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McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas
was a major American aerospace manufacturing corporation and defense contractor formed by the merger of McDonnell Aircraft
Aircraft
and the Douglas Aircraft Company
Douglas Aircraft Company
in 1967. Between then and its own merger with Boeing
Boeing
in 1997, it produced a number of well-known commercial and military aircraft such as the DC-10 airliner and F-15 Eagle air-superiority fighter. The corporation was based at Lambert– St. Louis
St. Louis
International Airport near St. Louis, Missouri, while the headquarters for its subsidiary, the McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas
Technical Services Company (MDTSC), were established in unincorporated St. Louis
St. Louis
County, Missouri.[2]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Background 1.2 Formation 1.3 1970–1980 1.4 1980–1989 1.5 1990–1997 1.6 McDonnell Automation Company legacy

2 Products

2.1 Military airplanes 2.2 Commercial airplanes 2.3 Experimental aircraft 2.4 Proposed models 2.5 Helicopters 2.6 Manned spacecraft 2.7 Computer systems 2.8 Missiles and rockets

3 Commercial deliveries 4 Key people 5 Footnotes 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links

History[edit] Background[edit] Main articles: McDonnell Aircraft
McDonnell Aircraft
Corporation and Douglas Aircraft Company The company was formed from the firms of James Smith McDonnell
James Smith McDonnell
and Donald Wills Douglas in 1967. Both men were of Scottish ancestry, graduates of MIT
MIT
and had worked for the aircraft manufacturer Glenn L. Martin Company.[3]

Douglas F3D Skyknight

Douglas had been chief engineer at Martin before leaving to establish Davis-Douglas Company in early 1920 in Los Angeles. He bought out his backer and renamed the firm the Douglas Aircraft Company
Douglas Aircraft Company
in 1921.[4] McDonnell founded J.S. McDonnell & Associates in Milwaukee, Wisconsin in 1926. His idea was to produce a personal aircraft for family use. The economic depression from 1929 ruined his ideas and the company collapsed. He worked at three companies with the final being Glenn Martin Company in 1933. He left Martin in 1938 to try again with his own firm, McDonnell Aircraft
McDonnell Aircraft
Corporation, this time based at Lambert Field, outside St. Louis, Missouri.[5] World War II
World War II
was a major earner for Douglas. The company produced almost 30,000 aircraft (Douglas DC-3) from 1942 to 1945 and the workforce swelled to 160,000. Both companies suffered at the end of hostilities, facing an end of government orders and a surplus of aircraft.

Thor Able with Pioneer 1
Pioneer 1
at Cape Canaveral, Florida

After the war Douglas continued to develop new aircraft, including the DC-6 in 1946 and the DC-7
DC-7
in 1953.[6][7] The company moved into jet propulsion, producing its first for the military – the conventional F3D Skyknight
F3D Skyknight
in 1948 and then the more 'jet age' F4D Skyray
F4D Skyray
in 1951.[8] In 1955, Douglas introduced the first attack jet of the United States
United States
Navy with the A4D Skyhawk.[9] Designed to operate from the decks of the World War II
World War II
Essex class
Essex class
aircraft carriers, the Skyhawk was small, reliable, and tough. Variants of it continued in use in the Navy for almost 50 years,[10] finally serving in large numbers in a two-seat version as a jet trainer.[11]

Douglas DC-8

Douglas also made commercial jets, producing the DC-8 in 1958 to compete with the Boeing
Boeing
707.[12][13] McDonnell was also developing jets, but being smaller it was prepared to be more radical, building on its successful FH-1 Phantom
FH-1 Phantom
to become a major supplier to the Navy with the F2H Banshee
F2H Banshee
and F3H Demon; and producing the F-101 Voodoo
F-101 Voodoo
for the United States
United States
Air Force (USAF).[14][15] The Korean War-era Banshee and later the F-4 Phantom II
F-4 Phantom II
produced during the Vietnam War
Vietnam War
helped push McDonnell into a major military fighter supply role.[16] Douglas created a series of experimental high-speed jet aircraft in the Skyrocket family, with the Skyrocket DB-II being the first aircraft to travel at twice the speed of sound in 1953. Both companies were eager to enter the new missile business, Douglas moving from producing air-to-air rockets and missiles to entire missile systems under the 1956 Nike program and becoming the main contractor of the Skybolt ALBM
Skybolt ALBM
program and the Thor ballistic missile program.[17][18] McDonnell made a number of missiles, including the unusual ADM-20 Quail,[19] as well as experimenting with hypersonic flight, research that enabled it to gain a substantial share of the NASA
NASA
projects Mercury and Gemini. Douglas also gained contracts from NASA, notably for part of the enormous Saturn V
Saturn V
rocket.[20][21] The two companies were now major employers, but both were having problems. Douglas was strained by the cost of the DC-8 and DC-9, while McDonnell suffered lean times during any downturns in military procurement. The two companies began to sound each other out about a merger. Inquiries began in 1963; Douglas offered bid invitations from December 1966 and accepted that of McDonnell.[22] The two firms were officially merged on April 28, 1967 as the McDonnell Douglas Corporation (MDC).[23] The two companies seemed to be a good fit for each other; McDonnell was primarily a defense contractor while Douglas sold mostly civil aircraft. Formation[edit]

McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas
DC-10

McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas
retained McDonnell Aircraft's headquarters location at Lambert- St. Louis
St. Louis
International Airport, in Berkeley, Missouri,[24][25][26][27] near St. Louis. In 1967, with the merger of McDonnell and Douglas Aircraft, David Lewis, then president of McDonnell, was named chairman of what was called the Long Beach, Douglas Aircraft
Aircraft
Division. At the time of the merger, Douglas Aircraft
Aircraft
was estimated to be less than a year from bankruptcy. Flush with orders, the DC-8 and DC-9 aircraft were 9 to 18 months behind schedule, incurring stiff penalties from the airlines. Lewis was active in DC-10 sales in an intense competition with Lockheed's L-1011, a rival tri-jet aircraft.[28][29][30] In two years, Lewis had the operation back on track and in positive cash flow. He returned to the company's St. Louis
St. Louis
headquarters where he continued sales efforts on the DC-10 and managed the company as a whole as President and chief operating officer through 1971. The DC-10 began production in 1968 with the first deliveries in 1971.[31] Several artists impressions exist of an aircraft named the "DC-10 Twin" or DC-X which McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas
considered in the early 1970s but never built.[32][33] This would have been an early twinjet similar to the later Airbus
Airbus
A300, but never progressed to a prototype. This could have given McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas
an early lead in the huge twinjet market that subsequently developed, as well as commonality with much of the DC-10's systems.[34] 1970–1980[edit]

USAF F-15C during an Operation Noble Eagle patrol

In 1977, the next generation of DC-9 variants, dubbed the "Super 80" (later renamed the MD-80) series, was launched.[35]

