Meghalaya (UK: /meɪˈɡɑːləjə/, US: /ˌmeɪɡəˈleɪə/)
is a state in Northeast India. The name means "the abode of clouds" in
Sanskrit. The population of
Meghalaya as of 2016 is estimated to be
Meghalaya covers an area of approximately 22,430 square
kilometers, with a length to breadth ratio of about 3:1.
The state is bounded to the south by the Bangladeshi divisions of
Mymensingh and Sylhet, to the west by the Bangladeshi division of
Rangpur, and to the north and east by India's State of Assam. The
Meghalaya is Shillong. During the British rule of India,
the British imperial authorities nicknamed it the "Scotland of the
Meghalaya was previously part of Assam, but on 21 January
1972, the districts of Khasi, Garo and Jaintia hills became the new
state of Meghalaya. English is the official language of Meghalaya. The
other principal languages spoken include Khasi, Garo, Pnar, Hajong,
Rabha and Biate. Unlike many Indian states, Meghalaya
has historically followed a matrilineal system where the lineage and
inheritance are traced through women; the youngest daughter inherits
all wealth and she also takes care of her parents.
The state is the wettest region of India, recording an average of
12,000 mm (470 in) of rain a year. About 70% of the state
is forested. The
Meghalaya subtropical forests ecoregion
encompasses the state; its mountain forests are distinct from the
lowland tropical forests to the north and south. The forests are
notable for their biodiversity of mammals, birds, and plants.
Meghalaya has predominantly an agrarian economy with a significant
commercial forestry industry. The important crops are potatoes, rice,
maize, pineapples, bananas, papayas, spices, etc. The service sector
is made up of real estate and insurance companies. Meghalaya's gross
state domestic product for 2012 was estimated at ₹16,173 crore
(US$2.5 billion) in current prices. The state is geologically
rich in minerals, but it has no significant industries. The state
has about 1,170 km (730 mi) of national highways. It is also
a major logistical center for trade with Bangladesh.
Flora and fauna
6 Government and politics
6.1 State government
6.2 Local self-government
7.3 Electricity infrastructure
7.4 Education infrastructure
7.5 Health infrastructure
8 Urban areas
8.1 New proposal for urban areas
9 Culture and society
9.1 Social institutions
9.2 Traditional political institutions
9.5 Living Root Bridges
10.1 Road network
12 Major issues
12.1 Illegal immigration
12.3 Political instability
12.4 Jhum farming
14 See also
17 External links
Meghalaya, along with neighboring Indian states, have been of
archeological interest. People have lived here since neolithic era.
Neolithic sites discovered so far are located in areas of high
elevation such as in Khasi Hills,
Garo Hills and neighboring states.
Here neolithic style jhum or shifting cultivation is practiced even
today. The highland plateaus fed by abundant rains provided safety
from floods and a rich soil. The importance of
Meghalaya is its
possible role in human history through domestication of rice. One of
the competing theories for the origin of rice, is from Ian Glover, who
India is the center of greatest diversity of domesticated
rice with over 20,000 identified species and
Northeast India is the
most favorable single area of the origin of domesticated rice."
The limited archeology done in the hills of
Meghalaya suggest human
settlement since ancient times.
Meghalaya was formed by carving out two districts from the state of
Assam: the United
Khasi Hills and Jaintia Hills, and the
Garo Hills on
21 January 1972. Before attaining full statehood,
Meghalaya was given
semi-autonomous status in 1970.
The Khasi, Garo, and Jaintia tribes had their own kingdoms until they
came under British administration in the 19th century. Later, the
Assam in 1835. The region
enjoyed semi-independent status by virtue of a treaty relationship
with the British Crown. When Bengal was partitioned on 16 October 1905
by Lord Curzon,
Meghalaya became a part of the new province of Eastern
Bengal and Assam. However, when the partition was reversed in 1912,
Meghalaya became a part of the province of Assam. On 3 January 1921 in
pursuance of Section 52A of the Government of
India Act of 1919, the
governor-general-in-council declared the areas now in Meghalaya, other
than the Khasi states, as "backward tracts." Subsequently, the British
administration enacted the Government of
India Act of 1935, which
regrouped the backward tracts into two categories: "excluded" and
"partially excluded" areas.
At the time of Indian independence in 1947, present day Meghalaya
constituted two districts of
Assam and enjoyed limited autonomy within
the state of Assam. A movement for a separate Hill State began in
Assam Reorganisation (Meghalaya) Act of 1969 accorded an
autonomous status to the state of Meghalaya. The Act came into effect
on 2 April 1970, and an autonomous state of
Meghalaya was born out of
Assam. The autonomous state had a 37-member legislature in accordance
with the Sixth schedule to the Indian constitution.
In 1971, the Parliament passed the North-Eastern Areas
(Reorganization) Act, 1971, which conferred full statehood on the
autonomous state of Meghalaya.
Meghalaya attained statehood on 21
January 1972, with a Legislative Assembly of its own.
Meghalaya is mountainous, the most rain soaked state of India. The
Meghalaya means, "abode of the clouds". Above is Laitmawsiang
landscape wrapped in fog.
Meghalaya is one of the
Seven Sister States
Seven Sister States of northeast India. The
Meghalaya is mountainous, with stretches of valley and
highland plateaus, and it is geologically rich. It consists mainly of
Archean rock formations. These rock formations contain rich deposits
of valuable minerals like coal, limestone, uranium and sillimanite.
Meghalaya has many rivers. Most of these are rainfed and seasonal. The
important rivers in the
Garo Hills region are Ganol, Daring, Sanda,
Bandra, Bugai, Dareng, Simsang, Nitai and the Bhupai. In the central
and eastern sections of the plateau, the important rivers are Khri,
Digaru, Umiam, Kynshi (Jadukata), Mawpa, Umiam or Barapani, Umngot and
Myntdu. In the southern
Khasi Hills region, these rivers have created
deep gorges and several beautiful waterfalls.
Agriculture farms in
Meghalaya (above) are on hilly terrain.
The elevation of the plateau ranges between 150 m (490 ft)
to 1,961 m (6,434 ft). The central part of the plateau
Khasi Hills has the highest elevations, followed by the
eastern section comprising the
Jaintia Hills region. The highest point
Shillong Peak, which is a prominent IAF station in the
Khasi Hills overlooking the city of Shillong. It has an altitude of
1961 m. The
Garo Hills region in the western section of the plateau is
nearly plain. The highest point in the
Garo Hills is Nokrek Peak with
an altitude of 1515 m.
With average annual rainfall as high as 12,000 mm (470 in)
in some areas,
Meghalaya is the wettest place on earth. The
western part of the plateau, comprising the
Garo Hills region with
lower elevations, experiences high temperatures for most of the year.
