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Mehmed I
Mehmed I
(1381 – 26 May 1421), also known as Mehmed Çelebi (Ottoman Turkish: چلبی محمد‎, "the noble-born") or Kirişci (from Greek Kyritzes, "lord's son"),[3] was the Ottoman Sultan from 1413 to 1421. The fourth son of Sultan Bayezid I
Bayezid I
and Devlet Hatun, he fought with his brothers over control of the Ottoman realm in the Ottoman Interregnum (1402–1413). Starting from the province of Rûm he managed to bring first Anatolia
Anatolia
and then the European territories (Rumelia) under his control, reuniting the Ottoman state by 1413, and ruling it until his death in 1421.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Reign 3 Death 4 Family 5 References 6 Sources 7 Further reading 8 External links

Early life[edit] Mehmed was born in 1386 or 1387 as the fourth son of Sultan Bayezid I (r. 1389–1402– ) and one of his wives, the slave girl Devlet Hatun.[3] Following Ottoman custom, when he reached adolescence in 1399, he was sent to gain experience as provincial governor over the Rûm Eyalet
Rûm Eyalet
(central northern Anatolia), recently conquered from its Eretnid
Eretnid
rulers.[4] On 20 July 1402, his father Bayezid was defeated in the Battle of Ankara by the Turko-Mongol conqueror and ruler Timur. The brothers (with the exception of Mustafa, who was captured and taken along with Bayezid to Samarkand) were rescued from the battlefield, Mehmed being saved by Bayezid Pasha, who took him to his hometown of Amasya. Mehmed later made Bayezid Pasha his grand vizier (1413–1421). The early Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
had no regulated succession, and according to Turkish tradition, every son could succeed his father.[5] Of Mehmed's brothers, the eldest, Ertuğrul, had died in 1400, while the next in line, Mustafa, was a prisoner of Timur. Leaving aside the underage siblings, this left four princes—Mehmed, Süleyman, İsa, and Musa, to contend over control of the remaining Ottoman territories in the civil war known as the "Ottoman Interregnum".[5] In modern historiography, these princes are usually called by the title Çelebi,[5] but in contemporary sources, the title is reserved for Mehmed and Musa. The Byzantine sources translated the title as Kyritzes (Κυριτζής), which was in turn adopted into Turkish as kirişçi, sometimes misinterpreted as güreşçi, "the wrestler".[6] Reign[edit] After winning the Interregnum, Mehmed crowned himself sultan in the Thracian city of Edirne
Edirne
that lay in the European part of the empire (the area dividing the Anatolian and European sides of the empire, Constantinople
Constantinople
and the surrounding region, was still held by the Byzantine Empire), becoming Mehmed I. He consolidated his power, made Edirne
Edirne
the most important of the dual capitals, and conquered parts of Albania, the Jandarid emirate, and the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia from the Mamelukes. Taking his many achievements into consideration, Mehmed is widely known as the "second founder" of the Ottoman Sultanate. Soon after Mehmed began his reign, his brother Mustafa Çelebi, who had originally been captured along with their father Bayezid I
Bayezid I
during the Battle of Ankara
Battle of Ankara
and held captive in Samarkand, hiding in Anatolia during the Interregnum, reemerged and asked Mehmed to partition the empire with him. Mehmed refused and met Mustafa's forces in battle, easily defeating them. Mustafa escaped to the Byzantine city of Thessaloniki, but after an agreement with Mehmed, the Byzantine emperor Manuel II Palaiologos
Manuel II Palaiologos
exiled Mustafa to the island of Lemnos. However, Mehmed still faced some problems, first being the problem of his nephew Orhan, who Mehmed perceived as a threat to his rule, much like his late brothers had been. There was allegedly a plot involving him by Manuel II Palaiologos, who tried to use Orhan
Orhan
against Sultan Mehmed; however, the sultan found out about the plot and had Orhan blinded for betrayal, according to a common Byzantine practice. Furthermore, as a result of the Battle of Ankara
Battle of Ankara
and other civil wars, the population of the empire had become unstable and traumatized. A very powerful social and religious movement arose in the empire and became disruptive. The movement was led by Sheikh Bedreddin (1359–1420), a famous Muslim Sufi and charismatic theologian. He was an eminent Ulema, born of a Greek mother and a Muslim father in Simavna (Kyprinos) southwest of Edirne
Edirne
(formerly Adrianople). Mehmed's brother Musa had made Bedreddin his "qadi of the army," or the supreme judge. Bedreddin created a populist religious movement in the Ottoman Sultanate, "subversive conclusions promoting the suppression of social differences between rich and poor as well as the barriers between different forms of monotheism."[7] Successfully developing a popular social revolution and syncretism of the various religions and sects of the empire, Bedreddin's movement began in the European side of the empire and underwent further expansion in western Anatolia. In 1416, Sheikh Bedreddin started his rebellion against the throne. After a four-year struggle, he was finally captured by Mehmed's grand vizier Bayezid Pasha and hanged in the city off Serres, a city in modern-day Greece, in 1420.[8] Death[edit]

