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(i) (i)

World War II
World War II

* Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto Uprising †

AWARDS Virtuti Militari

Klepfisz's cenotaph

MICHAł KLEPFISZ ( Warsaw
Warsaw
, 17 April 1913 – 20 April 1943, Warsaw
Warsaw
) was a chemical engineer , activist for the Bund , and member of the Jewish Morgenstern sports organization. During World War II
World War II
he belonged to the Jewish Combat Organization , fighting the Nazi German forces in Poland
Poland
. He was killed in the Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto Uprising and was posthumously decorated by the Polish government in exile with a Silver Cross of the Virtuti Militari .

CONTENTS

* 1 Life * 2 See also * 3 Notes * 4 References

LIFE

Klepfisz graduated from the Warsaw
Warsaw
Polytechnic with a degree in engineering. In the interwar period he was a member of the Bund-affiliated Morgnshtern organization. In 1937 he married Róża Perczykof ("Lodzia"; later known as Rose Klepfisz, 1914-2016).

In 1942 he was put on a train to the Treblinka extermination camp
Treblinka extermination camp
by the Nazis, but escaped by taking out the metal screen behind the train window and made his way back to Warsaw. Soon afterward he managed to get his wife, sister Regina and daughter Irena smuggled out of the Ghetto (they survived the Holocaust
Holocaust
). They hid with a Polish woman, Maria Sawicka, a member of Żegota , who before the war had run track with Regina, and who had previously hidden Klepfisz when he had left the Ghetto.

During the Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto Uprising , Klepfisz directed the underground production of explosives for the Jewish resistance . After receiving instruction from the Polish Home Army (AK) in making Molotov cocktails, Klepfisz set up an underground bomb factory in the Ghetto, while other members of the Jewish resistance smuggled in the necessary ingredients from the "Aryan side" (they had to be purchased from many unrelated suppliers so as not to raise suspicions). A major problem was how to test the explosives that he produced. Eventually Klepfisz bribed his landlord to let him test the home-made bombs in a deserted limekiln in a factory building owned by the man. Though the extent of Klepfisz's operation is unknown, in 1964, Polish workmen carrying out work on the site of the former factory unearthed 100,000 explosive-filled glass detonators for Molotov cocktails.

Together with Arie Wilner , Klepfisz also served as an intermediary between the Jewish Combat Organization and the Polish resistance movement organisation - Home Army . He was trained in explosives production by a Home Army soldier, Zbigniew Lewandowski (nom de guerre "Szyna"—"Rail"). Klepfisz, Wilner and Icchak Cukierman , through the AK, and through the AK-subordinated Polish Socialist Party,WRN (Polish Socialists not associated with Moscow
Moscow
) sent arms into the Ghetto.

Klepfisz was called a "pillar of the uprising" by London radio. He was killed on the second day of the Uprising on Bonifraterska Street , in the brush-factory district, protecting the retreat of his fellow soldiers (including Marek Edelman ) by covering a German machine gun with his own body. Gen. Wladyslaw Sikorski (Polish Commander-in-Chief and Premier of the Polish Government in Exile ) decorated him posthumously with a Silver Virtuti Militari V class which is now on display at the US Holocaust
Holocaust
Memorial Museum in Washington, DC .

Michał Klepfisz
Michał Klepfisz
was described by those who knew him as tall and thin, with a calm, quiet disposition. He has a cenotaph in the Warsaw Jewish Cemetery on Okopowa Street (grave #39609), with the inscription:

Engineer Michał Klepfisz. 17 IV 1913 – 20 IV 1943. Activist of the Bund youth organization. Jewish Combat Organization representative in the Polish resistance movement. Died a heroic death in the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising . Glory to his memory!

Klepfisz's sister, Regina Klepfisz, was also a Bund activist. His daughter, Irena Klepfisz (who, along with his wife, was smuggled out of the Ghetto on the eve of the Uprising in 1943) survived the Holocaust
Holocaust
and emigrated to the United States
United States
. She is a noted essayist and poet. The poems "The Widow and the Daughter" and "Searching for My Father's Body" are about Michał Klepfisz.