Shillong area, with the highest elevations, experiences generally
low temperatures. The maximum temperature in this region rarely goes
beyond 28 °C (82 °F), whereas sub-zero winter
temperatures are common.
A sign board in Cherrapunji
The town of Sohra (Cherrapunji) in the
Khasi Hills south of capital
Shillong holds the world record for most rain in a calendar month,
while the village of Mawsynram, near Sohra (Cherrapunji), holds the
record for the most rain in a year.
Flora and fauna
Meghalaya's forests host 660 species of birds and numerous species
of other wildlife.
Peacock pheasant (top) and hoolock gibbon (bottom)
are found in Meghalaya.
About 70% of the state is forested, of which 9,496 km2
(3,666 sq mi) is dense primary subtropical forest. The
Meghalayan forests are considered to be among the richest botanical
habitats of Asia. These forests receive abundant rainfall and support
a vast variety of floral and faunal biodiversity. A small portion of
the forest area in
Meghalaya is under what are known as "sacred
groves" (see Sacred groves of India). These are small pockets of
ancient forest that have been preserved by the communities for
hundreds of years due to religious and cultural beliefs. These forests
are reserved for religious rituals and generally remain protected from
any exploitation. These sacred groves harbour many rare plant and
animal species. The
Nokrek Biosphere Reserve
Nokrek Biosphere Reserve in the West Garo Hills
Balphakram National Park
Balphakram National Park in the South
Garo Hills are
considered to be the most biodiversity-rich sites in Meghalaya. In
Meghalaya has three wildlife sanctuaries. These are the
Nongkhyllem Wildlife Sanctuary, the Siju Sanctuary and the Baghmara
Sanctuary, which is also the home of the insect eating pitcher plant
Nepenthes khasiana also called "Me'mang Koksi" in local language.
Due to diverse climatic and topographic conditions, Meghalayan forests
support a vast floral diversity, including a large variety of
parasites, epiphytes, succulent plants and shrubs. Two of the most
important tree varieties are
Shorea robusta (sal tree) and Tectona
Meghalaya is also the home to a large variety of
fruits, vegetables, spices and medicinal plants.
Meghalaya is also
famous for its large variety of orchids — nearly 325 of them.
Of these the largest variety is found in the Mawsmai, Mawmluh and
Sohrarim forests in the Khasi hills.
Meghalaya also has a large variety of mammals, birds, reptiles and
insects. The important mammal species include elephants, bear, red
pandas, civets, mongooses, weasels, rodents, gaur, wild
buffalo, deer, wild boar and a number of primates.
has a large variety of bats. The limestone caves in
Meghalaya such as
Siju Cave are home to some of the nation's rarest bat species. The
hoolock gibbon is found in all districts of Meghalaya.
Common reptiles in
Meghalaya are lizards, crocodiles and tortoises.
Meghalaya also has a number of snakes including the python,
copperhead, green tree racer, Indian cobra, king cobra, coral snake
Meghalaya's forests host 660 species of birds, many of which are
endemic to Himalayan foothills, Tibet and southeast Asia. Of the birds
Meghalaya forests, 34 are on worldwide threatened species
list and 9 are on critically endangered list. Prominent birds
Meghalaya include those from the families of Phasianidae,
Anatidae, Podicipedidae, Ciconiidae, Threskiornithidae, Ardeidae,
Pelecanidae, Phalacrocoracidae, Anhingidae, Falconidae, Accipitridae,
Otididae, Rallidae, Heliornithidae, Gruidae, Turnicidae, Burhinidae,
Charadriidae, Glareolidae, Scolopacidae, Jacanidae, Columbidae,
Psittacidae, Cuculidae, Strigidae, Caprimulgidae, Apodidae,
Alcedinidae, Bucerotidae, Ramphastidae, Picidae, Campephagidae,
Dicruridae, Corvidae, Hirundinidae, Cisticolidae, Pycnonotidae,
Sylviidae, Timaliidae, Sittidae, Sturnidae, Turdidae, Nectariniidae
and Muscicapidae. Each of these families have many species. The
great Indian hornbill is the largest bird in Meghalaya. Other regional
birds found include the grey peacock pheasant, the large Indian
parakeet, the common green pigeon and the blue jay.
also home to over 250 species of butterflies, nearly a quarter of all
butterfly species found in India.
Source: Census of India
Ethnic groups 2011:
Tiwa (Lalung): 0.9%
Tribal people make up the majority of Meghalaya's population. The
Khasis are the largest group, followed by the Garos then The Jaintias.
These were among those known to the British as "hill tribes." Other
groups include the Biates, the Koch,the related Rajbongshi, the Boro,
Hajong, Dimasa, Kuki, Lakhar, Tiwa (Lalung), Karbi,
Rabha and Nepali.
Meghalaya recorded the highest decennial population growth of 27.82%
among all the seven north-eastern states, as per the provisional
report of census 2011. The population of
Meghalaya as of 2011 has been
estimated at 2,964,007 of which females comprise 1,492,668 and males
1,471,339. As per the census of
India 2011, the sex ratio in the state
was 986 females per 1,000 males which was far higher than the national
average of 940. The urban female sex ratio of 985 was higher than the
rural sex ratio of 972.
Tribal religions (8.70%)
Meghalaya is one of three states in
India to have a Christian
majority. About 75% of the population practices Christianity, with
Baptist and Catholics the more common denominations.
The religion of the people in
Meghalaya is closely related to their
ethnicity. Close to 90% of the Garo tribe and nearly 80% of the Khasi
are Christian, while more than 97% of the Hajong, 98.53% of the Koch,
and 94.60% of the
Rabha tribes are Hindu.
Out of the 689,639 Garo living in Meghalaya, most were Christians as
of 2001 Census, and only few people living in remote areas follow the
Songsarek religion. Out of the 1,123,490 Khasi, most were Christians,
202,978 followed the indigenous Niam Khasi/Shnong/Niamtre, 17,641 of
the Khasi were Hindu and 2,977 were Muslim. A number of minor tribes
live in Meghalaya, including Hajong (31,381 – 97.23% Hindu), Koch
(21,381 – 98.53% Hindu),
Rabha (28,153 – 94.60% Hindu), Mikir
(11,399 – 52% Christian and 30% Hindu),
Tiwa (Lalung) (8,438 -
96.15% Christian) and Biate(10,085 – 97.3% Christian).
Conversion from indigenous to
Christianity began in the 19th century
under the British era. In 1830s, American
Baptist Foreign Missionary
Society had become active in Northeast to convert indigenous tribes to
Christianity. Later, they were offered to expand and reach into
Cherrapunji Meghalaya, but they lacked the resources to do so and
declined. Welsh Presbyterian Mission took the offer and they began
work at the
Cherrapunji mission field. By early 1900s, other
Protestant denominations of
Christianity were active in Meghalaya. The
outbreak of World Wars forced the preachers to return home to Europe
and America. It is during this period that
Catholicism took root in
Meghalaya and neighboring region. In 20th century, Union Christian
College started operations at Barapani, Shillong. Currently,
Presbyterians and Catholics are two most common Christian
denominations found in Meghalaya.