KC-10 Extender
KC-10 Extender
during refueling

In 1977, the KC-10 Extender
KC-10 Extender
was the second McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas
transport aircraft to be selected for use by the US Air Force;[36] the first being the C-9 Nightingale/Skytrain II. Through the years of the Cold War
Cold War
McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas
had introduced and manufactured dozens of successful military aircraft, including the F-15 Eagle
F-15 Eagle
in 1974,[37] the F/A-18 Hornet
F/A-18 Hornet
in 1978,[38] and other products such as the Harpoon and Tomahawk missiles. The oil crisis of the 1970s was a serious shock to the commercial aviation industry, as a major manufacturer of commercial aircraft at the time, McDonnell Douglas was hit by the economic shift and forced to contract heavily while diversifying into new areas to reduce the impact of potential future downturns.[citation needed] 1980–1989[edit] In 1984, McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas
expanded into helicopters by purchasing Hughes Helicopters
Hughes Helicopters
from the Summa Corporation
Summa Corporation
for $470 million.[39] Hughes Helicopters
Hughes Helicopters
was made a subsidiary initially and renamed McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas
Helicopter Systems in August 1984.[40] McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas
Helicopters's most successful product was the Hughes-designed AH-64 Apache
AH-64 Apache
attack helicopter.[41][42] In 1986, MD-11 was launched, an improved and upgraded version of DC-10.[43][44][45][46] The MD-11 was the most advanced trijet aircraft to be developed. It sold 200 units, but was discontinued in 2001 after the merger with Boeing
Boeing
as it competed with the Boeing 777.[43][47][48][49] The final commercial aircraft design to be made by McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas
came in 1988. The MD-90 was a stretched version of the MD-80,[45] equipped with International Aero Engines V2500 turbofans, the largest rear-mounted engines ever on a commercial jet. The MD-95, a modern regional airliner closely resembling the DC-9-30, was the last McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas
designed commercial jet produced.[50][51] On January 13, 1988, McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas
and General Dynamics
General Dynamics
won the US Navy Advanced Tactical Aircraft
Aircraft
(ATA) contract. The US$4.83 billion contract was to develop the A-12 Avenger II, a stealth, carrier-based, long-range flying wing attack aircraft that would replace the A-6 Intruder. In January 1989, Robert Hood was appointed to lead McDonnell Douglas, replacing retiring Worsham. McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas
then introduced a major reorganization called the Total Quality Management
Total Quality Management
System (TQMS). TQMS ended the functional setup where engineers with specific expertise in aerodynamics, structural mechanics, materials, and other technical areas worked on several different aircraft. This was replaced by a product-oriented system where they focus on one specific airplane. As part of reorganization, 5,000 managerial and supervisory positions were eliminated at Douglas. The former managers could apply for 2,800 newly created posts; the remaining 2,200 would lose their managerial responsibilities.[52] The reorganization reportedly led to widespread loss of morale at the company and TQMS was nicknamed "Time to Quit and Move to Seattle" by employees referring to the competitor Boeing headquartered in Seattle, WA.[53] 1990–1997[edit] Technical issues, development cost overruns, growing unit costs, and delays led to the termination of the A-12 Avenger II
A-12 Avenger II
program on January 13, 1991 by Defense Secretary Dick Cheney. Years of litigation would proceed over the contract's termination: the government claimed that the contractors had defaulted on the contract and were not entitled to the final progress payments, while McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas
and General Dynamics
General Dynamics
believed that the contract was terminated out of convenience and thus the money was owed.[54] The case was contested through litigation until a settlement was reached in January 2014. The chaos and financial stress created by the collapse of the A-12 program led to the layoff of 5,600 employees.[55] The advanced tactical aircraft role vacated by the A-12 debacle would be filled by another McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas
program, the F/A-18E/F Super Hornet.[38][56] However the purchasing of aircraft was curtailed as the Cold War
Cold War
came to an abrupt end in the 1990s. This curtailment in military procurements combined with the loss of the contracts for two major projects, the Advanced Tactical Fighter
Advanced Tactical Fighter
and Joint Strike Fighter, severely hurt McDonnell Douglas.[47][57] McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas
built only a small wind tunnel test model.[58][59] In 1991, MD-11 was not quite a success, ongoing tests of the MD-11 revealed a significant shortfall in the aircraft's performance. An important prospective carrier, Singapore Airlines, required a fully laden aircraft that could fly from Singapore to Paris, against strong headwinds during mid-winter; the MD-11 did not have sufficient range for this at the time.[60] Due to the less-than-expected performance figures, Singapore Airlines
Singapore Airlines
cancelled its 20-aircraft MD-11 order on August 2, 1991, and ordered 20 A340-300s instead.[61]

McDonnell Douglas MD-12
McDonnell Douglas MD-12
aircraft concept

In 1992, McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas
unveiled a study of a double deck jumbo-sized aircraft designated MD-12.[34][62] Despite briefly leaving the market, the study was perceived as merely a public relations exercise to disguise the fact that MDC was struggling under intense pressure from Boeing
Boeing
and Airbus. It was clear to most in the industry that MDC had neither the resources nor the money to develop such a large aircraft,[63] and the study quickly sank without a trace. A similar double deck concept was used in Boeing's later Ultra-Large Aircraft
Aircraft
study intended to replace the 747,[64][65] but ultimately the double deck concept would not see the light of day until the Airbus A380 in the 2000s.[66][67] Following Boeing's 1996 acquisition of Rockwell's North American division, McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas
merged with Boeing
Boeing
in August 1997 in a US $13 billion stock swap, with Boeing
Boeing
as the surviving company.[1][57] Boeing
Boeing
adopted the McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas
logo, which shows the globe being encircled in tribute to the first aerial circumnavigation which was accomplished in 1924 using Douglas aircraft. McDonnell Automation Company legacy[edit] Some of the company's most long last legacies are non-aviation-related. They are the computer systems and companies developed in the company's subsidiary McDonnell Automation Company (McAuto) which was created in the 1950s initially used for Numerical control for production starting in 1958 and Computer-aided design starting in 1959. Its CAD program MicroGDS remains is use with the latest official version 11.3 issued in June 2013.[68][69] By the 1970s McAuto with 3,500 employees and $170 million worth of computer equipment was one of the largest computer processors in the world.[69] In 1981, McAuto began processing medical claims after it acquired Bradford Systems and Administrative Services for $11.5 million.[70] In 1983 two principals of Bradford who had to come work at McAuto left to form the Sanus Corporation health maintenance organization. The St. Louis office of Sanus was wholly owned by McDonnell Douglas.[71] McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas
personnel including Joseph T. Lynaugh[citation needed] and Howard L. Waltman[72] formed Sanus in 1983. In 1986 after McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas
reduced its control, Sanus announced a partnership with St. Louis
St. Louis
pharmacy Medicare Glaser to form Express Scripts
Express Scripts
with the pharmacy providing drugs for the Sanus HMO. Charles H. Ridings, formerly in charge of McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas
mergers and acquisitions, was named the first chief executive (although he was quickly replaced by Waltman).[73] The new company soon abandoned the HMO business to become with the country's largest independent pharmacy benefit management organization and became the 22nd largest company in the U.S. in 2017 with revenue exceeding $100 billion—making it far larger than McDonnell Douglas. Five new Express Scripts
Express Scripts
buildings now sit on the east side of Lambert Airport along I-70. Products[edit] Military airplanes[edit]

