A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the voters to a
parliament. In many countries with bicameral parliaments, this
category includes specifically members of the lower house, as upper
houses often have a different title. Member of
Congress is an
equivalent term in other jurisdictions.
Members of parliament tend to form parliamentary groups (also called
parliamentary parties) with members of the same political party.
1 Westminster system
1.12 New Zealand
1.15 Sri Lanka
1.16 United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
2 Other systems
2.6 Czech Republic
2.14 Republic of Macedonia
3 See also
Main article: Westminster system
Westminster system is a democratic parliamentary system of
government modelled after the politics of the United Kingdom. This
term comes from the Palace of Westminster, the seat of the Parliament
of the United Kingdom.
A member of parliament is a member of the House of Representatives,
the lower house of the Commonwealth (federal) parliament. Members may
use "MP" after their names; "MHR" is not used, although it was used as
a post-nominal in the past. A member of the upper house of the
Commonwealth Parliament, the Senate, is known as a "Senator".
In the Australian states of New South Wales, Victoria and South
Australia, a Member of the
Legislative Assembly (House of Assembly in
South Australia) or "lower house," may also use the post-nominal "MP."
Members of the Legislative Council (upper house) use the post-nominal
Parliament of The Bahamas is the bicameral national parliament of
Commonwealth of The Bahamas. The parliament is formally made up by the
Queen (represented by the Governor-General), an appointed Senate, and
an elected House of Assembly. It currently sits at Nassau, the
The structure, functions, and procedures of the parliament are based
on the Westminster system.
Members of the Jatiya Sangsad, or National Assembly, are elected every
five years and are referred to in English as members of Parliament.
The assembly has directly elected 300 seats, and further 50 reserved
selected seats for women.
Parliament of Canada consists of the monarch, the
upper chamber), and the House of Commons (the lower chamber). Only
members of the lower house are referred to as members of Parliament
(French: député), while members of the upper house are called
senators (French: sénateur). There are currently 105 seats in the
Senate and 338 in the House of Commons. Members of
elected, while senators are appointed by the governor general on
behalf of the sovereign at the direction of the Prime Minister of
Canada. Retirement is mandatory for senators upon reaching the age of
Each province (and territory) has its own legislature, with each
member usually known as a Member of the
Legislative Assembly (MLA). In
certain provinces, legislators carry other titles: Member of
Parliament (MPP) in Ontario, Member of the National
Assembly (MNA) in
Quebec (French: député), and Member of the House
of Assembly (MHA) in Newfoundland and Labrador. The provincial upper
houses were eliminated through the 20th century.
See also: Member of Parliament, Lok Sabha
See also: Member of Parliament, Rajya Sabha
Parliament of India
A Member of
Parliament is any member of the Indian
Sansad, i.e., (
Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha). The members of the Lok
Sabha are elected popularly by constituencies in each of the Indian
states and union territories, while members of the
Rajya Sabha are
elected indirectly by the state legislatures. Each state is allocated
a fixed number of representatives in each chamber, in order of their
respective population. The state of
Uttar Pradesh has the greatest
number of representatives in both houses. The President of India
appoints representatives of the
Anglo-Indian community. The political
party which secures more than half the seats in the
Lok Sabha forms
Government of India. If a specific party is unable to form the
government with their number of MPs, they may form a coalition
government with a number of representatives members of other political
Lok Sabha is the lower house and the
Rajya Sabha is the
upper house of the Indian
The term period of an elected member of the
Rajya Sabha is 6 years,
while the member elected for the
Lok Sabha is only for 5 years.
A member of
Parliament was a member of the pre-1801 Irish House of
Commons of the
Parliament of Ireland. Irish members elected to the
House of Commons of the United Kingdom
House of Commons of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
were also called members of
Parliament from 1801 to 1922. Northern
Ireland continues to elect MPs to the
Parliament of the United
Following the formation of the independent
Irish Free State
Irish Free State in 1922,
members of the lower house of the
Oireachtas (parliament), Dáil
Éireann (or "the Dáil") are termed Teachtaí Dála (Teachta Dála
singular) or TDs and are called a Deputy. The upper house is called
Seanad Éireann and its members are called Senators.