Meghalaya in 2001
English is the official and widely spoken language of the state.
The other principal languages in
Meghalaya are Khasi and Garo.
Khasi (also spelled Khasia, Khassee, Cossyah and Kyi) is a branch of
Mon–Khmer family of the
Austroasiatic stock and according to
2001 census, Khasi is spoken by about 1,128,575 people residing in
Meghalaya. Many words in the
Khasi language have been borrowed from
Indo-Aryan languages such as Nepali, Bengali and Assamese. Moreover,
Khasi language originally had no script of its own. The Khasi
language is one of the very few surviving
Mon–Khmer languages in
Garo language has a close affinity with the Koch and Bodo
languages, a small family of Tibeto-Burman languages. Garo, spoken by
the majority of the population, is spoken in many dialects such as
Abeng or Ambeng, Atong, Akawe (or Awe), Matchi Dual, Chibok,
Chisak Megam or Lyngngam, Ruga, Gara-Ganching and Matabeng.
Several other languages are spoken in Meghalaya. For example, Pnar
language is spoken by many people of the both West and East Jaintia
Hills. The language is related to the Khasi language. Apart from the
main languages , various local dialect are being spoken by the War
Jaintia (West Jaintia Hills), Maram and Lynngam (West Khasi Hills),
War Pynursla (East Khasi Hills), Tiwa language by Tiwa peoples of
Ri-Bhoi district. Another example is the
Biate language spoken by a
large number of people inhabiting the south-eastern part of Meghalaya
bordering Assam. Nepali is found in almost all parts of the state.
English is spoken as a common language across the diverse ethnic and
demographic groups. In urban centres most of the people can speak
English; rural residents vary in their ability.
Languages in Meghalaya
An aerial view of the state capital, Shillong.
Meghalaya currently has 11 districts.
Jaintia Hills (Jowai)
Jaintia Hills (Khliehriat)
Khasi Hills Division:
Khasi Hills (Shillong)
Khasi Hills (Nongstoin)
Khasi Hills (Mawkyrwat)
Garo Hills Division:
Garo Hills (Resubelpara)
Garo Hills (Williamnagar)
Garo Hills (Baghmara)
Garo Hills (Tura)
Garo Hills (Ampati)
Jaintia Hills district was created on 22 February 1972. It has a
total geographical area of 3,819 square kilometres
(1,475 sq mi) and a population of 295,692 as per the 2001
census. The district headquarters is in Jowai.
Jaintia Hills district
is the largest producer of coal in the state. Coal mines can be seen
all over the district.
Limestone production in the state is
increasing, as there is high demand from cement industries. Recently,
the one big district was divided into two : West Jaintia Hills
and East Jaintia Hills
Khasi Hills district was carved out of the
Khasi Hills on 28
October 1976. The district has covers an area of 2,748 square
kilometres (1,061 sq mi) and has a population of 660,923 as
per the 2001 census. The headquarters of East
Khasi Hills are located
Ri-Bhoi district was formed by further division of East Khasi
Hills district on 4 June 1992. It has an area of 2,448 square
kilometres (945 sq mi). The total population of the district
was 192,795 in the 2001 census. The district headquarters is at
Nongpoh. It has a hilly terrain, and a large part of the area is
covered with forests. The
Ri-Bhoi district is famous for its
pineapples and is the largest producer of pineapples in the state.
Khasi Hills district is the largest district in the state
with a geographical area of 5,247 square kilometres
(2,026 sq mi). The district was carved out of Khasi Hills
District on 28 October 1976. The district headquarters are located at
Garo Hills district was formed in 1976 and has a population
of 247,555 as per the 2001 census. It covers an area of 2,603 square
kilometres (1,005 sq mi). The District Headquarters are at
Williamnagar, earlier known as Simsangiri. Nongalbibra, a town in this
district, has a large number of coal mines. The coal is transported to
Goalpara and Jogighopa via NH62.
Garo Hills district lies in the western part of the state and
covers a geographical area of 3,714 square kilometres
(1,434 sq mi). The population of the district is 515,813 as
per the 2001 census. The district headquarters are located at Tura.
Garo Hills district came into existence on 18 June 1992
after the division of the West
Garo Hills district. The total
geographical area of the district is 1,850 square kilometres
(710 sq mi). As per the 2001 census the district has a
population of 99,100. The district headquarters are at Baghmara.
As of 2012, there are 11 districts, 16 towns and an estimated 6,026
villages in Meghalaya.
Main article: Education in Meghalaya
Indian Institute of Management, Shillong
Meghalaya schools are run by the state government or by private
organisations, including religious institutions. Instruction is only
in English. Other Indian languages like Assamese, Bengali, Hindi,
Garo, Khasi, Mizo, Nepali & Urdu are taught as optional subjects.
The secondary schools are affiliated with the Council for the Indian
School Certificate Examinations (CISCE), the Central Board for
Secondary Education (CBSE), the National Institute of Open School
(NIOS) or the
Meghalaya Board of School Education.
Under the 10+2+3 plan, after completing secondary school, students
typically enroll for two years in a junior college, also known as
pre-university, or in schools with a higher secondary facility
affiliated with the
Meghalaya Board of School Education or any central
board. Students choose from one of three streams: liberal arts,
commerce or science. Upon completing the required coursework, students
may enroll in general or professional degree programs.
CMJ University, Shillong
The Institute of Chartered Financial Analysts of
Mahatma Gandhi University, Nongpoh, Meghalaya
Martin Luther Christian University, Meghalaya
North Eastern Hill University
North Eastern Hill University (NEHU), Shillong
Techno Global University, Meghalaya
University of Technology and Management, Meghalaya
University of Science and Technology, Meghalaya
University of Science and Technology, Meghalaya (USTM), Meghalaya
William Carey University, Meghalaya
Acheng Rangmanpa College, Mahendraganj
College of Teacher Education (PGT), Shillong
Don Bosco College, Tura
Northeast Adventist College, Thadlaskien
Kiang Nongbah Govt. College, Jowai
Raid Laban College, Shillong
Lady Keane College, Shillong
Nongtalang College, Nongtalang
Nongstoin College, Nongstoin
Phookan Memorial College, Dalu, W.Garo Hills
Ri Bhoi College, Nongpoh
St. Anthony's College, Shillong
St. Edmund's College, Shillong
Saint Mary's College (Shillong)
Sankardev College, Shillong
Seng Khasi College, Shillong
Shillong College, Shillong
Shillong Commerce College, Shillong
Sohra College, Cherrapunjee
Synod College, Shillong
Tikrikilla College, Tikrikilla W.Garo Hills
Tura Govt. College, Tura
Union Christian College, Barapani
Women's College, Shillong
Some institutes like Indian Institute of Management, Shillong,
Regional Institute of Science and Technology, North Eastern Indira
Gandhi Regional Institute of Health and Medical Sciences, National
Institute of Technology, Meghalaya, Indian Institute of Professional
Studies, National Institute of Fashion Technology, North Eastern
Ayurveda and Homeopathy are also present.