SEE ALSO

* List of Poles * Bernard Goldstein * Maurycy Orzech

NOTES

* ^ A B in Polish - Bartosz Charachajczuk (2009). "Michał Klepfisz. Zdazyc przed panem Bogiem" (Michal Klepfisz. To make it before God)". Freshmind Sp z. o.o. Retrieved October 3, 2009. * ^ A B C D Rotem, Harshav 2001 , p. 36. * ^ Eisenberg 1981 , p. 366. * ^ Kunert, Przewoźnik 2002 , p. 264. * ^ Jake Jacobs, The Yivo Encyclopedia of Jews in Eastern Europe, "Sport: An Overview", 2005, * ^ A B Paulsson 2002 , p. 106. * ^ Kutzik, Jordan (April 15, 2016). "Remembering Archivist and Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto Survivor Rose Klepfisz". The Forward. Retrieved 2016-07-05. * ^ Miedzyrzecki 1979 , p. 129. * ^ A B C Peterson 2001 , p. 208. * ^ A B C Krall 1992 , p. 205. * ^ Klepfisz 1990 , pp. 29-34. * ^ A B Goldstein 1998 , p. 187. * ^ Ainsztein, Reuben (1979). The Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto Revolt. New York: Waldon Press. p. 66-67. ISBN 089604-007-0 . * ^ Kurzman 1993 , p. 77. * ^ Shrayer 2007 , p. 478. * ^ Gutman 1998 , p. 214. * ^ Krall, Kosicka 1996 , p. 11. * ^ in Polish - Eve Petniak (2009). "Heroes reportage "In time the Lord God"". ostatnidzwonek. Retrieved October 3, 2009. * ^ in Polish - Hanna Krall (2009). "Heroes drugoplanowi". Baccalaureate and studies of klp.pl. Retrieved October 3, 2009. * ^ "Michał Klepfisz". cemetery.jewish.org.pl. 2009. Retrieved October 3, 2009. * ^ Ellis 1999 , p. 73. * ^ "Guilt/Anger". Dartmouth College . 2009. Archived from the original on February 27, 2009. Retrieved October 3, 2009.

REFERENCES

* Azriel Louis Eisenberg. Witness to the Holocaust, Part 810 (1981 ed.). Pilgrim Press. ISBN 0-8298-0432-3 . - Total pages: 649 * Marc H. Ellis. O, Jerusalem!: the contested future of the Jewish covenant (1999 ed.). Fortress Press. ISBN 0-8006-3159-5 . - Total pages: 186 * Phyllis Goldstein. The Jews of Poland
Poland
(January 1998 ed.). Facing History and Ourselves National Foundation, Inc. ISBN 0-9615841-8-1 . - Total pages: 276 * Israel Gutman. Resistance: The Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto Uprising (1998 ed.). Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. ISBN 0-395-90130-8 . - Total pages: 277 * Irena Klepfisz. A few words in the mother tongue: poems selected and new (1971-1990) (1990 ed.). Eighth Mountain Press. ISBN 0-933377-07-X . - Total pages: 251 * Hanna Krall. The subtenant ; To outwit God (1992 ed.). Northwestern University Press
Northwestern University Press
. ISBN 0-8101-1075-X . - Total pages: 247 * Hanna Krall, Jadwiga Kosicka. To steal a march on God (1996 ed.). Routledge . ISBN 3-7186-5776-7 . - Total pages: 40 * Andrzej Krzysztof Kunert , Andrzej Przewoźnik . Żydzi polscy w służbie Rzeczypospolitej 1939-1945: wybór źródeł (Jews in the service of the Republic 1939-1945: sources) (2002 ed.). Rada Ochrony Pamięci Walk i Męczeństwa . ISBN 83-916663-4-4 . - Total pages: 264 * Dan Kurzman. The bravest battle: the twenty-eight days of the Warsaw
Warsaw
ghetto uprising, Part 765 (1993 ed.). Da Capo Press . ISBN 0-306-80533-2 . - Total pages: 386 * Feigele Peltel Miedzyrzecki. On both sides of the wall: memoirs from the Warsaw
Warsaw
ghetto (1979 ed.). Holocaust
Holocaust
Library : . ISBN 0-89604-013-5 . - Total pages: 276 * Gunnar S. Paulsson. Secret city: the hidden Jews of Warsaw, 1940-1945 (2002 ed.). Yale University Press . ISBN 0-300-09546-5 . - Total pages: 298 * Nancy J. Peterson. Against amnesia: contemporary women writers and the crises of historical memory (2001 ed.). University of Pennsylvania Press . ISBN 0-8122-3594-0 . - Total pages: 242 * Śimḥah Rotem, Barbara Harshav. Memoirs of a Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto Fighter (2001 ed.). Yale University Press . ISBN 0-300-09376-4 . - Total pages: 180 * Maxim Shrayer. An anthology of Jewish-Russian literature: two centuries of dual identity in prose and poetry, Volume 1 (2007 ed.). M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 0-7656-0521-X . - Total pages: 633