Parliament of Jamaica
Parliament of Jamaica is the legislative branch of the government
of Jamaica. It is a bicameral body, composed of an appointed Senate
and an elected House of Representatives. The
Senate (upper house), the
direct successor of a pre-Independence body known as the "Legislative
Council" – comprises 21 senators appointed by the governor-general:
thirteen on the advice of the Prime Minister and eight on the advice
of the Leader of the Opposition.
The House of Representatives, the lower house, is made up of 63
(previously 60) Members of Parliament, elected to five-year terms on a
first-past-the-post basis in single-seat constituencies.
National Assembly of Kenya
National Assembly of Kenya has a total of 349 seats; 205 members
are elected from the constituencies, 47 women are elected from the
counties and 12 members are nominated representatives.
Parliament of Malaysia
Parliament of Malaysia consists of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong
(King) and two houses, the
Dewan Rakyat (the House of Representatives)
Dewan Negara (the Senate).
The term "members of Parliament" only refers to members of the Dewan
Rakyat. In Malay, a member of
Parliament is called Ahli Parlimen, or
less formally wakil rakyat (people's representative).
Parliament are elected from population-based single-seat
constituencies using first-past-the-post voting. The Prime Minister
must be a member of Parliament.
Parliament are styled Yang Berhormat ("Honourable") with
the initials Y.B. appended prenominally. A prince who is a member of
Parliament is styled Yang Berhormat Mulia. The Prime Minister, Deputy
Prime Minister and Tuns who are members of
Parliament are styled Yang
Amat Berhormat ("Most Honourable"), abbreviated Y.A.B.
Parliament of Malta consists of the President of Malta and the
House of Representatives of 69 members (article 51 of the
Constitution), referred to as "members of Parliament" (article 52(1)
of the Constitution). When appointed from outside the House, the
Speaker is also considered a member of the Parliament. The
Constitution lists the qualifications and disqualifications from
serving as a member of Parliament.
Privileges of members of
Parliament and their Code of Ethics are laid
out in the
House of Representatives (Privileges and Powers)
Parliament of Nauru consists of 18 seats. Members of Parliament
are entitled to use the prefix The Honourable.
Main articles: New Zealand
Parliament and New Zealand elections
Parliament of New Zealand is made up of the monarch and the
unicameral House of Representatives. A member of
Parliament is a
member of the House of Representatives, which has a minimum of 120
members, elected at a general election for a three-year term. There
are 70 electorate MPs, of which seven are elected only by Māori who
have chosen to be registered on a separate Māori electoral roll. The
remaining members are elected by proportional representation from
published party lists.
Before 1951, New Zealand had a bicameral (two-chamber) parliament.
Members of the Legislative Council, abbreviated MLC, were appointed.
Members of the lower house, the body that still exists, have always
been elected. Since 1907, elected members have been referred to as
'Member of Parliament', abbreviated MP. From the 1860s until 1907 they
were designated as Member of the House of Representatives, abbreviated
MHR. Between the first general election, in 1853, and the 1860s, the
designation was Member of the General Assembly, abbreviated MGA.
Parliament refers to a member of
Assembly of Pakistan, Qaumi Assembly), based in Islamabad.
Cabinet of Singapore
Cabinet of Singapore and List of Singapore MPs
Parliament refers to elected members of the
Singapore, the appointed Non-Constituency members of
the opposition, as well as the Nominated members of Parliament, who
may be appointed from members of the public who have no connection to
any political party in Singapore.
