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1991, Tashkent
Tashkent
was the fourth largest Soviet city and a major center of learning in the fields of science and engineering. As the nation's capital, Tashkent
Tashkent
is still a fairly prosperous city and the capital of Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
and has a population of the city in 2006 was 2.1 million. The city has been the target of several terrorist acts since gaining independence. These have been attributed by the Uzbek the government to Islamic insurgents aided by the Afghan Taliban. Samarkand
Samarkand
is one of the oldest inhabited cities in the world, prospering from its location on the trade route between China
China
and Europe (Silk Road). In 1370, Timur the Lame, or Tamerlane, decided to make Samarkand
Samarkand
the capital of his empire, which extended from India
India
to Turkey. Despite its status as the second city of Uzbekistan, the majority of the city's inhabitants are Persian-speaking Tajiks. The city a became rich trading center as a major capital of the Silk Road between China
China
and the West. The Timurid dynasty's extensive building in Samarkand
Samarkand
produced monuments that rank amongst some of the most striking in the Islamic world. Nationalist rebellions[edit] Kokand
Kokand
Autonomy[edit]

Flag of Kokand
Kokand
Autonomy, 1917-1918

Kokand
Kokand
is a city in Fergana Province
Fergana Province
in eastern Uzbekistan, at the southwestern edge of the Fergana
Fergana
Valley. It has a population of 192,500 bu 1999. Kokand
Kokand
is 228 km southeast of Tashkent, 115 km west of Andijan, and 88 km west of Fergana. It is nicknamed “City of Winds”, or sometimes “Town of the Boar". It is at an altitude of 409 meters. Kokand
Kokand
is on the crossroads of the ancient trade routes, at the junction of two main routes into the Fergana
Fergana
Valley, one leading northwest over the mountains to Tashkent, and the other west through Khujand. As a result, Kokand
Kokand
is the main transportation junction in the Fergana
Fergana
Valley. Russian imperial forces under Mikhail Skobelev
Mikhail Skobelev
captured the city in 1876 which then became part of Russian Turkistan. With the fall of the Russian Empire, a provisional government attempted to maintain control in Tashkent. It was quickly overthrown and local Muslim
Muslim
opposition crushed. In April 1918, Tashkent
Tashkent
became the capital of the Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic ( Turkestan
Turkestan
ASSR). It was the capital of the short-lived (1917–18) Anti-Bolshevik Provisional Government
Government
of Autonomous Turkistan (also known as Kokand
Kokand
Autonomy). The Alash Autonomy[edit] Main article: Alash Autonomy

The flag of the Kazakh's Alash Autonomy
Alash Autonomy
(Алаш аутономиясы). It was declared in 1917 and was dissolved in 1920.

The Alash Autonomy
Alash Autonomy
(Kazakh: Алаш аутономиясы, Alaş awtonomïyası; Russian: Алашская автономия, Alashskaya avtonomiya) was a state that existed between December 13, 1917 and August 26, 1920, located roughly on the territory of present-day Republic of Kazakhstan. The capital city was Semey (referred to at the time as Alash-qala). The Alash Orda (Kazakh: Алаш Орда', Alaş Orda) was the name of the provisional Kazakh government between 13 December 1917 and 26 August 1920. It was led by Akhmet Baytursinuli, Alikhan Bokeikhanov and Mirjaqip Dulatuli
Mirjaqip Dulatuli
amongst others. The Alash Party proclaimed the autonomy of the Kazakh people in December 1917. Membership consists from 25 members (10 positions reserved for non-Kazakhs) and 15 member candidates. They formed special educational commission and established militia regimentsas their armed forces.

The borders of the Russian imperial territories of Kiva, Bukhara
Bukhara
and Kokand
Kokand
in the time period of 1902-1903.

