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Mehmed V. Reşâd (Ottoman Turkish: محمد خامس Meḥmed-i ẖâmis, Turkish: Beşinci Mehmet Reşat or Reşat Mehmet) (2 November 1844 – 3 July 1918) was the 35th and penultimate Ottoman Sultan. He was the son of Sultan Abdülmecid I.[2] He was succeeded by his half-brother Mehmed VI. His nine-year reign was marked by the cession of the Empire's North African territories and the Dodecanese Islands, including Rhodes, in the Italo-Turkish War, the traumatic loss of almost all of the Empire's European territories west of Constantinople in the First Balkan War, and the entry of the Empire into World War I,[3] which would ultimately lead to the end of the Ottoman Empire.

Contents

1 Birth 2 Reign 3 Death 4 Decorations and awards 5 Family 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

Birth[edit] He was born at the Topkapı Palace, Constantinople.[1] Like many other potential heirs to the throne, he was confined for 30 years in the Harems of the palace. For nine of those years he was in solitary confinement. During this time he studied poetry of the old Persian style and was an acclaimed poet. On his ninth birthday he was ceremoniously circumcised in the special Circumcision Room (Sünnet Odasi) of Topkapı Palace. Reign[edit] His reign began on 27 April 1909, but he was largely a figurehead with no real political power, as a consequence of the Young Turk Revolution in 1908 (which restored the Ottoman Constitution and Parliament) and especially the 1913 Ottoman coup d'état, which brought the dictatorial triumvirate of the Three Pashas
Three Pashas
to power. Under his rule, the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
lost all its remaining territory in North Africa
North Africa
(Tripolitania, Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
and Fezzan) to Italy in the Italo-Turkish War
Italo-Turkish War
and nearly all its European territories (except for a small strip of land west of Constantinople) in the First Balkan War. The sudden loss of these enormous swathes of land, which had been Ottoman territory for centuries and were ceded to its opponents within a span of only two years, was deeply shocking to the Ottoman Turks and resulted in massive popular backlash against the government, culminating in the 1913 Ottoman coup d'etat. Mehmed V's most significant political act was to formally declare jihad against the Entente Powers (Allies of World War I) on 14 November 1914, following the Ottoman government's decision to join the First World War
First World War
on the side of the Central Powers.[4] He was actually said to look with disfavor on the pro-German policy of Enver Pasha.[5] This was the last genuine proclamation of jihad in history by a Caliph, as the Caliphate
Caliphate
lasted until 1924. The proclamation had no noticeable effect on the war, despite the fact that many Muslims
Muslims
lived in Ottoman territories. The Arabs
Arabs
eventually joined the British forces against the Ottomans with the Arab Revolt
Arab Revolt
in 1916. Mehmed V
Mehmed V
hosted Kaiser Wilhelm II, his World War I
World War I
ally, in Constantinople on 15 October 1917. He was made Generalfeldmarschall
Generalfeldmarschall
of the Kingdom of Prussia
Kingdom of Prussia
on 27 January 1916, and of the German Empire
German Empire
on 1 February 1916.

Le Petit Journal 1909, Mehmed V
Mehmed V
proclaimed Sultan.

Wilhelm II, Mehmed V, Franz Joseph: The three emperors of the Central Powers in the First World War.

Sultan Mehmed V
Mehmed V
together with his entourage. Bitola, 1911. Photo from the Manaki Brothers (Damaged plate).

Mehmed V
Mehmed V
and Enver Pasha
Enver Pasha
hosting Wilhelm II
Wilhelm II
in Constantinople during World War I.

Sultan Mehmed V
Mehmed V
in Imperial Ottoman naval uniform.

Mehmed V
Mehmed V
in ceremonial uniform.

Portrait of Sultan Mehmed V.

Death[edit] Mehmed V
Mehmed V
died at Yıldız Palace
Yıldız Palace
on 3 July 1918 at the age of 73, only four months before the end of World War I.[6] Thus, he did not live to see the downfall of the Ottoman Empire. He spent most of his life at the Dolmabahçe Palace
Dolmabahçe Palace
and Yıldız Palace
Yıldız Palace
in Istanbul. His grave is in the Eyüp
Eyüp
district.

The türbe of Mehmed V
Mehmed V
is located near the Eyüp
Eyüp
Sultan Mosque in Eyüp, Istanbul.

Decorations and awards[edit]

Ottoman orders

Mehmed V
Mehmed V
was Grand Master of the following Ottoman Orders:

Grand Master of the Order of the Crescent Grand Master of the Order of Nichan Iftikhar Grand Master of the Order of the Medjidie Grand Master of the Order of Osmanieh

Foreign orders and decorations

Knight of the Military Order of Max Joseph
Military Order of Max Joseph
(Bavaria)

Family[edit]

Consorts

Sultan Mehmed Reşad had five consorts:

Kamures Kadın
Kamures Kadın
(m. 1872 Ganja, Caucus, c. 1857 – Kuruçesme Palace, Istanbul, 30 April 1921, buried in Mehmed Reşad Mausoleum); Mihrengiz Kadın (m. 1876; Adapazarı, c. 1870 – Alexandria, Egypt, 12 December 1938, buried in Ömer Tosun Pasha Mausoleum); Dürrüaden Kadın (m. 1877; Kars, Caucasus, c. 1861 – Validebağı Palace, Istanbul, 17 October 1909, buried in Gülüstü Hanım Mausoleum); Nazperver Kadın
Nazperver Kadın
(m. 1888; c. 1873 – Kadınefendi Palace, Vaniköy, Istanbul, Turkey, 9 March 1929, buried in Yahya Efendi cemetery); Dilfirib Kadın (m. 1907; c. 1892 – Kadınefendi Palace, Vaniköy, Istanbul, Turkey, 1952).