See also: 15th
Sri Lanka and National List Member of
In Sri Lanka, a Member of
Parliament refers to a member of the
Sri Lanka (since 1978), the National State Assembly
(1972–78) and the
House of Representatives of Ceylon (1947–72),
the lower house of the
Parliament of Ceylon. Members are elected in a
general elections or appointed from the national lists allocated to
parties (and independent groups) in proportion to their share of the
national vote at an general election. A candidate to become an MP must
be a Sri Lankan citizen and not hold dual-citizenship in any other
country, be at least 18 years of age, and not be a public official or
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
See also: List of current United Kingdom MPs; List of United Kingdom
MPs; List of Parliaments of the United Kingdom; List of MPs elected in
the United Kingdom general election, 2017; Number of Westminster MPs;
Salaries of Members of the UK Parliament; and Records of members of
parliament of the United Kingdom
The United Kingdom elects members of two parliaments:
Parliament of the United Kingdom, with 650 members elected by the
first-past-the-post system to the (lower) House of Commons, referred
to as Members of Parliament, abbreviated to MP
the European Parliament, with a maximum of 73 members out of a total
of 751 members elected for a five-year term, called Members of the
and four devolved legislatures:
the Scottish Parliament, with 129 members elected under the additional
member system every five years, and called Members of the Scottish
Northern Ireland Assembly, with 90 members known as Members of the
Legislative Assembly (MLA). (Between 1921 and 1973, Northern Ireland
was governed by the
Parliament of Northern Ireland, whose members were
known as Members of Parliament.)
the National Assembly for Wales, with 60 elected members called
Assembly Member (AM) in English, Aelod y Cynulliad (AC) in Welsh
the London Assembly, with 25 members elected under the additional
member system every four years, called Members of the London Assembly
MPs are elected in general elections and by-elections to represent
constituencies, and may remain MPs until
Parliament is dissolved,
which occurs around five years after the last general election, as
laid down in the Fixed-term Parliaments Act.
A candidate to become an MP must be a British or Irish or Commonwealth
citizen, be at least 18 years of age (reduced from 21 in 2006), and
not be a public official or officeholder, as set out in the schedule
to the Electoral Administration Act 2006.
Technically, MPs have no right to resign their seats (though they may
refuse to seek re-election). However a legal fiction allows voluntary
resignation between elections; as MPs are forbidden from holding an
"office of profit under the Crown", an MP wishing to resign will apply
Stewardship of the Chiltern Hundreds or the Stewardship of the
Manor of Northstead which are, nominally, such paid offices and thus
result in the MP vacating their seat. (Accepting a salaried
Ministerial office does not amount to a paid office under the Crown
for these purposes.)
House of Lords
House of Lords is a legislative chamber that is part of the
Parliament of the United Kingdom. Although they are part of the
parliament, its members are referred to as peers, more formally as
Lords of Parliament, not MPs.
Lords Temporal sit for life, Lords
Spiritual while they occupy their ecclesiastical positions. Hereditary
peers may no longer pass on a seat in the
House of Lords
House of Lords to their heir
automatically. The 92 who remain have been elected from among their
own number, following the
House of Lords
House of Lords Act 1999 and are the only
elected members of the Lords.
"Members of Parliament" are members of the House of Assembly of
Zimbabwe. Members of the upper house of
Parliament are referred to as
Parliament can be the term (often a translation) for
representatives in parliamentary democracies that do not follow the
Westminster system and who are usually referred to in a different
fashion, such as Deputé in France, Deputato in Italy, Deputat in
Bulgaria, Parlamentario o Diputado in Spain and Spanish speaking Latin
America, Deputado in Portugal and Brazil, Mitglied des Bundestages
(MdB) in Germany. However, better translations are often possible.
A member of
Parliament is a member of either chamber of the bicameral
National Assembly of Afghanistan: the 249 members of the lower Wolesi
Jirga (House of the People) and the 102 members of the upper Mesherano
Jirga (House of Elders).