Government and politics
Government of Meghalaya
Government of Meghalaya and
Meghalaya has Governor
Ganga Prasad as the head of the state.
Meghalaya Legislative Assembly
Meghalaya Legislative Assembly has 60 members at present.
Meghalaya has two representatives in the Lok Sabha, one each from
Shillong and Tura. It also has one representative in the Rajya Sabha.
Since the creation of the state the
Gauhati High Court
Gauhati High Court has
jurisdiction in Meghalaya. A Circuit Bench of the
Guwahati High Court
has been functioning at
Shillong since 1974. However recently in March
Meghalaya High Court was separated from the Gauhati High
Court and now the state has its own High Court.
In order to provide local self-governance machinery to the rural
population of the country, provisions were made in the Constitution of
India; accordingly, the
Panchayati Raj institutions were set up.
However, on account of the distinct customs and traditions prevailing
in the northeast region, it was felt necessary to have a separate
political and administrative structure in the region.
Some of the tribal communities in the region had their own traditional
political systems, and it was felt that
Panchayati Raj institutions
may come into conflict with these traditional systems. The Sixth
Schedule was appended to the Constitution on the recommendations of a
subcommittee formed under the leadership of Gopinath Bordoloi, and the
constitution of Autonomous District Councils (ADCs) is provided in
certain rural areas of the northeast including areas in Meghalaya. The
Meghalaya are the following:
Khasi Hills Autonomous District Council
Garo Hills Autonomous District Council
Jaintia Hills Autonomous District Council
Main article: Economy of Meghalaya
Meghalaya is predominantly an agrarian economy. Agriculture and allied
activities engage nearly two-thirds of the total work force in
Meghalaya. However, the contribution of this sector to the State's
NSDP is only about one-third. Agriculture in the state is
characterised by low productivity and unsustainable farm practices.
Despite the large percentage of population engaged in agriculture, the
state imports food from other Indian states.
Infrastructural constraints have also prevented the economy of the
state from creating high income jobs at a pace commensurate with that
of the rest of India.
Meghalaya's gross state domestic product for 2012 was estimated at
₹16,173 crore (US$2.5 billion) in current prices. As of
2012, according to the Reserve Bank of India, about 12% of total state
population is below poverty line, with 12.5% of the rural Meghalaya
population is below the poverty line; while in urban areas, 9.3% are
below the poverty line.
Tea Plantation Agriculture in
India on the way to Shillong
Meghalaya is basically an agricultural state with about 80% of its
population depending entirely on agriculture for their livelihood.
Nearly 10% of the geographical area of
Meghalaya is under cultivation.
Agriculture in the state is characterised by limited use of modern
techniques, low yields and low productivity. As a result, despite the
vast majority of the population being engaged in agriculture, the
contribution of agricultural production to the state's GDP is low, and
most of the population engaged in agriculture remain poor. A portion
of the cultivated area is under the traditional shifting agriculture
known locally as Jhum cultivation.
Meghalaya produced 230,000 tonnes of food grains in 2001. Rice is the
dominant food grain crop accounting for over 80% of the food grain
production in the state. Other important food grain crops are maize,
wheat and a few other cereals and pulses. Besides these, potato,
ginger, turmeric, black pepper, areca nut, tezpatta (Cinnamomum
tamala), betelvine, short-staple cotton, jute, mesta, mustard and
rapeseed etc. are some of the important cash crops. Besides the major
food crops of rice and maize, the state is renowned for its
horticultural crops like orange, lemon, pineapple, guava, litchi,
banana, jack fruits and fruits such as plum, pear and peach.
Agriculture in Kukon, Meghalaya
Grains and staples production covers about 60% of the land area
dedicated to crops. With the introduction of different crops of high
yielding varieties in the mid-1970s, remarkable increase in food grain
production has been made. A major break through was achieved when high
yielding varieties of paddy such as Masuri, Pankaj IR 8, RCPL and
other improved varieties series – especially IR 36 which is suitable
for Rabi season – allowing three crops to be grown every year.
Another milestone was reached when Megha I and Megha II, which are
cold tolerant rice varieties developed by the ICAR North East Region
at Umroi near Shillong, was released in 1991–92 for the higher
altitude regions where there was no high yielding rice varieties
earlier. Today the state can claim that about 42% area under paddy
have been covered with high yielding varieties with the average
productivity of 2,300 kg/ha (2,100 lb/acre). As is the case
with maize and wheat where the productivity have increased
tremendously with the introduction of HYV from 534 kg/ha
(476 lb/acre) during 1971–72 to 1,218 kg/ha
(1,087 lb/acre) of maize and from 611 kg/ha
(545 lb/acre) to 1,490 kg/ha (1,330 lb/acre) of
Oilseeds such as rapeseed, mustard, linseed, soybean, castor and
sesame are grown on nearly 100 km2 (39 sq mi). Rape and
mustard are the most important oilseeds accounting for well over
two-thirds of the oilseed production of nearly 6.5 thousand tonnes.
Fibre crops such as cotton, jute and mesta are among the only cash
crops in Meghalaya, grown in Garo Hills. These have been losing
popularity in recent years as indicated by their declining yield and
area under cultivation.
Climatic conditions in
Meghalaya permit a large variety of
horticulture crops including fruits, vegetables, flowers, spices,
mushrooms and medicinal plants. These are considered to be higher
value crops, but home food security concerns have prevented farmers at
large from embracing them. The important fruits grown include citrus
fruits, pineapples, papayas, and bananas. In addition to this, a large
variety of vegetables are grown in the state, including cauliflower,
cabbages and radishes.
Areca nut plantations can be seen all over the state, especially
around the road from
Guwahati to Shillong. Other plantation crops like
tea, coffee and cashews have been introduced lately and are becoming
popular. A large variety of spices, flowers, medicinal plants and
mushrooms are grown in the state.
View of MCL Cement plant, Thangskai, P.O. Lumshnong, Jaintia Hills
Meghalaya has a rich base of natural resources. These include minerals
such as coal, limestone, sillimanite,
Kaolin and granite among others.