Basmachi
Basmachi
revolt[edit] Main article: Basmachi
Basmachi
Revolt In 1897, the railway reached Tashkent, and finally in 1906 a direct rail link with European Russia
Russia
was opened across the steppe from Orenburg
Orenburg
to Tashkent. This led to much larger numbers of Slavic settlers flowing into Turkestan
Turkestan
than had hitherto been the case, and their settlement was overseen by a specially created Migration Department in St. Petersburg (Переселенческое Управление). This caused considerable discontent amongst the local population, Kyrgyz, Kazakhs
Kazakhs
and Sarts, as these settlers took scarce land and water resources away from them. In 1916 discontent boiled over in the Basmachi
Basmachi
Revolt, sparked by a decree conscripting the natives into Labour battalions (they had previously been exempt from military service). Thousands of settlers were killed, and this was matched by Russian reprisals, particularly against the nomadic population. The competition for land and water which ensued between the Kazakhs
Kazakhs
and the newcomers caused great resentment against colonial rule during the final years of Tsarist
Tsarist
Russia, with the most serious uprising, the Central Asian Revolt, occurring in 1916. The Kazakhs attacked Russian and Cossack
Cossack
villages, killing indiscriminately. The Russians' revenge was merciless. A military force drove 300,000 Kazakhs
Kazakhs
to flee into the mountains or to China. When approximately 80,000 of them returned the next year, many of them were slaughtered by Tsarist
Tsarist
forces. Order had not really been restored by the time the February Revolution
February Revolution
took place in 1917. This would usher in a still bloodier chapter in Turkestan's history, as the Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
of the Tashkent
Tashkent
Soviet (made up entirely of Russian soldiers and railway workers, with no Muslim
Muslim
members) launched an attack on the autonomous Jadid
Jadid
government in Kokand
Kokand
early in 1918, which sadly left 14,000 dead. Resistance to the Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
by the local population (dismissed as 'Basmachi' or 'Banditry' by Soviet historians) continued well into the 1920s. Kengir Uprising[edit] Main article: Kengir uprising During the rule of Joseph Stalin, a prison labour camp of the Steplag division of the Gulag
Gulag
was set up adjacent to the village of Kengir, near the River Kengir in central Kazakhstan. It was mentioned in Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn's book, The Gulag
Gulag
Archipelago. The location of the camp was near the city of Dzhezkazgan. Russian actor Oleg Yankovsky is the most famous of the city's natives. There was a prison revolt in 1954, by political prisoners, criminals, and other inmates. Exiles[edit] See also: Minorities_in_ Turkey
Turkey
§ Uzbeks, and Uzbeks in Pakistan Dissident Islamist and anti-Soviet Central Asians fled to Afghanistan, British India, and to the Hijaz in Saudi Arabia.[4][5] The last Emir of Bukhara
Bukhara
Mohammed Alim Khan
Mohammed Alim Khan
fled to Afghanistan. The Islamist Uzbek As-Sayyid Qāsim bin Abd al-Jabbaar Al-Andijaani(السيد قاسم بن عبد الجبار الأنديجاني) was born in Fergana valley's Andijan
Andijan
city in Turkestan
Turkestan
(Central Asia). He went to British India
India
was educated at Darul Uloom Deoband,[6] and then returned to Turkestan
Turkestan
where he preached against Communist Russian rule.[7] He then fled to Afghanistan, then to British India
India
and then to Hijaz where he continued his education in Mecca and Medina and wrote several works on Islam and engaged in anti-Soviet activities. Uzbek exiles in Saudi Arabia from Soviet ruled Central Asia
Central Asia
also adopted the identity "Turkistani".[8][9] A lot of them are also called "Bukhari".[10][11] A number of Saudi "Uzbeks" do not consider themselves as Uzbek and instead consider themselves as Muslim Turkestanis.[12] Many Uzbeks in Saudi Arabia adopted the Arabic nisba of their home city in Uzbekistan, such as Al Bukhari from Bukhara, Al Samarqandi from Samarqand, Al Tashkandi from Tashkent, Al Andijani from Andijan, Al Kokandi from Kokand, Al Turkistani from Turkistan. Bukhari and Turkistani were labels for all the Uzbeks in general while specific names for Uzbeks from different places were Farghani, Marghilani, Namangani, and Kokandi.[13][14] Kokandi was used to refer to Uzbeks from Ferghana.[15] Shami Domullah introduced Salafism to Soviet Central Asia.[16][17] Mosques in Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
are funded by Saudi-based Uzbeks.[18] Saudis have tried to propagate their version of Islam into Uzbekistan following the collapse of the Soviet Union.[19][20][21][22] Saudi Arabia's "Bukharian brethren" were led by Nuriddin al-Bukhari as of 1990.[23] Industry[edit]

All of the highest peaks in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
were located inside Central Asia. That attracted a lot of mountaineers into the area.