The McDonnell Douglas YC-15
McDonnell Douglas YC-15
was used as the base for the C-17.

McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas
DC-9

Built from 1988–2000, the MD-11 was the last McDonnell Douglas widebody aircraft.

F/A-18E Super Hornet

MD 500 Helicopter.

McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas
A-4 Skyhawk
A-4 Skyhawk
(started under Douglas Aircraft, used by the Blue Angels)

McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas
A-4G Skyhawk Project Kahu

McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas
F-4 Phantom II
F-4 Phantom II
(started under McDonnell Aircraft, used by the Blue Angels
Blue Angels
and Thunderbirds)

List of McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas
F-4 Phantom II
F-4 Phantom II
variants

McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas
C-9 McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas
F-15 Eagle

McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas
F-15E Strike Eagle McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas
F-15 STOL/MTD

McDonnell Douglas AV-8B Harrier II
McDonnell Douglas AV-8B Harrier II
(based on the British Aerospace Harrier) McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas
F/A-18 Hornet
F/A-18 Hornet
(used by the Blue Angels)

McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas
CF-18 Hornet High Alpha Research Vehicle

McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas
YC-15 McDonnell Douglas T-45 Goshawk
McDonnell Douglas T-45 Goshawk
jet trainer (based on the British Aerospace
Aerospace
Hawk) McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas
KC-10 Extender McDonnell Douglas C-17 Globemaster III
McDonnell Douglas C-17 Globemaster III
(Design and early production) McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas
A-12 Avenger II F/A-18E/F Super Hornet
F/A-18E/F Super Hornet
(Initial design and early production)

Commercial airplanes[edit]

McDonnell Douglas DC-8
Douglas DC-8
(started under Douglas Aircraft) McDonnell Douglas DC-9
McDonnell Douglas DC-9
(started under Douglas Aircraft) McDonnell Douglas DC-10
McDonnell Douglas DC-10
(with cockpit upgrade designated MD-10)

DC-10 Air Tanker

McDonnell Douglas MD-11
McDonnell Douglas MD-11
(stretched and modernized version of the DC-10) McDonnell Douglas MD-80
McDonnell Douglas MD-80
(stretched and modernized version of the DC-9) McDonnell Douglas MD-90
McDonnell Douglas MD-90
(stretched and modernized version of the MD-80) MD-95 (latest evolution of the DC-9, sold as Boeing
Boeing
717)

Experimental aircraft[edit]

McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas
X-36

Proposed models[edit]

McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas
MD-12, a double-decker plane similar to the Airbus A380 and Boeing
Boeing
NLA. McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas
MD-94X

Helicopters[edit]

AH-64 Apache
AH-64 Apache
(started under Hughes Helicopters) MD 500 series (started under Hughes Helicopters) MD 600 MD 901/902/902 Explorer

Manned spacecraft[edit]

Big Gemini Skylab
Skylab
space station Skylab
Skylab
B McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas
DC-X

Computer systems[edit]