Meghalaya has a large forest cover, rich biodiversity and numerous
water bodies. The low level of industrialisation and the relatively
poor infrastructure base acts as an impediment to the exploitation of
these natural resources in the interest of the state's economy. In
recent years two large cement manufacturing plants with production
capacity more than 900 MTD have come up in
Jaintia Hills district and
several more are in pipeline to use the rich deposit of very high
quality limestone available in this district.
Meghalaya has abundant but undeveloped hydroelectric resources. Above
is Mawphlang hydroelectric dam reservoir.
Meghalaya with its high mountains, deep gorges and abundant rains has
a large, unused hydroelectric potential. The assessed generation
capacity exceeds 3000 MW. The current installed capacity in the state
is 185 MW, but the state itself consumes 610 MW. In other words, it
imports electricity. The economic growth of the state suggests
rising demand for electricity. The state has the potential to export
net hydroelectric-generated electricity and earn income for its
internal development plans. The state also has large deposits of coal,
thus being a candidate for thermal power plants.
Several projects are under works. The proposed
Garo Hills thermal
project at Nangalbibra is expected to generate an additional 751 MW of
power. There is a proposal for setting up a 250 MW thermal power plant
in West Khasi Hills. The State Government aims to increase its power
generation output by about 2000-2500 MW, of which 700-980 MW will be
thermal based while 1400-1520 MW will be hydro electricity. The State
Government has outlined a cost-shared public-private partnership model
to accelerate private sector investments in its power sector. The
generation transmission, transformation and distribution of
electricity is entrusted to the
Meghalaya Energy Corporation Limited
which was constituted under the Electricity Supply Act, 1948. At
present there are five hydel power stations and one mini hydel
including Umiam Hydel Project, Umtrew Hydel Project, Myntdu-Leshka-I
Hydel Project and the Sunapani Micro Hydel (SESU) Project.
For the 12th five-year plan of India, there is a proposal to set up
more hydel power projects in the state: Kynshi (450MW), Umngi −1
(54MW), Umiam-Umtru -V (36MW), Ganol (25MW), Mawphu (120MW),
Nongkolait (120MW), Nongnaw (50MW), Rangmaw (65MW), Umngot (260MW),
Umduna (57MW), Myntdu-Leshka-II (60MW), Selim (170MW) and Mawblei
(140MW). Of these, Jaypee Group has committed itself to building
the Kynshi and Umngot projects in Khasi hills.
St. Edmund's School, Shillong
Main article: Education in Meghalaya
Meghalaya has a literacy rate of 62.56 as per the 2001 census and is
the 27th most literate state in India. This increased to 75.5 in 2011.
As of 2006, the state had 5851 primary schools, 1759 middle schools,
and 655 higher secondary schools respectively. In 2008, 518,000
students were enrolled in its primary schools, and 232,000 in upper
primary schools. The state monitors its school for quality, access,
infrastructure and teachers training.
Institution for higher studies like Indian Institute of Management,
University of Technology and Management
University of Technology and Management which is in
the first Indian university to introduce cloud computing engineering
as a field of study, in collaboration with IBM and the University of
Petroleum and Energy Studies. IIM
Shillong is one of the top ranked
management institutes in the country.
The state has 13 state government dispensaries, 22 community health
centres, 93 primary health centres, 408 sub-centres. There were 378
doctors, 81 pharmacists, 337 staff nurses and 77 lab technicians as of
2012. A special program has been launched by the state government for
the treatment of tuberculosis, leprosy, cancer and mental diseases.
Though there has been a steady decline in the death rate, improvement
in life expectancy and an increase in health infrastructure, about
42.3% of the state's population is still uncovered by health care,
according to the status paper prepared by the Health Department. There
are numerous hospitals being set up, both private and government, some
of them are Civil Hospital, Ganesh Das Hospital, K J P Synod Hospital,
NEIGRIHMS, North Eastern Institute of
Ayurveda & Homoeopathy
(NEIAH), R P Chest Hospital, Wood Land Hospital, Nazareth Hospital,
Christian Hospital etc.
Municipalities: Shillong, Tura, Jowai
Municipal boards: Williamnagar, Resubelpara, Baghmara
Shillong Cantonment (Umroi)
Town committees: Nongstoin, Nongpoh, Mairang
Census towns: Mawlai, Madanrting, Nongthymmai, Nongmynsong,
Pynthorumkhrah, Sohra/Cherrapunjee, Pynursla
Minor towns: Khliehriat, Mawkyrwat, Ampati
Shillong Urban Agglomoration: Shillong, Shillong
Cantonment/Umroi, Mawlai, Madanrting, Nongthymmai, Nongmynsong,
New proposal for urban areas
Municipal corporations: 1
Shillong (including Shillong
Cantonment/Umroi, Mawlai, Madanrting, Nongthymmai, Nongmynsong,
Municipalities: 3 Tura, Jowai, Williamnagar
Municipal boards: 9 Resubelpara, Baghmara, Nongstoin, Nongpoh,
Mairang, Khliehriat, Mawkyrwat, Ampati, Sohra/Cherrapunjee
Town committees: 1 Pynursla
Culture and society
The main tribes in
Meghalaya are the Khasis, the Garos, and the
Jaintias. Each tribe has its own culture, traditions, dress and
The majority of population and the major tribal groups in Meghalaya
follow a matrilineal system where lineage and inheritance are traced
through women. The youngest daughter inherits all the property and she
is the caretaker of aged parents and any unmarried siblings. In
some cases, such as when there is no daughter in the family or other
reasons, the parents may nominate another girl such as a daughter in
law as the heir of house and all other property they may own.
The Khasi and Jaintia tribesmen follow the traditional matrilineal
norm, wherein the Khun Khatduh (or the youngest daughter) inherits all
the property and responsibilities for the family. However, the male
line, particularly the mother's brother, may indirectly control the
ancestral property since he may be involved in important decisions
relating to property including its sale and disposal. In case a family
has no daughters, the Khasi and Jaintia (also called Syntengs) have
the custom of ia rap iing, where the family adopts a girl from another
family, perform religious ceremonies with the community, and she then
becomes ka trai iing (head of the house).
In the Garo lineage system, the youngest daughter inherits the family
property by default, unless another daughter is so named by the
parents. She then becomes designated as nokna meaning 'for the house
or home'. If there are no daughters, a chosen daughter-in-law (bohari)
or an adopted child (deragata) comes to stay in the house and inherit
Meghalaya has one of the world's largest surviving matrilineal
Traditional political institutions
All the three major ethnic tribal groups, namely, the Khasis, Jaintias
and the Garos also have their own traditional political institutions
that have existed for hundreds of years. These political institutions
were fairly well developed and functioned at various tiers, such as
the village level, clan level and state level.