A member of
Parliament is a member of either of the two chambers of
Parliament of Austria (Österreichisches Parlament). The members
of the Nationalrat are called Abgeordnete zum Nationalrat. The members
of the Bundesrat, elected by the provincial diets (Landtage) of the
nine federal States of Austria, are known as Mitglieder des
Further information: National Assembly (Azerbaijan)
See also: National Assembly (Bulgaria)
In Bulgaria there are 240 members of
Народно събрание / Парламент; transliteration
Narodno sabranie / Parlament), which are called 'Deputati' (singular
Deputat). Moreover, there are 240 MPs in the normal parliament and 400
in the "Great Parliament". The Great
Parliament is elected when a new
constitution is needed. There have been seven Great Parliaments in
modern Bulgarian history, in 1879, 1881, 1886, 1893, 1911, 1946 and
1990. MPs in Bulgaria are called депутати – deputies.
See also: National Assembly (Cambodia)
The member of
Parliament (Khmer: សមាជិកសភា) refers
to the elected members of the National Assembly. There are 123 members
Parliament in total. They are also alternatively called member of
the National Assembly. Parliamentary elections are traditionally held
every five years with no term limits imposed. The 25 provinces of
Cambodia are represented by the members of
Parliament in the National
Assembly. A constituency may have more than one MP, depending on the
A member of
Parliament is a member of either of the two chambers of
Parliament of the Czech Republic, although the term Member of
Parliament of the Czech Republic is commonly referred to Deputy of the
Parliament of the Czech Republic (Czech: Poslanec Parlamentu České
republiky) who is member of the lower house of the Parliament, Chamber
of Deputies. For the upper house, Senate, the term
Senator is used.
Parliament refers to the elected members of the federal
Parliament at the
Reichstag building in Berlin. In German a
member is called Mitglied des Bundestages (Member of the Federal Diet)
or officially Mitglied des Deutschen Bundestages (Member of the German
Federal Diet), abbreviated
MdB and attached . Unofficially the
term Abgeordneter (literally: "delegate", i.e. of a certain
electorate) is also common (abbreviated Abg., never follows the name
but precedes it).
In accordance with article 38 of the Basic Law for the Federal
Republic of Germany, which is the German constitution, "[m]embers of
Bundestag shall be elected in general, direct, free, equal,
and secret elections. They shall be representatives of the whole
people, not bound by orders or instructions, and responsible only to
their conscience." An important though not constitutionally required
feature of German parliamentarianism is a slightly modified
The 16 federal
States of Germany
States of Germany (Länder) are represented by the
Bundesrat at the former Prussian House of Lords, whose members are
representatives of the respective Länder's governments and not
directly elected by the people.
Parliament (Βουλή των Ελλήνων), is the
supreme democratic institution in Greece, that represents all citizens
through an elected body of Members of Parliament. It is a unicameral
legislature of 300 members, elected for a four-year term.
Further information: Alþingi
See also: Knesset
A Member of the
Knesset (Hebrew: חבר הכנסת) is one of the
120 Members of the Knesset. The title is almost always shortened to
the initialism "MK".
In the Republican
Parliament the current term is Deputato (that is
deputy as appointed to act on people's behalf) and so the Lower House
takes the name of Camera dei Deputati. Similarly to other countries,
the Upper House is called Senato and its members are the Senatori.
In the Republic of Italy there are 315 members of
Senate and 630
members of the Camera dei Deputati. Both of them are elected by
general elections every 5 years. The President of the Italian Republic
can nominate for life 5 members of the Upper House. All former
Presidents of the Republic are members of the Upper House for life.
The two houses together form a perfect bicameral system, meaning they
perform identical functions, but do so separately.
In Japan, both houses of today's national parliament, the National
Diet (Kokkai), are directly elected, and although the two chambers
differ in legislative and political authority, term length and age
restriction of eligibility, the members of both houses are generally
equal in personal status (financial compensation, immunity, etc.).
There are currently 717 members of the
National Diet (Kokkai giin,
国会議員): 475 Members of the
House of Representatives (Shūgiin
giin, 衆議院議員) and 242 Members of the House of Councillors
(Sangiin giin, 参議院議員). The former are elected in
general/by-/repeat elections of members of the House of
Representatives (Shūgiin giin sō-/hoketsu-/sai-senkyo), the latter
in regular/by-/repeat elections of members of the House of Councillors
(Sangiin giin tsūjō-/hoketsu-/sai-senkyo). Under the postwar
constitution, the prime minister is elected by the
National Diet and
must be a member of the National Diet, as must the majority of other
ministers; by practice, all prime ministers since 1947 have been
members of the
House of Representatives so far.