Sequel Spirit Reality OS Series 18 Model 6 Series 18 Model 9 Sovereign 6200 6400 7000 9000 9200 9400

The corporation also produced the Sovereign (later M7000) series of systems in the UK, which used the Sovereign operating system developed in the UK and which was not based on Pick, unlike the "Reality" family of systems listed above. Sovereign, largely a Data Entry solution, had a reasonable market in the United States
United States
supporting data entry shops.[74] Missiles and rockets[edit]

BGM-109 Tomahawk
BGM-109 Tomahawk
missile Harpoon missile LIM-49 Spartan M47 Dragon Delta II
Delta II
rocket

Commercial deliveries[edit]

Delivery of McDonnell Douglas-designed   commercial airplanes by year and model[75]

DC-8 DC-9 DC-10 MD-80 MD-90 MD-11 Total

1959 21

21

1960 91

91

1961 42

42

1962 22

22

1963 19

19

1964 20

20

1965 31 5

36

1966 32 69

101

1967 41 153

194

1968 102 202

304

1969 85 122

207

1970 33 51

84

1971 13 46 13

72

1972 4 32 52

88

1973

29 57

86

1974

48 47

95

1975

42 43

85

1976

50 19

69

1977

22 14

36

1978

22 18

40

1979

39 35

74

1980

18 41 5

64

1981

16 25 61

102

1982

10 11 34

55

1983

12 51

63

1984

10 44

54

1985

11 71

82

1986

17 85

102

1987

10 94

104

1988

10 120

130

1989

1 117

118

1990

139

3 142

1991

140

31 171

1992

84

42 126

1993

43

36 79

1994

23

17 40

1995

18 13 18 49

1996

12 25 15 52

1997

16 26 12 54

1998

8 34 12 54

1999

26 13 8 47

2000

5 4 9

2001

2 2

Total 556 976 446 1,191 116 200 3,485

Active[76][77] 2 32 50 404 65 123 676

DC-8 DC-9 DC-10 MD-80 MD-90 MD-11

Key people[edit]

James Smith McDonnell John McDonnell (businessman) Sanford N. McDonnell Harry Stonecipher

Footnotes[edit]