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His mausoleum, Green Tomb, in Bursa

The reign of Mehmed I
Mehmed I
as sultan of the re-united empire lasted only eight years before his death, but he had also been the most powerful brother contending for the throne and de facto ruler of most of the empire for nearly the whole preceding period of 11 years of the Ottoman Interregnum
Ottoman Interregnum
that passed between his father's captivity at Ankara and his own final victory over his brother Musa Çelebi
Musa Çelebi
at the Battle of Çamurlu. He was buried in Bursa, in a mausoleum erected by himself near the celebrated mosque which he built there, and which, because of its decorations of green glazed tiles, is called the Green Mosque. Mehmed I also completed another mosque in Bursa, which his grandfather Murad I had commenced but which had been neglected during the reign of Bayezid. Mehmed founded in the vicinity of his own Green Mosque and mausoleum two other characteristic institutions, one a school and one a refectory for the poor, both of which he endowed with royal munificence. Family[edit]

Consorts

Şehzade Hatun, daughter of Dividdar Ahmed Paşa, third ruler of Kutluşah of Canik; Emine Hatun
Emine Hatun
(m.1403), daughter of Şaban Süli Bey, fifth ruler of Dulkadirids;[9] Kumru Hatun, mother of Selçuk Hatun;[9]

Sons

Sultan Murad II, son of Emine Hatun;[9] Şehzade Küçük Mustafa
Küçük Mustafa
Çelebi[10] (1408 – killed October 1423); Şehzade Mahmud Çelebi[10] (1413 – August 1429, buried in Mehmed I Mausoleum, Bursa); Şehzade Yusuf Çelebi[10] (1414 – August 1429, buried in Mehmed I Mausoleum, Bursa); Şehzade Ahmed Çelebi[10] (died in infancy); Şehzade Kasim Çelebi (died January 1406, buried in Princes Mausoleum, Amasya);

Daughters

Selçuk Hatun (died 25 October 1485, buried in Mehmed I
Mehmed I
Mausoleum, Bursa), married Prince Damat Taceddin Ibrahim II Bey, ruler of Isfendiyarids
Isfendiyarids
(1392 – 30 May 1443), son of Prince İsfendiyar Bey, ruler of Isfendiyarids;[9] Sultan Hatun (died 1444), married Prince Damat Kasim Bey (died 1464), son of Prince Isfendiar Bey, ruler of Isfendiyarids;[9] A daughter, married to Damat Karaca Paşa (died 10 November 1444);[9] Hafsa Hatun (buried in Mehmed I
Mehmed I
Mausoleum, Bursa), married Damat Mahmud Bey (died January 1444), son of Ibrahim Paşa Çandarlı;[9] İlaldi Hatun, married Prince Damat Ibrahim II Bey, ruler of Karamanids
Karamanids
(died 16 July 1464), son of Prince Mehmed II Bey[9] A daughter, married to Prince Damat Isa Bey (died 1437), son of Prince Damat Mehmed II Bey;[9] Ayşe Hatun (buried in Mehmed I
Mehmed I
Mausoleum, Bursa),[9] A daughter, married to Prince Damat Alaattin Ali Bey, ruler of Karamanids, son of Prince Halil Bey.[9]

References[edit]

^ The Essential World History, Volume II: Since 1500. By William J. Duiker, Jackson J. Spielvogel ^ The Rise of Turkey: The Twenty-First Century's First Muslim Power. By Soner Cagaptay ^ a b İnalcık 1991, p. 973. ^ İnalcık 1991, pp. 973–974. ^ a b c İnalcık 1991, p. 974. ^ Kastritsis 2007, p. 2 (note 7). ^ Europe and the Islamic World: A History. p. 128.Tolan, John. Princeton university Press. (2013) ISBN 978-0-691-14705-5 ^ Europe and the Islamic World: A History. p. 128.Tolan, John. Princeton university Press. (2013) ISBN 978-0-691-14705-5 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Uluçay, Mustafa Çağatay (2011). Padişahların kadınları ve kızları. Ankara, Ötüken. pp. 27–30, 27 n. 4.  ^ a b c d Imber, Colin (August 26, 2009). The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650: The Structure of Power. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 77. ISBN 978-1-137-01406-1. 

Sources[edit]

İnalcık, Halil (1991). "Meḥemmed I". The Encyclopedia of Islam, New Edition, Volume VI: Mahk–Mid. Leiden and New York: BRILL. pp. 973–978. ISBN 90-04-08112-7.  Kastritsis, Dimitris (2007). The Sons of Bayezid: Empire Building and Representation in the Ottoman Civil War of 1402-13. BRILL. ISBN 978-90-04-15836-8. 