Under the constitution of the Empire of Japan, the Imperial Diet
(Teikoku-gikai) was a bicameral legislature of two houses generally
equal in legislative authority, and while the members of both houses
received the same financial compensation – between 1920 and 1947:
Yen for the two presidents, ¥4500 for the two vice-presidents,
¥3000 for all other members of both houses except Imperial princes,
dukes and marquesses –, their status was different by definition:
the upper house consisted mainly of hereditary nobles and
lifetime-appointed peers, the lower house of elected commoners. In the
1st Imperial Diet in 1890, there were initially 551 members of the
Imperial Diet (Teikoku-gikai giin, 帝国議会議員, or in
contemporaneous script 帝國議會議員): 251 members of the House
of Peers (Kizokuin giin, 貴族院議員) and 300 members of the House
of Representatives (Shūgiin giin); of the House of Peers members, 10
were members of the Imperial family, 31 were hereditary members from
the two upper nobility ranks, 104 were members elected in mutual
elections from the three lower nobility ranks, 61 were
lifetime-appointed members (many of these from the bureaucracy) and 45
were members elected by the 15 top taxpayers in each of the 45
prefectures. But the number of noble and appointed members of the
House of Peers was not fixed and varied gradually over time as members
died or new peerages were granted; the number of elected top taxpayer
seats, Imperial Academy seats (introduced in 1925), members appointed
from the colonies Chōsen/Korea and Taiwan/Formosa (introduced in
1945), and the size of the
House of Representatives was fixed by law,
but was also changed several times over the decades. The last, 92nd
Imperial Diet of 1946–47 had 839 members: 466 members of the House
of Representatives and 373 members of the House of Peers. As the
regulations establishing the cabinet (naikaku) and the cabinet's prime
minister (naikaku sōri-daijin) were decreed before the Imperial
constitution, the prime minister didn't have to be a member of the
Imperial Diet, but after the establishment of the Imperial Diet in
1890, many prime ministers were appointed from the House of Peers,
only very few were members of the
House of Representatives (Takashi
Hara, Osachi Hamaguchi, Tsuyoshi Inukai).
Parliament of Lebanon is the Lebanese national legislature. It is
elected to a four-year term by universal adult suffrage in
multi-member constituencies, apportioned among Lebanon's diverse
Christian and Muslim denominations. Its major functions are to elect
the President of the Republic, to approve the government (although
appointed by the President, the Prime Minister, along with the
Cabinet, must retain the confidence of a majority in the Parliament),
and to approve laws and expenditure. The name of a deputy in Arabic is
Naeb (نائب). The plural of Naeb is Nuwab (نواب).
Republic of Macedonia
Main article: Assembly of the Republic of Macedonia
In the Republic of Macedonia there are 120 members of parliament
(Macedonian: Sobranie) which are called 'Pratenici' (singular
Parliament of the Netherlands is known as the Staten-Generaal,
States General. It is bicameral, divided in two Kamers (English:
Senate is known in Dutch as the Eerste Kamer (First
Chamber) and its members as senatoren, Senators. The House of
Representatives, known in Dutch as the Tweede Kamer (Second Chamber),
is the most important one. The important debates take place here.
Also, the Second Chamber can edit proposed laws with amendments and it
can propose laws itself. The
Senate does not have these capabilities.
Its function is a more technical reviewing of laws. It can only pass a
law or reject it. Both chambers are in
The Hague which is the seat of
parliament but not the official capital of the Netherlands, which is
The 150 members of the
House of Representatives are elected by general
elections every 4 years (or earlier if the government falls). The 75
members of the
Senate are elected indirectly. The members of the 12
provincial Parliaments and the councils of the three Caribbean special
municipalities elect the senators. The value of a vote of a member of
Parliament is weighted by the population of the province.