^ a b Boeing
Boeing
Chronology, 1997–2001 Archived January 2, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. at boeing.com. ^ Welcome!, the former McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas
Technical Services Company's homepage (January 24, 1997; retrieved June 4, 2009). ^ Yenne 1985, pp. 6–9. ^ Yenne 1985, pp. 10–12. ^ Leiser, Ken. " St. Louis
St. Louis
aviation honored". St. Louis
St. Louis
Post-Dispatch, August 28, 2009. Archived August 29, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Johnston, Stanley (February 17, 1946). " Douglas DC-4
Douglas DC-4
and DC-6 Skymasters". Chicago Tribune.  ^ "DC-7, newest Douglas Airliner, takes to sky". Los Angeles Times. May 19, 1953.  ^ "U.S. Jet set mark, flies 753.4 M.P.H: Navy Hero recaptures World Speed leadership – Bests week-old British record". New York Times. October 4, 1953.  ^ "Bantam Jet Bomber is unveiled by Navy". Hartford Courant. June 8, 1954.  ^ "Saying goodbye to the A-4 Skyhawk". The Virginian. July 17, 1993.  ^ Ray, Nancy (September 16, 1991). " Aircraft
Aircraft
pioneer, 83, savors bold designs that still fly". Los Angeles Times.  ^ Miles, Marvin (May 31, 1958). "Douglas Jetliner, most advanced of nation, debuts in test flight". Los Angeles Times.  ^ Miles, Marvin (August 24, 1961). "A DC-8 is first Airliner to top speed of Sound". New York Times.  ^ "Navy awards contract for new jet fighter". Hartford Courant. August 17, 1952.  ^ "Navy accepts first Demon jet". Los Angeles Times. January 9, 1954.  ^ O'neil, Tim (May 24, 2009). "The Phantom of the factory: A Look Back – The F-4 Phantom II, rolled out in late May 1958, became one of the great success stories of military aviation and supported thousands of families". St Louis Post.  ^ "Skybolt fired Successfully". Kentucky New Era. December 20, 1962.  ^ Shannon, Don (May 9, 1958). "Thor hinted as favorite missile". Los Angeles Times.  ^ Witkin, Richard (May 8, 1960). "Missiles extend life of bomber: Jets, once thought obsolete, will soon carry deadly Air-Ground rockets". New York Times.  ^ "Douglas Saturn contract grows $48 Million". Los Angeles Times. December 22, 1963.  ^ Schonberger, Ernest A (October 5, 1967). "$170.5-Million job won by McDonnell Douglas". Los Angeles Times.  ^ Wright, Robert (January 26, 1967). "McDonnell and Douglas take a giant step". New York Times.  ^ " McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas
merger cleared". Fort Scott Tribune. April 27, 1967.  ^ Ealy, Charles and Andy Dworkin. "Texas Instruments may sell defense unit McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas
among 1st to show interest." The Dallas Morning News. November 6, 1996. Retrieved June 12, 2009. ^ "Berkeley city, Missouri[permanent dead link]." U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved June 8, 2009. ^ "Berkeley, MO (1990) Tiger Map Archived June 7, 2000, at the Wayback Machine.." U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved June 13, 2009. ^ Bower, Carolyn. "TESTS FIND RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL." St. Louis Post-Dispatch. December 9, 1988. News 2F. Retrieved June 13, 2009. ^ Wood, Charles (June 6, 1972). "DC-10 deal also pleases Lockheed". Los Angeles Times.  ^ Wright, Robert (March 11, 1974). "Lockheed seeking greater range for Tristar; hopes to make its jet more competitive". New York Times.  ^ Wood, Robert (June 12, 1971). "L-1011 Customers admit concessions by Douglas". Los Angeles Times.  ^ Steiger, Paul (July 30, 1971). "Airlines take over 1st DC-10s as McDonnell Gibes Lockheed". Los Angeles Times.  ^ Getze, John (November 22, 1972). "Douglas takes 1st Step toward Twin Engine version of DC-10". Los Angeles Times.  ^ Buck, Thomas (April 14, 1973). "Douglas plans wide-bodied jet with short-medium ranges". Chicago Tribune.  ^ a b "Clipped Wings". Flight International. December 20, 2005.  ^ Redburn, Tom (October 3, 1977). "McDonnell to build larger, quieter DC-9". Los Angeles Times.  ^ "US Air Force using McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas
KC-10 advanced tanker-cargo aircraft for 5 years". PR Newswire. March 17, 1986.  ^ Williams, Bob (May 10, 1981). "7 Aerospace
Aerospace
Firms Take $50-Million Gamble on Advanced F-15 Fighter". Los Angeles Times.  ^ a b "Pentagon gives Navy Go-Ahead on costly Douglas F-18 fighter". Los Angeles Times. June 30, 1981.  ^ " McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas
completes Hughes Helicopter acquisition". Chicago Tribune. January 8, 1984.  ^ Richardson, Doug and Lindsay Peacock. Combat Aircraft
Aircraft
AH-64, pp. 14–15. London: Salamander Books, 1992. ISBN 0-86101-675-0. ^ Western, Ken (March 22, 1997). "McDonnell Douglas' Apache Longbow makes its debut". Arizona Republic.  ^ Flannery, William (April 8, 1995). "Mcdonnell wins big helicopter contract but layoffs are looming at commercial air unit". St Louis Post.  ^ a b " Aircraft
Aircraft
profile: MD-11". Al Jazeera. Retrieved January 7, 2010.  ^ Brooks, Nancy (December 18, 1986). "McDonnell gets order it needs to launch MD-11 SAS request for 12 new jets brings total to 26". Los Angeles Times.  ^ a b Cohen, Aubrey (December 28, 2009). "Did subsidies drive MD and Lockheed from commercial jet biz?". Seattle PI.  ^ Wiener, Eric (February 14, 1990). "McDonnell's less costly new jet". New York Times.  ^ a b Pae, Peter (February 22, 2001). "Last Plane Out for Aerospace Pioneer; Aviation: Ceremony today marks the delivery of the last commercial aircraft built under the McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas
name". Los Angeles Times.  ^ "American Airlines retires last MD-11 from fleet". Knight Ridder/Tribune Business News. October 16, 2001.  ^ Demarco, Peter (September 19, 2000). "MD-11 Jet has highest crash rate". New York Daily Times. Archived from the original on June 29, 2009.  ^ Lane, Polly (November 3, 1997). "MD-95'S future uncertain – Boeing to phase uut MD-80, MD-90". Seattle Times.  ^ Weintraub, Richard (February 14, 1993). "MD-90 Airliner unveiled by McDonnell Douglas: firm seeks to stay in civilian aircraft business". Washington Post.  ^ Henkoff, Ronald. "BUMPY FLIGHT AT MCDONNELL DOUGLAS Even before two DC-10 crashes, it was beset by defense cutbacks and factory foul-ups. Now managers must unsnarl a new reorganization to get airborne again". Fortune. Archived from the original on 2013-04-10.  ^ Stevenson, Richard (September 29, 1991). "Breathing Easier at McDonnel Douglas". New York Times.  ^ "A-12 Avenger II". GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved March 16, 2007.  ^ "McDonnell Air gets president". New York Times. August 3, 1991. Retrieved March 16, 2007.  ^ Gepfert, Ken (October 30, 1979). "McDonnell trying to hog F-18 sales, Northrop suit says". Los Angeles Times.  ^ a b Schneider, Greg (February 4, 1997). "Merger or no, Boeing
Boeing
and McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas
linked". Baltimore Sun.  ^ JSF.mil > Gallery ^ "MD JSF - Aircraft
Aircraft
of the Month - May 2000". alexstoll.com.  ^ Norris & Wagner 1999, p. 66 ^ Norris, & Wagner 2001, p. 59 ^ "MDC brochures for undeveloped versions of the MD-11 and MD-12". md-eleven.net. Retrieved April 14, 2008.  ^ Black, Larry (August 11, 1992). " McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas
in shake-up as profits drop". The Independent. London.  ^ Wallace, James (October 24, 2007). " Airbus
Airbus
all in on need for jumbo – but Boeing
Boeing
still doubtful". Seattle PI. [dead link] ^ Norris, Guy (September 10, 1997). " Boeing
Boeing
looks again at plans for NLA". Flight International.  ^ "Boeing, partners expected to scrap Super-Jet study". Los Angeles Times. July 10, 1995.  ^ Madslien, Jorn (January 18, 2005). "Giant plane a testimony to 'old Europe'". BBC News.  ^ MicroGDS ^ a b History ^ Bradford National Sells a Division - The New York Times ^ 25 Sep 1987, Page 43 - St. Louis
St. Louis
Post-Dispatch at Newspapers.com ^ Howard L. Waltman ^ 11 Nov 1986, Page 14 - St. Louis
St. Louis
Post-Dispatch at Newspapers.com ^ Elleray, Dick (July 16, 1986). "The Reality Operating System Revealed (1986/09)". Project Management Bulletin (paper original)format= requires url= (help). Project Management Group, McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas
Information Systems Group.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Time Period Reports. boeing.com ^ "Production summary - Airfleets aviation". airfleets.net.  ^ "World Airliner Census 2016" (PDF). pic.carnoc.com. 