Further reading[edit]

Harris, Jonathan, The End of Byzantium. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2010. ISBN 978-0-300-11786-8 Imber, Colin, The Ottoman Empire. London: Palgrave/Macmillan, 2002. ISBN 0-333-61387-2

External links[edit] Media related to Mehmed I
Mehmed I
at Wikimedia Commons

Mehmed I House of Osman Born: 1381  Died: 26 May 1421

Regnal titles

Preceded by Bayezid I Ottoman Sultan 5 July 1413 – 26 May 1421 Succeeded by Murad II

v t e

Ottoman Sultans / Caliphs

Dynasty Family tree (detailed) Family tree (simplified) Line of succession

Osman I Orhan Murad I Bayezid I Interregnum Mehmed I Murad II Mehmed II Murad II Mehmed II Bayezid II Selim I Suleiman I Selim II Murad III Mehmed III Ahmed I Mustafa I Osman II Mustafa I Murad IV Ibrahim Mehmed IV Suleiman II Ahmed II Mustafa II Ahmed III Mahmud I Osman III Mustafa III Abdul Hamid I Selim III Mustafa IV Mahmud II Abdulmejid I Abdülaziz Murad V Abdul Hamid II Mehmed V Mehmed VI Abdulmejid II
Abdulmejid II
( Caliph
Caliph
only)

§ First Ottoman caliph

Book Category

Related templates: Claimants Valide Sultans

v t e

Ottoman princes

1st generation

Alaeddin Pasha Orhan

2nd generation

Süleyman Pasha Murad I Şehzade Halil

3rd generation

Savcı Bey Bayezid I

4th generation

Süleyman Çelebi İsa Çelebi Mehmed I Musa Çelebi Mustafa Çelebi

5th generation

Murad II Küçük Mustafa

6th generation

Mehmed the Conqueror

7th generation

Bayezid II Sultan Cem

8th generation

Şehzade Ahmet Şehzade Korkut Selim I

9th generation

Suleiman the Magnificent

10th generation

Şehzade Mustafa Şehzade Mehmed Şehzade Abdullah Selim II Şehzade Bayezid Şehzade Cihangir

11th generation

Murad III

12th generation

Mehmed III Sultan Yahya

13th generation

Şehzade Mahmud Ahmed I Mustafa I

14th generation

Osman II Murad IV Ibrahim

15th generation

Şehzade Ömer Mehmed IV Suleiman II Ahmed II

16th generation

Mustafa II Ahmed III

17th generation

Mahmud I Osman III Mustafa III Abdul Hamid I

18th generation

Selim III Mustafa IV Mahmud II

19th generation

Abdulmejid I Abdulaziz

20th generation

Abdul Hamid II Murad V Mehmed V Şehzade Ahmed Kemaleddin Mehmed VI Şehzade Yusuf Izzeddin Abdulmejid II

21st generation

Şehzade Mehmed
Şehzade Mehmed
Selaheddin Şehzade Mehmed
Şehzade Mehmed
Selim Şehzade Mehmed
Şehzade Mehmed
Abdülkadir Şehzade Mehmed
Şehzade Mehmed
Abid Şehzade Mehmed
Şehzade Mehmed
Ziyaeddin Şehzade Ömer
Şehzade Ömer
Hilmi

v t e

Ottoman Interregnum

Background

Rise of the Ottoman Empire Murad I Bayezid I Siege of Constantinople
Constantinople
(1394–1402) Crusade of Nicopolis Timur Battle of Ankara

Events

Siege of Smyrna Battle of Tripolje Treaty of Gallipoli Battle of Ermeni-beli Battle of Ulubad Battle of Karasi Battle of Kosmidion Battle of Edirne Siege of Constantinople
Constantinople
(1411) Treaty of Selymbria Battle of İnceğiz Battle of Çamurlu

Ottoman princes and leaders

Mehmed I Süleyman Çelebi İsa Çelebi Musa Çelebi Mustafa Çelebi Çandarlı Ali Pasha Imamzade Halil Pasha Bayezid Pasha Evrenos Pasha Yiğit Bey Mihaloğlu Mehmed Bey Turahan Bey Sheikh Bedreddin

Neighbouring rulers and leaders

Junayd Bey (Aydın) Manuel II Palaiologos
Manuel II Palaiologos
(Byzantine Empire) John VII Palaiologos
John VII Palaiologos
(Byzantine Empire) Demetrios Laskaris Leontares (Byzantine Empire) Nasireddin Mehmed Bey (Dulkadir) Yakup II (Germiyan) Philibert de Naillac
Philibert de Naillac
(Hospitallers) İsfendiyar Bey Mehmed II (Karaman) Stefan Lazarević
Stefan Lazarević
(Serbia) Đurađ Branković
Đurađ Branković
(Serbia) Mircea I (Wallachia)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 263937

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