In the traditional political system of the Khasis, each clan had its
own council known as the Dorbar Kur which was presided over by the
clan headman. The council or the Dorbar managed the internal affairs
of the clan. Similarly, every village had a local assembly known as
the Dorbar Shnong, i.e. village Durbar or council, which was presided
over by the village headman. The inter-village issues were dealt with
through a political unit comprising adjacent Khasi Villages. The local
political units were known as the raids, under by the supreme
political authority known as the Syiemship. The Syiemship was the
congregation of several raids and was headed an elected chief known as
the Syiem or Siem (the king). The Siem ruled the Khasi state
through an elected State Assembly, known as the Durbar Hima. The Siem
also had his mantris (ministers) whose counsel he would use in
exercising executive responsibilities. Taxes were called pynsuk, and
tolls were called khrong, the latter being the primary source of state
income. In early 20th century, Raja Dakhor Singh was the Siem of
The Jaintias also had a three tier political system somewhat similar
to the Khasis, including the Raids and the Syiem. The raids were
headed by Dolois, who were responsible for performing the executive
and ceremonial functions at the Raid level. At the lowest level were
the village headmen. Each administrative tier had its own elected
councils or durbars.
In the traditional political system of the Garos a group of Garo
villages comprised the A·king. The A·king functioned under the
supervision of the Nokmas, which was perhaps the only political and
administrative authority in the political institution of the Garos.
The Nokma performed both judicial and legislative functions. The
Nokmas also congregated to address inter-A·king issues. There were no
well-organized councils or durbars among the Garos.
Dance of Meghalaya
Dance is central to the culture of Khasi life, and a part of the rites
of passage. Dances are performed in Shnong (village), a Raid (group of
villages), and a Hima (conglomeration of Raids). Some festivals
includes Ka Shad Suk Mynsiem, Ka Pom-Blang Nongkrem, Ka-Shad
Shyngwiang-Thangiap, Ka-Shad-Kynjoh Khaskain, Ka Bam Khana Shnong,
Umsan Nongkharai, Shad Beh Sier.
Festivals of the Jaintia Hills, like others, is integral to the
culture of people of Jaintia Hills. It celebrates nature, balance and
solidarity among its people. Festivals of Jaintias includes
Behdienkhlam, Laho Dance, Sowing Ritual Ceremony.
For Garos, festivals sustain their cultural heritage. They were often
dedicated to religious events, nature and seasons as well as community
events such as stages of jhum cultivation. The main festivals of Garos
are Den Bilsia, Wangala, Rongchu gala, Mi Amua, Mangona, Grengdik BaA,
Jamang Sia, Ja Megapa, Sa Sat Ra Chaka, Ajeaor Ahaoea, Dore Rata
Dance, Chambil Mesara, Do'KruSua, Saram Cha'A, A Se Mania or Tata
which celebrated .
Hajongs celebrate both traditional festivals and Hindu festivals. The
entire plain belt of
Garo Hills is inhabited by the Hajongs, they are
an agrarian tribe. Major traditional festivals include Pusne', Biswe',
Kati Gasa, Bastu Puje' and Chor Maga.
The Biates have many kinds of festivals; Nûlding Kût, Pamchar Kût,
Lebang Kût, Favang Kût etc. for different occasion. However, unlike
in the past, they no longer practise or observe those festivals except
‘Nûlding Kût.’ The Nûlding Kût ("renewal of life") festival is
observed every January, with singing, dancing, and traditional
games—after the Priest (Thiampu) pray to Chung Pathian to bless them
in every sphere of life.
In southern Meghalaya, located in Mawsynram, is the Mawjymbuin cave.
Here a massive stalagmite has been shaped by nature into a Shivalinga.
According to legend, from the 13th century, this
Hatakeswarat) has existed in the
Jaintia Hills under the reign of
Ranee Singa. Tens of thousands of the Jaintia tribe members
participate over the Hindu festival of
Shivratri (Night of Lord Shiva)
Living Root Bridges
Double-Decker Living root bridge,
The practice of creating
Living root bridges
Living root bridges can be found in
Meghalaya. Here, functional, living, architecture is created by slowly
training the Aerial roots of the
Ficus elastica tree. Examples of
these structures can be found as far west as the valley east of
Mawsynram, and as far east as the East
Jaintia Hills District,
meaning that they are made by both Khasis and Jaintias. Large
numbers of these man-made living structures exist in the
mountainous terrain along the southern border of the
though as a cultural practice they are fading, with many individual
examples having disappeared recently, either falling in landslides or
floods or being replaced with more standard steel bridges.
State Highway 5 near Cherapunjee, Meghalaya
Shillong Bypass road
The partition of the country in 1947 created severe infrastructural
constraints for the Northeastern region, with merely 2% of the
perimeter of the region adjoining the rest of the country. A narrow
strip of land, often called the
Siliguri Corridor or the Chicken's
Neck, connects the region with the state of West Bengal.
a landlocked state with a large number of small settlements in remote
areas. Road is the only means of transport. While the capital Shillong
is relatively well connected, road connectivity in most other parts is
relatively poor. A significant portion of the roads in the state are
still unpaved. Most of the arrivals into the
Meghalaya take place
Guwahati in neighbouring Assam, which is nearly 103 km
Assam has a major railhead as well as an airport with regular
train and air services to the rest of the country.
Meghalaya was carved out of
Assam as an autonomous state in 1972,
it inherited a total road length of 2786.68 km including
174 km of National Highways with road density of 12.42 km
per 100 square kilometre. By 2004, total road length has reached up to
9,350 km out of which 5,857 km were surfaced. The road
density had increased to 41.69 km per 100 square kilometre by
March 2011. However,
Meghalaya is still far below the national average
of 75 km per 100 km2. In order to provide better services to
the people of the state, the
Meghalaya Public Works Department is
taking steps for improvement and up-gradation of the existing roads
and bridges in phased manner
Meghalaya has a road network of around 7,633 km, out of which
3,691 km is black-topped and the remaining 3942 km is
Meghalaya is also connected to
Silchar in Assam,
Tripura through national highways. Many
private buses and taxi operators carry passengers from
Shillong. The journey takes from 3 to 4 hours. Day and night bus
services are available from
Shillong to all major towns of Meghalaya
and also other capitals and important towns of
Assam and the
Meghalaya has a railhead at Mendipathar and regular train service
connecting Mendipathar in
Guwahati in Assam, has started
on November 30, 2014.