Provincial Parliaments, the States-Provincial, are elected by general
elections every four years; a new
Senate is elected three months after
the provincial elections.
A member of
Parliament is an elected member of the Stortinget. They
are called stortingsrepresentanter (literal translation:
Representatives of the Storting). Since 2009, Norway has had a
unicameral Parliament, which previously consisted of
Odelstinget with three-quarters, or 127, of the total 169
Lagtinget with the remainder. The dividing of the Parliament
into chambers was only used when dealing with passing regular laws and
in cases of prosecution by the national court (riksrett). In other
matters, such as passing the national budget or changing the
constitution (the latter requiring a majority of two-thirds), the
chambers were united.
The members of the unicameral
Parliament of Norway are chosen by
popular vote for a parliamentary period of four years.
Further information: Batasang Pambansa
From 1978 to 1984, the Philippine
Parliament was called the Batasang
Pambansa (National Assembly), and its elected members were called
Mambabatas Pambansa (National Assemblyman), often shortened to "MP".
Further information: Sejm of the Republic of Poland
A member of
Parliament is known as deputado, a person who is appointed
after democratic election to act on people's behalf. The parliament is
called Assembleia da República.
See also: List of members of the
Congress of Deputies (Spain)
The word parlamento -of the same origin as
Parliament in English- is
used as a common name for all legislative assemblies, and hence
parlamentario for the member of any of them, which can usually refer
to members of:
both chambers of the national legislature (Cortes Generales), the
Congress of Deputies and the Senate.
the regional devolved legislatures of the Autonomous Communities.
the European Parliament.
Members of the
Congress of Deputies are called diputados (deputies),
impliying that they are elected to act in the name and on behalf of
the people they represent. It is also usual to call members of the
Riksdag and List of members of the Riksdag, 2014–18
Parliament refers to the elected members of the Riksdag. In
Swedish, an MP is usually referred to as a riksdagsledamot (member of
the Riksdag) or a riksdagsman (Gentleman of the Riksdag). The former
is in more common use today, especially in official contexts, due its
status as a unisex word, while the latter was used more often
historically and literally refers to a male MP exclusively.
The parliament is a unicameral assembly with 349 members who are
chosen every four years in general elections. To become an MP, a
person must be entitled to vote (i.e. be a Swedish citizen, be at
least 18 years old and be or have been resident in Sweden) and must be
nominated by a political party. The MPs are elected by
proportionality in constituencies across the nation. To decide which
candidate will be elected the modified
Sainte-Laguë method is used.
This method usually but not always gives an accurate result in
proportion to cast votes. In the 2014 general election the
center-right coalition government got one less MP than the overall
opposition, in despite of more votes in total. To get a more
proportional result 39 MPs are elected at compensation mandate
(Utjämningsmandat) and those MPs therefore doesn't represent their
The salaries of the MPs are decided by the
Riksdag Pay Committee
(Riksdagens arvodesnämnd), a government agency under the Riksdag.
Since 1 November 2007, the basic monthly pay of an MP is SEK52,900
(ca. US$6,500). The pay of the Speaker is SEK126,000 a month (ca.
US$15,000), which is the same as that of the Prime Minister. The
Deputy Speakers receive an increment of 30% of the pay of a member.
The chairs and deputy chairs of the parliamentary committees receive a
similar increment of 20% and 15% respectively.
According to a survey investigation by the sociologist Jenny
Hansson, Swedish national parliamentarians have an average work
week of 66 hours, including side responsibilities. Hansson's
investigation further reports that the average Swedish national
parliamentarian sleeps 6.5 hours per night.
In the Kingdom of Thailand, members of
สมาชิกรัฐสภา; RTGS: Samachik Ratthasapha)
refer to the members of the National Assembly of Thailand, that is,
the Members of the
House of Representatives and the Senators.
Following the military coup d'état on 19 September 2006, all members
of the Assembly were suspended from duty until the next election. The
Assembly was fully reconvened after the general elections under a
slightly amended new constitution. Under the 2007 Constitution there
are 650 members of Parliament, consisting of 500 members in the House
of Representatives, of which 375 elected from constituencies and the
other 125 by party-list, and 150 Senators.