Sons

He had three sons:

Şehzade Mehmed Ziyaeddin (Ortaköy Palace, Istanbul, 26 August 1873 – Alexandria, Egypt, 30 January 1938, buried in Ömer Tosun Pasha Mausoleum), married five times and had two sons and six daughters; Şehzade Ömer Hilmi
Şehzade Ömer Hilmi
(Veliahd Palace, Istanbul, 2 March 1888 – Alexandria, Egypt, 2 November 1935, buried in Ömer Tosun Pasha Mausoleum), married five times and had one son and one daughter; Şehzade Mahmud Necmeddin (Veliahd Palace, Istanbul, 23 June 1878 – Dolmabahçe Palace, Istanbul, 27 June 1913, buried in Mehmed Reşad Mausoleum), unmarried and without issue.

Daughter

He had one daughter:

Refia Sultan (Veliahd Palace, Istanbul, 1888 – Veliahd Palace, Istanbul, 1888).

See also[edit]

The Ottomans: Europe's Muslim Emperors

References[edit]

^ a b The Encyclopædia Britannica, Vol.7, edited Hugh Chisholm, (1911), 3; "Constantinople, the capital of the Turkish Empire..". ^ Abdulmecid, Coskun Cakir, Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire, ed. Gábor Ágoston, Bruce Alan Masters, (Infobase Publishing, 2009), 9. ^ "Rusya Fransa ve İngiltere devletleriyle hal-i harb ilanı hakkında irade-i seniyye [Imperial Decree Concerning the Declaration of a State of War with the States of Russia, France, and the United Kingdom], Nov. 11, 1914 (29 Teşrin-i Evvel 1330), Takvim-i Vekayi, Nov. 12, 1914 (30 Teşrin-i Evvel 1330)" (PDF).  ^ Lawrence Sondhaus, World War One: The Global Revolution, (Cambridge University Press, 2011), 91. ^  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1922). "Mahommed V.". Encyclopædia Britannica (12th ed.). London & New York.  ^ Mehmed V, Selcuk Aksin Somel, Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire, 371.

External links[edit] Media related to Mehmed V
Mehmed V
at Wikimedia Commons

Mehmed V House of Osman Born: 2 November 1844 Died: 3 July 1918

Regnal titles

Preceded by Abdul Hamid II Sultan of the Ottoman Empire 27 Apr 1909 – 3 Jul 1918 Succeeded by Mehmed VI

Sunni Islam
Islam
titles

Preceded by Abdul Hamid II Caliph
Caliph
of Islam 27 Apr 1909 – 3 Jul 1918 Succeeded by Mehmed VI

v t e

Ottoman Sultans / Caliphs

Dynasty Family tree (detailed) Family tree (simplified) Line of succession

Osman I Orhan Murad I Bayezid I Interregnum Mehmed I Murad II Mehmed II Murad II Mehmed II Bayezid II Selim I Suleiman I Selim II Murad III Mehmed III Ahmed I Mustafa I Osman II Mustafa I Murad IV Ibrahim Mehmed IV Suleiman II Ahmed II Mustafa II Ahmed III Mahmud I Osman III Mustafa III Abdul Hamid I Selim III Mustafa IV Mahmud II Abdulmejid I Abdülaziz Murad V Abdul Hamid II Mehmed V Mehmed VI Abdulmejid II
Abdulmejid II
( Caliph
Caliph
only)

§ First Ottoman caliph

Book Category

Related templates: Claimants Valide Sultans

v t e

Ottoman princes

1st generation

Alaeddin Pasha Orhan

2nd generation

Süleyman Pasha Murad I Şehzade Halil

3rd generation

Savcı Bey Bayezid I

4th generation

Süleyman Çelebi İsa Çelebi Mehmed I Musa Çelebi Mustafa Çelebi

5th generation

Murad II Küçük Mustafa

6th generation

Mehmed the Conqueror

7th generation

Bayezid II Sultan Cem

8th generation

Şehzade Ahmet Şehzade Korkut Selim I

9th generation

Suleiman the Magnificent

10th generation

Şehzade Mustafa Şehzade Mehmed Şehzade Abdullah Selim II Şehzade Bayezid Şehzade Cihangir

11th generation

Murad III

12th generation

Mehmed III Sultan Yahya

13th generation

Şehzade Mahmud Ahmed I Mustafa I

14th generation

Osman II Murad IV Ibrahim

15th generation

Şehzade Ömer Mehmed IV Suleiman II Ahmed II

16th generation

Mustafa II Ahmed III

17th generation

Mahmud I Osman III Mustafa III Abdul Hamid I

18th generation

Selim III Mustafa IV Mahmud II

19th generation

Abdulmejid I Abdulaziz

20th generation

Abdul Hamid II Murad V Mehmed V Şehzade Ahmed Kemaleddin Mehmed VI Şehzade Yusuf Izzeddin Abdulmejid II

21st generation

Şehzade Mehmed
Şehzade Mehmed
Selaheddin Şehzade Mehmed
Şehzade Mehmed
Selim Şehzade Mehmed
Şehzade Mehmed
Abdülkadir Şehzade Mehmed
Şehzade Mehmed
Abid Şehzade Mehmed
Şehzade Mehmed
Ziyaeddin Şehzade Ömer
Şehzade Ömer
Hilmi

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 23084823 LCCN: nr98031746 GND: 124832946 SUDOC: 168646501 BNF:

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