The Cherra Companyganj State Railways was a
former mountain railway through the state.
kilometres (64 mi) from Shillong) is the nearest major railway
station connecting the north-east region with the rest of the country
through a broad gauge track network. There is a plan for extending the
rail link from
Guwahati to Byrnihat (20 kilometres (12 mi) from
Meghalaya and further extending it up to state
Shillong has an airport at Umroi 30 kilometres
(19 mi) from
Shillong on the Guwahati-
Shillong highway. A new
terminal building was built at a cost of ₹30 crore
(US$4.6 million) and inaugurated in June 2011. Air India
Regional operates flights to Kolkata from this airport. There is also
a helicopter service connecting
Guwahati and Tura. Baljek
Airport near Tura became operational in 2008. The Airports
India (AAI) is developing the airport for operation of
ATR 72 type of aircraft. Other nearby airports are in
Assam, with Borjhar,
Guwahati airport (IATA: GAU), about 124
kilometres (77 mi) from Shillong.
Main article: Tourism in North East India
Earlier, foreign tourists required special permits to enter the areas
that now constitute the state of Meghalaya. However, the restrictions
were removed in 1955.
Meghalaya is compared to Scotland for its
highlands, fog and scenery.
Meghalaya has some of the thickest
primary forests in the country and therefore constitutes one of the
most important ecotourism circuits in India. The Meghalayan
subtropical forests support a vast variety of flora and fauna.
Meghalaya has 2 National Parks and 3 Wildlife Sanctuaries.
Meghalaya also offers many adventure tourism opportunities in the form
of mountaineering, rock climbing, trekking and hiking, caving
(spelunking) and water sports. The state offers several trekking
routes, some of which also afford an opportunity to encounter rare
Umiam Lake has a water sports complex with facilities
such as rowboats, paddleboats, sailing boats, cruise-boats,
water-scooters and speedboats.
Cherrapunji is one of the popular tourist locations in north-east of
India. It lies to the south of the capital Shillong. A rather scenic
50 kilometre long road connects
Cherrapunji with Shillong.
Living root bridges
Living root bridges are also an important tourist draw, with many
examples located near Cherrapunji. The famous Double-Decker root
bridge, along with several others, is found in the village of
Nongriat, which is tourist friendly. Many other root bridges can be
found nearby, in the villages of Nongthymmai, Mynteng, and
Tynrong. Other areas with root bridges include Riwai village, near
the tourist village of Mawlynnong, Pynursla, especially the villages
of Rangthyllaing and Mawkyrnot, and the area around Dawki, in the West
Jaintia Hills district, where there are many living root bridges
scattered throughout the nearby villages.
Umiam Lake, Shillong, Meghalaya, India
Waterfalls and rivers
The popular waterfalls in the state are the Elephant Falls, Shadthum
Falls, Weinia falls, Bishop Falls, Nohkalikai Falls, Langshiang Falls
and Sweet Falls. The hot springs at Jakrem near
Mawsynram are believed
to have curative and medicinal properties.
Nongkhnum Island located in the West
Khasi Hills district is the
biggest river island in
Meghalaya and the second biggest in Asia. It
is 14 kilometres from Nongstoin. The island is formed by the
bifurcation of Kynshi River into the Phanliang River and the Namliang
River. Adjacent to the sandy beach the Phanliang River forms a very
beautiful lake. The river then moves along and before reaching a deep
gorge, forms a pretty waterfall about 60 meters high called Shadthum
Meghalaya is also known for its "sacred groves". They are small or
large areas of forests or natural vegetation that are usually
dedicated to local folk deities or tree spirits or some religious
symbolism over many generations, often since ancient times. These
spaces are found all over India, are protected by local communities,
and in some cases the locals would neither touch leaves or fruits or
in other ways damage the forest, flora or fauna taking refuge in them.
This guardianship creates a sacred area where nature and wildlife
thrive. The Mawphlang sacred forest, also known as "Law Lyngdoh," is
one of the most famous sacred forests in Meghalaya. It's located about
25 kilometres from Shillong. It's a scenic nature destination, and one
can find the sacred
Rudraksha tree here.
Meghalaya rural life and villages offer a glimpse in northeast
mountain life. The
Mawlynnong village located near the
Bangladesh border is one such village. It has been featured by
travel magazine Discover India. The village is geared for tourism
and has a Living Root Bridges, hiking trails and rock formations.
Umaim lake (top) and scenery near Shillong.
Meghalaya also has many natural and manmade lakes. The Umiam Lake
(popularly known as Bara Pani meaning Big water) on the
Shillong road is a major tourism attraction for tourist.
Meghalaya has several parks; Thangkharang Park, the Eco-park, the
Botanical Garden and Lady Hydari Park to name a few. Dawki, which is
located at about 96 Kilometres from
Shillong is the gateway to
Bangladesh and affords a scenic view of some of the tallest mountain
Meghalaya and the
Bangladesh border lands.
Balpakram National Park with its pristine habitat and scenery is a
major attraction. The Nokrek National Park, also in
Garo Hills has
its own charm with lot of wildlife.
Meghalaya has an estimated 500 natural limestone and sandstone caves
spread over the entire state including most of the longest and deepest
caves in the sub-continent.
Krem Liat Prah is the longest cave, and
Synrang Pamiang is the deepest cave. Both are located in the Jaintia
Hills. Cavers from United Kingdom, Germany, Austria, Ireland and the
United States have been visiting
Meghalaya for over a decade exploring
these caves. Not many of these have however been developed or promoted
adequately for major tourist destinations.
Living root bridges
Meghalaya is famous for its living root bridges, a kind of suspension
bridge made over rivers using intertwined roots of Ficus elastica
trees planted on opposite banks of the river or hill slopes. These
bridges can be seen around Cherrapunji, Nongtalang, Kudeng Rim and
Kudeng Thymmai villages (War Jaintia). A double-decker bridge exists
A double-decker living root bridge in Nongriat, Meghalaya
Shillong Golf Course, one of the oldest golf courses of India
Meghalaya has many limestone caves. Above are in Jaintia Hills
Other important places of tourism interest
Jakrem: 64 km from Shillong, a potential health resort having
gushing hot-spring of sulphur water, believed to have curative
Ranikor: 140 km from Shillong, a place of scenic beauty. Ranikor
is one of Meghalaya's most popular spots for angling, with an
abundance of carp and other fresh water fish.
Dawki: 96 km from Shillong, is a border town, where one can have
a glimpse of the neighbouring country of Bangladesh. The colourful
annual boat race during spring at the Umngot river is an added
Kshaid Dain Thlen Falls: Located near Sohra, meaning the falls where
the mythical monster of Khasi legend was finally butchered. The
axe-marks made on the rocks where Thlen was butchered are stillintact
Diengiei Peak: Located to the west of the
Shillong plateau, Diengiei
Peak is just 200 feet lower than
Shillong peak. On the top of
Diengiei, there is a huge hollow, shaped like a cup, believed to be
the crater of an extinct pre-historic volcano.
Dwarksuid: A beautiful pool with wide, rocky sand banks located on a
stream alongside the Umroi-Bhoilymbong Road is known as Dwarksuid or
Kyllang Rock: Located about 11 kilometres off Mairang, is a several
million years old steep dome of red granite rising to an elevation of
about 5400 feet above sea level.