* v * t * e

The Holocaust
Holocaust
in Poland
Poland

Main article The Holocaust
Holocaust
Related articles by country Belarus Belgium Croatia Denmark Estonia France Latvia Lithuania Norway Russia Ukraine

* v * t * e

Camps, ghettos and operations

CAMPS

EXTERMINATION

* Auschwitz-Birkenau * Chełmno * Majdanek

* Operation Reinhard death camps

* Bełżec * Sobibór * Treblinka

CONCENTRATION

* Kraków-Płaszów * Potulice * Soldau * Stutthof * Szebnie * Trawniki * Warsaw
Warsaw

MASS SHOOTINGS

* AB Action * Erntefest * Jedwabne * Kielce cemetery * Aktion Krakau * Lviv pogroms * Lwów professors * Palmiry * Sonderaktion Krakau * Tannenberg * Tykocin * Bydgoszcz * Wąsosz * Bloody Sunday

GHETTOS

* List of 277 Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland
Poland
(1939–1942)

* Będzin * Białystok * Brest * Częstochowa * Grodno * Kraków * Lwów * Łódź * Lubartów * Lublin * Międzyrzec Podlaski * Mizocz * Nowy Sącz * Pińsk * Radom * Słonim * Sosnowiec * Stanisławów * Wilno * Warsaw
Warsaw

OTHER ATROCITIES

* Action T4 * Grossaktion Warsaw
Warsaw
* Human medical experimentation

* v * t * e

Perpetrators, participants, organizations, and collaborators

MAJOR PERPETRATORS

ORGANIZERS

* Josef Bühler
Josef Bühler
* Eichmann * Eicke * Ludwig Fischer * Hans Frank * Globocnik * Glücks * Greiser * Himmler * Hermann Höfle * Fritz Katzmann * Wilhelm Koppe * Friedrich-Wilhelm Krüger * Kutschera * Erwin Lambert * Ernst Lerch * Oswald Pohl
Oswald Pohl
* Reinefarth * Scherner * Seyss-Inquart * Sporrenberg * Streckenbach * Thomalla * Otto Wächter * Wisliceny

CAMP COMMAND

* Aumeier * Baer * Boger * Braunsteiner * Eberl * Eupen * Kurt Franz * Karl Frenzel * Karl Fritzsch * Göth * Grabner * Hartjenstein * Hering * Höss * Hössler * Josef Kramer * Liebehenschel * Mandel * Matthes * Michel * Möckel * Mulka * Johann Niemann
Johann Niemann
* Oberhauser * Reichleitner * Heinrich Schwarz * Stangl * Gustav Wagner * Christian Wirth

GAS CHAMBER EXECUTIONERS

* Erich Bauer * Bolender * Hackenholt * Klehr * Hans Koch * Herbert Lange * Theuer

PHYSICIANS

* von Bodmann * Clauberg * Gebhardt * Fritz Klein
Fritz Klein
* Mengele * Horst Schumann
Horst Schumann
* Trzebinski * Eduard Wirths
Eduard Wirths

GHETTO COMMAND

* Auerswald * Biebow * Blösche * Bürkl * Konrad * Palfinger * von Sammern-Frankenegg * Stroop

EINSATZGRUPPEN

* Wolfgang Birkner
Wolfgang Birkner
* Blobel * Felix Landau * Schaper * Schöngarth * von Woyrsch

