Metropolitan City of Bologna
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The Metropolitan City of Bologna ( it, Città Metropolitana di Bologna) is a
metropolitan city in the background A metropolis () is a large city or conurbation which is a significant economic, political, and cultural center for a country or region, and an important hub for regional or international connections, commerce, and communicat ...
in the
Emilia-Romagna egl, Emigliàn (masculine) egl, Emiglièna (feminine) rgn, Rumagnòl (masculine) rgn, Rumagnòla (feminine) it, Emiliano (masculine) it, Emiliana (feminine) or it, Romagnolo (masculine) it, Romagnola (feminine) , population_note = ...

Emilia-Romagna
region,
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of delimited by the and surrounding it, whose territory largely coincides with the . Italy is located in the centre of th ...

Italy
. Its capital is the city of
Bologna Bologna (, , ; egl, label=, Bulåggna ; lat, Bonōnia) is the capital and largest city of the region in . It is the seventh most populous city in Italy with about 390,000 inhabitants and 150 different nationalities. Its is home to more t ...

Bologna
. It was created by the reform of local authorities (Law 142/1990) and established by the Law 56/2014, replacing the
Province of Bologna The province of Bologna ( it, provincia di Bologna) was a Provinces of Italy, province in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. Its provincial capital was the city of Bologna. The province of Bologna covered an area of and had a total population of ...
. It has been operative since January 1, 2015. The Metropolitan City is headed by the Metropolitan Mayor (''Sindaco metropolitano'') and by the Metropolitan Council (''Consiglio metropolitano'').


History

Remains of the Iron Age
Villanovan culture The Villanovan culture (c. 900–700 BC), regarded as the earliest phase of the Etruscan civilization The Etruscan civilization () of List of ancient peoples of Italy, ancient Italy covered a territory, at its greatest extent, of roughly what i ...
were discovered near Bologna by archaeologists in 1853. The city was settled by the Etruscans and named Velzna, later Felsina. In the 6th century BCE, Felsina was known for its markets and trade. It was invaded by the Gallic
Boii The Boii (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Rep ...
tribe in this period, who developed the agricultural output of the region. The Romans began their conquest of the region around 220 BCE and were successful by the 180s BCE; upon their capture of Felsina, it was renamed Bononia. After Rome fell in 476 CE and the region suffered barbarian invasions, Bononia was made a fortress. The city was owned by Charlemagne but was given to the Holy See in 774. Later, the Holy Roman Empire controlled the city and it became known as Bologna. Bologna became a commune by 1114, but it desired independence and in 1176 it joined the
Lombard League The Lombard League (''Lega Lombarda'' in Italian language, Italian, ''Liga Lombarda'' in Lombard language, Lombard) was a medieval alliance formed in 1167, supported by the Pope, to counter the attempts by the Hohenstaufen Holy Roman Emperors to ...
, an alliance opposed to the Holy Roman Empire's influence.
Emperor Frederick I Frederick Barbarossa (german: Friedrich I., it, Federico I; 1122 – 10 June 1190), also known as Frederick I, was the Holy Roman Emperor The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and officially the Emperor of the Romans ( la, Imperator Romanorum ...

Emperor Frederick I
recognised its desire for independence and granted it some autonomy. It joined the Second Lombard League to defeat
Frederick IIFrederick II, Frederik II or Friedrich II may refer to: * Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor (1194–1250), King of Sicily from 1198; Holy Roman Emperor from 1220 * Frederick II of Denmark (1534–1588), king of Denmark and Norway 1559–1588 * Freder ...

Frederick II
in 1249. Bologna became part of the Papal States in 1506 and joined the
Kingdom of Italy The Kingdom of Italy ( it, Regno d'Italia) was a state that existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Kingdom of Sardinia, Sardinia was proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy, proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946, when civil discontent l ...
upon
Italian unification The unification of Italy ( it, Unità d'Italia ), also known as the ''Risorgimento'' (, ; meaning "Resurgence"), was the 19th-century political and social movement that resulted in the consolidation of different states of the Italian Peninsu ...

Italian unification
in the 19th century. The
University of Bologna The University of Bologna ( it, Alma mater studiorum - Università di Bologna, UNIBO) is a research university in Bologna, Italy. Founded in 1088 by an organised guild of students (hence ''studiorum''), it is the List of oldest universities in con ...
was founded in 1088; its speciality was
Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened to ''Romans'', a letter in the New Testament of the Christian Bible Roman ...
and
canon law Canon law (from grc, κανών, , a 'straight measuring rod, ruler A ruler, sometimes called a rule or line gauge, is a device used in geometry and technical drawing, as well as the engineering and construction industries, to measure dis ...
, and it set standards in the way it was organised and the curriculum that was followed by universities in Italy.


Geography

The Metropolitan City of Bologna is part of the region of
Emilia-Romagna egl, Emigliàn (masculine) egl, Emiglièna (feminine) rgn, Rumagnòl (masculine) rgn, Rumagnòla (feminine) it, Emiliano (masculine) it, Emiliana (feminine) or it, Romagnolo (masculine) it, Romagnola (feminine) , population_note = ...

Emilia-Romagna
in northwestern Italy. It is in the centre of the region and is bounded on the east by the
Province of Ravenna The province of Ravenna ( it, provincia di Ravenna; ) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational e ...
, while the
Province of Ferrara The province of Ferrara ( it, provincia di Ferrara; egl, pruvîncia ed Fràra) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was t ...
lies to the north and the
Province of Modena The Province of Modena ( it, Provincia di Modena) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was the major territorial and admi ...
lies to the west. To the south are the
Metropolitan City of Florence The Metropolitan City of Florence ( it, Città Metropolitana di Firenze) is a Metropolitan cities of Italy, metropolitan city in the Tuscany region, Italy. Its capital is the city of Florence. It replaced the Province of Florence. It was first crea ...
, the
Province of Prato The province of Prato ( it, provincia di Prato) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was the major territorial and admini ...
and the
Province of Pistoia The province of Pistoia ( it, provincia di Pistoia) is a Provinces of Italy, province in the Tuscany region of central Italy. Its capital is the city of Pistoia and the province is landlocked. It has an area of and a total population of 291,788 i ...
, all in the region of
Tuscany it, Toscano (man) it, Toscana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = Citizenship , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = Italian , demograp ...
. The metropolitan territory is largely flat, and stretches from the alluvial
Po Plain The Po Valley, Po Plain, Plain of the Po, or Padan Plain ( it, Pianura Padana , or ''Val Padana'') is a major geographical feature of Northern Italy Northern Italy ( it, Italia settentrionale, it, Nord Italia, label=none or just it, Nord, lab ...
into the Apennine Mountains; the highest point in the metropolitan city is the peak of Corno alle Scale in the commune of Lizzano in Belvedere, at above sea level.


Government


List of Metropolitan Mayors of Bologna


References


External links


Official website
{{coord, 44.4939, N, 11.3428, E, source:wikidata, display=title Metropolitan City of Bologna, Metropolitan cities of Italy, Bologna Villanovan culture