Sacred Forest Mawphlang: One of the most celebrated sacred-groves of
the State is the grove at Mawphlang about 25 kilometres off Shillong.
Preserved since time immemorial, these sacred groveshave wide range of
flora, thick cushion of humus on the grounds accumulated over the
centuries, and trees heavily loaded with epiphytic growth of aroids,
pipers, ferns, fern-allies and orchids.
The significant issues in the state include illegal migrants from
Bangladesh, incidences of violence, political instability and
deforestation from traditional cut-and-burn shift farming practices.
There are several clashes between
Khasi people and Bangladeshi Muslims
Illegal immigration has become a major issue in Indian states that
West Bengal to the west,
Meghalaya and Assam
to the north, and Tripura,
Manipur to the east. Millions
of Bangladeshis have poured into
India as Indian economy has
prospered. The influx of Bangladeshi people is stated to be an effort
to escape violence, to escape poverty or to escape religious
persecution of Hindus in an overwhelmingly Islamic Bangladesh. In
Meghalaya, dozens of political and civic groups have demanded that
this migration be stopped or controlled to manageable levels. The
Bangladesh is about 440 kilometers long,
of which some 350 is fenced; but the border is not continuously
patrolled and is porous. Efforts are underway to fence it completely
and introduce means to issue ID cards.
Chief Minister Mukul Sangma, in August 2012, called upon Government of
India to take corrective measures to stop the illegal immigration of
Bangladeshis into the northeast of the country before the situation
goes out of hand.
Between 2006 and 2013, between 0 and 28 civilians have died per year
Meghalaya (or about 0 to 1 per 100,000 people), which the state
authorities have classified as terror-related intentional
violence. The world's average annual death rate from intentional
violence, in recent years, has been 7.9 per 100,000 people. The
terror-related deaths are from conflicts primarily between different
tribal groups and against migrants from Bangladesh. Along with
political resolution and dialogue, various Christian organizations
have taken the initiative to prevent violence and help the process of
discussion between groups.
Jhum cultivation, or cut-and-burn shift farming, in Nokrek Biosphere
Reserve of Meghalaya.
The state has had 23 state governments since its inception in 1972,
with a median life span of less than 18 months. Only three governments
have survived more than three years. Political instability has
affected the state's economy in the past. Over recent years, there
has been increasing political stability. The last state assembly
elections were held in 2013, after a five-year government that was
elected in 2008.
Jhum farming, or cut-and-burn shift cultivation, is an ancient
practice in Meghalaya. It is culturally engrained through
folklores. One legend states the god of wind with the god of hail and
storm shook off seeds from the celestial tree, which were picked up
and sown by a bird known as do' amik. These were the seeds of rice.
The god gave the human beings some of those celestial seeds, provided
instruction on shift agriculture and proper rice cultivation practice,
with the demand that at every harvest a portion of the first harvest
must be dedicated to him. Another folktale is from the
Garo Hills of
Meghalaya where a man named Bone-Neripa-Jane-Nitepa harvested rice and
millet from a patch of land he cleared and cultivated near the rock
named misi-Kokdok. He then shared this knowledge with others, and
named the different months of the year, each of which is a stage of
In modern times, shift cultivation is a significant threat to the
biodiversity of Meghalaya. A 2001 satellite imaging study showed
that shift cultivation practice continues and patches of primary dense
forests are lost even from areas protected as biosphere. Jhum
farming is a threat not only for natural biodiversity, it is also a
low yield unproductive method of agriculture. It is a significant
issue in Meghalaya, given majority of its people rely on agriculture
to make a living. Shift farming is a practice that is not
unique to northeastern Indian states such as Meghalaya, but the issue
is found throughout southeast Asia.
Some major media outlets in the state are:
Meghalaya Times is one of the new entrants in the
market and the fastest growing English newspaper in the state. In a
short period of time, it has already established large readership
across the state.
Salantini Janera: Salantini Janera is the first
Garo language Daily of
Shillong Samay is the first
Hindi Daily of the State.
Shillong Times is one of the oldest English newspapers
of the region.
Meghalaya Guardian: The
Meghalaya Guardian is one of the oldest
newspaper of the state.
Over the years there have been several weeklies and Dailies that have
come up. To name a few:
The Tura Times: The Tura Times is the first English Daily which is
published out from Tura.
Salantini Ku'rang: Salantini Ku'rang is the Garo edition of The Tura
Times, Pringprangni Aski being the most recent
Garo language newspaper
U Nongsaiñ Hima: U Nongsaiñ Hima is the oldest circulating Khasi
newspaper in Meghalaya. Established in December 1960, it is now the
highest circulated Khasi daily (ABC July – December 2013).
Weekly Employment Newsletter which is distributed throughout the
Shillong Weekly Express: Weekly Newsletter that was started on 2010.
South Asia portal
Tourism in North East India
Outline of India
Index of India-related articles
Bibliography of India
India – book
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Wikimedia Commons has media related to Meghalaya.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Meghalaya.
Official Tourism Site of Meghalaya
Meghalaya Encyclopædia Britannica entry
Meghalaya at Curlie (based on DMOZ)
Geographic data related to
Meghalaya at OpenStreetMap
Places adjacent to Meghalaya
Government of Meghalaya
Meghalaya Legislative Assembly
Seven Sister States
East Garo Hills
East Jaintia Hills
East Khasi Hills
North Garo Hills
South Garo Hills
South West Garo Hills
South West Khasi Hills
West Garo Hills
West Jaintia Hills
West Khasi Hills
Educational Institutes in Meghalaya
Premiere Indian Institutes
Indian Institute of Management
National Institute of Technology
North Eastern Indira Gandhi Regional Institute of Health and Medical
National Institute of Fashion Technology
North Eastern Hill University
University of Technology and Management
English and Foreign Languages University
Other Important Colleges
St. Edmund's College
St. Anthony's College
Saint Mary's College
Martin Luther Christian University
This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.
Kaziranga National Park
Namdapha National Park
Orang National Park
Manas National Park
Dibru-Saikhowa National Park
Nameri National Park
Balphakram National Park
Nokrek National Park
Mouling National Park
Keibul Lamjao National Park
Sirohi National Park
Murlen National Park
Ntangki National Park
Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary
Sipahijola Wildlife Sanctuary
Gorumara National Park
Singalila National Park
Neora Valley National Park
Jaldapara National Park
Zang Dhok Palri Phodang
Seven Sister States
Tourism in North East India
Tourism in Assam
Tourism in Mizoram
States and union territories of India
Jammu and Kashmir
Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Dadra and Nagar Haveli
National Capital Territory of Delhi
Daman and Diu
Capitals in India
Proposed states and territories