Oil
Oil
and gas[edit] After World War II
World War II
the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
rapidly industrialized Kazakhstan and started prospecting for oil in the whole of Soviet Central Asia. Oil
Oil
was found in Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
and both oil and gas were found in Turkmenistan. These fuel supplies would prove invaluable to the region over the coming years. The central part of the geological depression that forms the Ferghana Valley is characterized by block subsidence, originally to depths estimated at 6–7 km, largely filled with sediments that range in age as far back as the Permian-Triassic boundary. Some of the sediments are marine carbonates and clays. The faults are upthrusts and overthrusts. Anticlines associated with these faults form traps for petroleum and natural gas, which has been discovered in 52 small fields.[24] Kazakhstan's Mangystau Province
Mangystau Province
has an area of 165,600 square kilometers and a population of 316,847. It is a major oil- and gas-producing region. The city of Aktau
Aktau
was built in Kazakhstan's Mangyshlak Peninsula
Mangyshlak Peninsula
as a small village to house the region's oil workers in 1961. Over the years a large influx of Russian and Ukrainian oil and chemical workers arrived. Engineers discovered large amounts of crude oil and petroleum in the area in the days of the Soviet Union, and when drilling commenced, much of the area was built up around the industry. Aktau
Aktau
is Kazakhstan's only seaport on the Caspian Sea. From 1964 to 1991 Aktau, which had become a city, bore the name "Shevchenko" in honour of the Ukrainian poet Taras Shevchenko (1814-1861), who had been assigned to the area on military[citation needed] work. The average temperature on January is −3 °C, on July +26 °C. Annual rainfall averages 150 mm. Aktau
Aktau
had a population of 154,500 as of 2004[update]. Transport[edit] Main article: Soviet infrastructure in Central Asia Much of the road and railway infrastructure that exists across Central Asia was developed when the areas was in the Soviet Union. As a result, it often disregards existing national borders. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, this infrastructure has faced decline and degradation.[25] Metallurgy[edit]

Location of Zhezkazgan, Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
had started to produce and refine sizable amounts of tin and uranium by the early 1970s. Vanadium
Vanadium
and cobalt were, and still are also mined in the south of the country. Uranium
Uranium
was also first produced in Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
in the 1970s. The city of Zhezkazgan
Zhezkazgan
was created in 1938 in connection with the exploitation of the rich local copper deposits. In 1973 a large mining and metallurgical complex was constructed to the southeast to smelt the copper that until then had been sent elsewhere for processing. Other metal ores mined and processed locally are manganese, iron and gold.It is on a reservoir of the Kara- Kengir River and has a population of 90,000 (1999 census). Its urban area includes the neighbouring mining town of Satpayev, total population 148,700. 55% of the population are Kazakhs, 30% Russians, with smaller minorities of Ukrainians, Germans, Chechens
Chechens
and Koreans. Dzhezkazgan has an extreme continental climate. The average temperature ranges from +24 °C (75 °F) in July to -16 °C (3 °F) in January. Today the city is the headquarters of the copper conglomerate Kazakhmys, the city's main employer. The company has subsidiaries in China, Russia, France
France
and the UK and is listed on the London Stock Exchange. Cement[edit] Cement was a major product in both the cities of Shymkent
Shymkent
and Dushanbe in the south of the region. Hydro-electricity[edit] By the early 1970s, the Soviets
Soviets
had started to build some of their hydroelectric power stations in Eastern Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
and Tadjikistan as part of an overall development strategy. The waters of the Ili River
Ili River
and of Lake Balkhash
Lake Balkhash
are considered to be of a vital economic importance to Kazakhstan. The Ili river is dammed for hydroelectric power at Kaptchagayskoye, and the river waters are heavily diverted for agricultural irrigation and for industrial purposes. Cotton[edit] The Soviets
Soviets
began to grow cotton in Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
after the Virgin Lands project and the mass use of the isolated and now shrinking Aral Sea for desert irrigation in the early 1950s. A massive expansion of irrigation canals during the Soviet period, to irrigate cotton fields, wrought ecological carnage to the area, with the river drying up long before reaching the Aral Sea
Aral Sea
which, as a result, has shrunk to a small remnant of its former size. The Baikonur Cosmodrome[edit] The Baikonur Cosmodrome
Baikonur Cosmodrome
was founded in Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
on June 2, 1955, during the Cold War, as one of many long-range nuclear missile bases in the region, but diverged into space travel. On June 8, 2005 the Russian Federation Council
Russian Federation Council
ratified an agreement between Russia
Russia
and Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
extending Russia's rent term of the spaceport until 2050. Culture, religion and ethnicity[edit]