PERSONNEL

CAMP GUARDS

* Juana Bormann * Danz * Demjanjuk * Margot Dreschel
Margot Dreschel
* Kurt Gerstein * Grese * Höcker * Kaduk * Kollmer * Muhsfeldt * Orlowski * Volkenrath

BY CAMP

* Sobibór * Treblinka

ORGANIZATIONS

* Einsatzgruppen * General Government * Hotel Polski
Hotel Polski
* WVHA * RKFDV * VoMi

COLLABORATORS

JEWISH

* Group 13 * Kapo * Żagiew

Estonian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Belarusian and Ukrainian

* Schutzmannschaft

OTHER NATIONALITIES

* Arajs Kommando * Ukrainian Auxiliary Police * Ukrainian collaboration * Lithuanian Security Police * Trawniki * Ypatingasis būrys * Pieter Menten
Pieter Menten

* v * t * e

Resistance: Judenrat, victims, documentation and technical

ORGANIZATIONS

* AK * AOB * Bund * GL * PKB * ŻOB * ŻZA

UPRISINGS

* Ghetto uprisings * Białystok * Częstochowa * Sobibór * Treblinka * Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto Uprising

LEADERS

* Mordechai Anielewicz * Icchak Cukierman * Mordechai Tenenbaum * Marek Edelman * Leon Feldhendler
Leon Feldhendler
* Paweł Frenkiel
Paweł Frenkiel
* Henryk Iwański
Henryk Iwański
* Itzhak Katzenelson
Itzhak Katzenelson
* Michał Klepfisz * Miles Lerman
Miles Lerman
* Alexander Pechersky
Alexander Pechersky
* Witold Pilecki
Witold Pilecki
* Frumka Płotnicka * Roza Robota * Szmul Zygielbojm

JUDENRAT

* Jewish Ghetto Police * Adam Czerniaków
Adam Czerniaków
* Mordechai Chaim Rumkowski
Chaim Rumkowski

VICTIM LISTS

GHETTOS

* Kraków * Łódź * Lvov (Lwów) * Warsaw
Warsaw

CAMPS

* Auschwitz * Bełżec * Gross-Rosen * Izbica * Majdanek * Sobibór * Soldau * Stutthof * Trawniki * Treblinka

DOCUMENTATION

NAZI SOURCES

* Auschwitz Album * Frank Memorandum * Höcker Album
Höcker Album
* Höfle Telegram
Höfle Telegram
* Katzmann Report
Katzmann Report
* Korherr Report * Nisko Plan * Posen speeches * Special Prosecution Book- Poland
Poland
* Stroop Report
Stroop Report
* Wannsee Conference

WITNESS ACCOUNTS

* Graebe affidavit * Gerstein Report * Vrba–Wetzler report
Vrba–Wetzler report
* Witold\'s Report * Sonderkommando photographs

CONCEALMENT

* Sonderaktion 1005

TECHNICAL AND LOGISTICS

* Identification in camps * Gas chamber * Gas van * Holocaust
Holocaust
train * Human medical experimentation * Zyklon B

* v * t * e

Aftermath, trials and commemoration

AFTERMATH

* Holocaust
Holocaust
survivors * Polish population transfers (1944–1946)
Polish population transfers (1944–1946)
* Bricha * Kielce pogrom * Anti-Jewish violence, 1944–46 * Ministry of Public Security

TRIALS

WEST GERMAN TRIALS

* Frankfurt Auschwitz trials * Treblinka trials
Treblinka trials

POLISH, EAST GERMAN, AND SOVIET TRIALS

* Auschwitz trial (Poland) * Stutthof trials * Extraordinary (Soviet) State Commission

MEMORIALS

* Museum of the History of Polish Jews * Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum * Majdanek State Museum
Majdanek State Museum
* Sobibór Museum * International Youth Meeting Center in Oświęcim/Auschwitz * March of the Living
March of the Living

RIGHTEOUS AMONG THE NATIONS

* Polish Righteous Among the Nations
Righteous Among the Nations
* Rescue of Jews by Poles during the Holocaust
Holocaust
* Garden of the Righteous

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