See also: Grand National Assembly of Turkey
In the Republic of Turkey, a member of
Parliament is an elected member
Grand National Assembly of Turkey
Grand National Assembly of Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye Büyük
Millet Meclisi, TBMM), which has 550 members elected at a general
election for a term of office of four years.
People's Deputy of
Ukraine (Ukrainian: народний депутат
України, narodnyi deputat Ukrayiny) is a member of Parliament,
legislator elected by a popular vote to the
Verkhovna Rada (the
unicameral parliament of Ukraine). Often People's Deputies of Ukraine
are referred to simply as deputies.
The main statutes that define the order of elections, rights and
duties of the People's Deputies of
Ukraine are outlined in Articles 76
– 81 of the Constitution of Ukraine. There are 450 people's deputies
Ukraine who are elected based on the general, equal and direct
electoral right for 5 years. The deputies may be appointed to various
parliamentary positions such as the chairperson (speaker) of
Parliament, a head of a committee or a parliamentary faction, etc.
Upon its appointment to the office each people's deputy of Ukraine
receives a deputy mandate.
People's Deputies that ran for the parliament as self-nominated
candidates can join factions if they wish.
Member of Congress
Australia and New Zealand Association of Clerks-at-the-Table, an
association with the aim of advancing the professional development of
^ "ESL Home". Parl.gc.ca. Archived from the original on 3 February
2012. Retrieved 30 March 2012.
^ Glossary of Parliamentary Terms for intermediate students Parliament
^ Then, Stephen (11 October 2012). "Here comes a real wakil rakyat".
The Star (Malaysia). Retrieved 2 March 2013. [permanent dead
^ "Court Services" (PDF). Docs.justice.gov.mt. Retrieved 30 March
^ "Court Services" (PDF). Docs.justice.gov.mt. Retrieved 30 March
^ Scholefield, Guy (1950) [First ed. published 1913]. New Zealand
Parliamentary Record, 1840–1949 (3rd ed.). Wellington: Govt.
Printer. p. 91.
^ "UK Parliament". Archived from the original on 29 October 2013.
Retrieved 15 July 2009. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status
Electoral Administration Act 2006
Electoral Administration Act 2006 Office of Public Sector
House of Lords
House of Lords Reform UK Parliament
^ "Mitglieder des Deutschen Bundestages (MdB)" (in German). German
Bundestag. Archived from the original on 9 September 2010. Retrieved
18 October 2010.
^ Judgment no.390/2007 of the Constitutional Court makes clear that
the third paragraph of Article 68 of the Constitution is intended to
prevent that – listening to confidential discussions of a senator or
a deputy – the Judiciary may become a source of constraints and
pressures on the free development of an elected mandate :
Buonomo, Giampiero (2007). "Intercettazioni "telefoniche" indirette:
illegittima la distruzione immediata e la conseguente immunità dei
terzi (non parlamentari) coinvolti". Diritto&Giustizia edizione
online. – via
Questia (subscription required)
National Diet Library, Reference (レファレンス, an NDL
monthly) 2005.5, Ōyama Hidehisa,
帝国議会の運営と会議録をめぐって, pp.49–50, Table 2:
Number of members of the House of Peeers and House of Representatives
[by Imperial Diet and in the House of Peers, by membership category]
^ "Members and parties".
Parliament of Sweden. 3 October 2006.
Retrieved 6 January 2008.
^ "Pay and economic benefits". The Riksdag. 1 November 2007. Archived
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^ "Members' pay". The Riksdag. 13 July 2007. Archived from the
original on 13 June 2007. Retrieved 6 January 2008.
^ Hansson, Jenny (2008). "Sociologiska institutionen – Välkommen
till oss!" (PDF). De Folkvaldas Livsvillkor, Umea University. Archived
from the original (PDF) on 3 March 2009.
^ Yanukovych signs law on open voting to elect parliamentary chairman,
Kyiv Post (19 November 2012)