The Ethnic and linguistic patchwork of Soviet Central Asia

Following a series of migrations, mostly predating Soviet rule, that displaced the autochthonous Iranian peoples, most of the inhabitants of Soviet Central Asia
Central Asia
were speakers of either Kipchak languages
Kipchak languages
(such as Kazakhs) or Uyghuric languages
Uyghuric languages
(Uzbeks). Those populations were nomadic and settled, respectively. There remained traces of some settled farming and urban Iranian communities like the Tajiks
Tajiks
and Bukhara
Bukhara
in the south, and nomadic Mongolic Kyrgiz on the border with China. In Kazakh [qɑzɑqtɑr]; Russian: Казахи; the English name 'Kazakh' is transliterated from Russian) are a Turkic people
Turkic people
of the northern parts of Central Asia
Central Asia
(largely Kazakhstan, but also found in parts of Uzbekistan, China, Russia, and Mongolia). According to Robert G. Gordon, Jr., editor of the Ethnologue: Languages of the World, classifies Kalmyk-Oirat under the Oirat-Khalkha group, since he contends that Kalmyk-Oirat is related to Khalkha Mongolian – the national language of Mongolia. The descent of the Kyrgyz from the autochthonous Siberian
Siberian
population is confirmed on the other hand by recent genetic studies. The Slavic community was would grow very rapidly under communism and Russians
Russians
would eventually become a major ethnic group in the region. The Slavic population followed Orthodox Christianity, while the rest were mostly Sunni
Sunni
Muslims. Various nationality, such as the Meskhetian Turks and Volga Germans
Volga Germans
would get banished to the region. Over the years ethnic groups changed. Uralsk
Uralsk
and Oral are now Russians
Russians
(54%) and Kazakhs
Kazakhs
(34%), while it's also Kazakh 43.6% and Russian 40.2% in Almaty. Religion[edit] The Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
would quickly set about closing mosques and churches throughout the USSR. This became particularly prevalent in the 1930s, but had been fully abandoned by the 1980s. Veil[edit] Main article: Paranja In Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
and Tajikistan
Tajikistan
women wore veils which covered their entire face and body like the Paranja
Paranja
and faranji. The traditional veil in Central Asia
Central Asia
worn before modern times was the faranji but it was banned by the Soviet Communists.[26][27] Y-Haplogroups[edit] According to the interim results of Kazach mitochondrial DNA studies[28] (where sample consisted of only 246 individuals), the main maternal lineages of Kazakhs
Kazakhs
are: D (17,9 %), C (16%), G (16%), A (3,25 %), F (2,44 %), which is of eastern-Eurasian origin (58%), and haplogroups H (13%), T (4,07 %), J (4,07 %), K (4,07 %), U5 (3,25 %), I (0,41 %), V (0,81 %), W (1,63 %), of western Eurasian origin (41%). The on a similar level, the distribution of Y-DNA haplogroups, according to E.K. Husnutdinova,[29] (sample size is 331) is the following: C (25,3 %), J (18,2 %), N (15,2 %), R (10,1 %). Genetic studies on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) restriction polymorphism has confirmed that Turkmen were both composed of a mixture of local Iranian mtDNA lineages, similar to the Eastern Iranian populations and high male Mongoloid
Mongoloid
genetic component observed in Turkmens
Turkmens
and Eastern Iranian populations with the frequencies of about 20%.[30] and created something of a hybrid Turko-Iranian culture and language. R1a[edit] The descent of the Kyrgyz from the autochthonous Siberian
Siberian
population is confirmed on the other hand by the recent genetic studies (The Eurasian Heartland: A continental perspective on Y-chromosome diversity). Remarkably, 63% of modern Kyrgyz men share Haplogroup R1a1 (Y-DNA) with Tajiks
Tajiks
(64%), Ruthenians
Ruthenians
(54%], Poles
Poles
and Hungarians (~60%), and even Icelanders
Icelanders
(25%). Haplogroup R1a1 (Y-DNA)
Haplogroup R1a1 (Y-DNA)
is believed to be a marker of the Proto-Indo-European language
Proto-Indo-European language
speakers. R-Z93 (R1a1a1b2)[edit] This large subclade appears to encompass most of the R1a1a found in Asia (Pamjav 2012). Multi-media[edit]

Vocal (1944 lyrics)

By the Red Army
Red Army
Ensemble

Vocal (1977 Soviet national anthem's lyrics)

By the choir and orchestra of Bolshoi Theater

Instrumental

By the United States
United States
Navy Band

Problems playing these files? See media help.

References[edit]

^ "Central Asia" (PDF). U.S. ONLINE TRAINING FOR OSCE.  ^ (in Russian) С начала года население Алматы увеличилось на 1,4% Gazeta.kz ^ Leftist Parties of Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
Leftist Parties of the World ^ http://carnegieendowment.org/files/cp_77_olcott_roots_final.pdf http://carnegieendowment.org/files/olcottroots.pdf page 8 ^ https://www.worldwatchmonitor.org/research/reportcentralasiaislamicextremism.pdf page 7 ^ http://islamhouse.com/ar/author/243088/ ^ http://vb.tafsir.net/tafsir36755/ ^ Birgit N. Schlyter (2005). Prospects for Democracy in Central Asia. Swedish Research Institute in Istanbul. pp. 245–. ISBN 978-91-86884-16-1.  ^ https://cess.memberclicks.net/assets/cesr2/CESR3/article%203%20v3n1.pdf ^ Sebastian Maisel; John A. Shoup (February 2009). Saudi Arabia and the Gulf Arab States Today: An Encyclopedia of Life in the Arab States. Greenwood Press. pp. 145–. ISBN 978-0-313-34442-8.  ^ http://archive.aawsat.com/details.asp?section=43&article=473739&issueno=10783 https://bukhariyon.files.wordpress.com/2009/09/22042009.jpg?w=765 https://bukhariyon.files.wordpress.com/2009/09/n873330654_6177366_2107662.jpg?w=450&h=338 https://bukhariyon.files.wordpress.com/2009/09/4491_110812876759_697671759_3186263_7497572_n.jpg?w=338&h=450 https://bukhariyon.files.wordpress.com/2009/09/n629897282_964239_5928.jpg?w=450&h=338 https://bukhariyon.files.wordpress.com/2009/09/n615363233_1080293_6221.jpg?w=450&h=338 https://bukhariyon.wordpress.com/2009/09/20/%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A8%D8%AE%D8%A7%D8%B1%D9%8A%D9%88%D9%86-%D9%85%D9%86-%D9%87%D9%85%D8%9F/ https://bukhariyon.wordpress.com/2009/09/20/البخاريون-من-هم؟/ http://www.turkistanweb.com/?p=2156 http://turkistan.ahlamontada.com/t202-topic https://twitter.com/Abunass3r/status/726845854896820225 ^ Birgit N. Schlyter (2005). Prospects for Democracy in Central Asia. Swedish Research Institute in Istanbul. pp. 246–. ISBN 978-91-86884-16-1.  ^ https://cess.memberclicks.net/assets/cesr2/CESR3/article%203%20v3n1.pdf page 16 ^ https://www.academia.edu/3083768/The_Complexity_of_Central_Eurasia page 16 ^ http://www.palgraveconnect.com/pc/doifinder/view/10.1057/9780230376434 ^ http://pulsofcentralasia.org/2015/03/31/special-dangerous-preaching-the-role-of-religious-leaders-in-the-rise-of-radical-islam-in-central-asia-by-nurbek-bekmurzaev/ ^ Michael Kemper; Raoul Motika; Stefan Reichmuth (11 September 2009). Islamic Education in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Its Successor States. Routledge. pp. 247–. ISBN 978-1-134-20731-2.  ^ http://www.tol.org/client/article/1767-the-myth-of-militant-islam-uzbekistan.html?print. ^ http://www.ca-c.org/journal/2001/journal_eng/cac-01/13.abbe.shtml ^ https://www.ucis.pitt.edu/nceeer/2007_819-01g_Collins.pdf page 16 ^ https://www.academia.edu/273897/Hidden_Linkages_The_Republic_of_Uzbekistan_and_the_Gulf_Region_in_Changing_World_Order ^ Christian van Gorder (5 June 2008). Muslim-Christian Relations in Central Asia. Routledge. pp. 80–. ISBN 978-1-135-97169-4.  ^ Central Asian Studies Association (1990). Central Asia
Central Asia
File: Newsletter of the Central Asian Studies Association. School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. p. 20.  ^ Petroleum
Petroleum
Potential of Fergana
Fergana
Intermontane Depression Internet Geology Newsletter ^ "Central Asia: Decay and Decline". International Crisis Group. Retrieved 17 April 2013.  ^ Kamoludin Abdullaev; Shahram Akbarzaheh (27 April 2010). Historical Dictionary of Tajikistan. Scarecrow Press. pp. 381–. ISBN 978-0-8108-6061-2.  ^ Pannier, Bruce (April 1, 2015). "Central Asia's Controversial Fashion Statements". Radio Free Europe Radio Liberty.  ^ http://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=9184531 ^ 10_1 ^ 1 Russian Journal of Genetics, Mitochondrial DNA
Mitochondrial DNA
Polymorphism in Populations of the Caspian Region and Southeastern Europe

H. B. Paksoy (1989). Alpamysh: Central Asian Identity Under Russian Rule. AACAR. ISBN 978-0-9621379-9-0.   This article incorporates public domain material from the Library of Congress Country Studies website http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/.

External links[edit]

The Strange State of Soviet Central Asia
Central Asia
Alicia Patterson Foundation Reporter Keller, Bill (1989). "Afghan Cadets Reportedly Riot in a Capital in Soviet Central Asia", The New York Times. Kazakh SSR
Kazakh SSR
Anthem YouTube Uzbek SSR
Uzbek SSR
Anthem YouTube Soviet Language Policy in Central Asia
Central Asia
by Mark Dickens Hierman, Brent (January 20, 2016). "Citizenship in Soviet Uzbekistan". Dissertation Reviews.  Akyildiz, Sevket Akyildiz; Carlson, Richard, eds. (2014). Social and Cultural Change in Central Asia: The Soviet Legacy. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-70453-3.  Rasizade, Alec. Dictators, Islamists, big powers and ordinary people: the new ‘great game’ in Central Asia. = Internationale Politik und Gesellschaft (Bonn: Friedriech Ebert Stiftung), July 2002, number 3, pages 90-106.

Links to related articles

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1The annexation of the Baltic republics in 1940 was considered as an illegal occupation and was not recognized by the majority of the international community such as the United States, United Kingdom
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Soviet Union
officially recognized their independence on September 6, 1991, prior to its final dissolution three months later.

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1 Buryat– Mongol
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