References[edit]

Yenne, Bill. McDonnell Douglas. Crescent Books, 1985. ISBN 0-517-44287-6.

Further reading[edit]

Aviation portal Companies portal California portal Missouri portal

Francillon, René J. McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas
aircraft since 1920. Naval Institute Press, 1990. 2 volume set. OCLC 19920963 Greider, William. One World, Ready or Not. Penguin Press, 1997. ISBN 0-7139-9211-5.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to McDonnell Douglas.

Official McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas
site as archived by archive.org McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas
Technical Services Company as archived by archive.org History of McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas
on Boeing.com

v t e

McDonnell and McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas
military aircraft and spacecraft

Fighters

USAAF / US Air Force

XP-67 XF-85 XF-88 F-101 F-110 F-4 F-15 F-15E YF-23

US Navy / USMC

FH F2H F3H F-4 F/A-18 F/A-18E/F

Export

F-4J(UK) / F-4K / F-4M CF-18 / CF-188

Licensed

F-15J

Attack

US Navy / USMC

A-4M AV-8B A-12

Export

A-4G

Trainers

US Navy

T-45

Transports

US Air Force

Model 119 C-9 KC-10 YC-15 C-17

US Navy

C-9

Licensed

Model 188

Helicopters

US Army / US Air Force

XH-20 AH-64

US Navy

XHJH XHCH XHRH

Export

Defender

Drones (UAVs)

US Air Force

ADM-20

US Navy

KDH KUD

Experimental

US Army / US Air Force

XV-1 X-36 F-15 STOL/MTD Bird of Prey

Spacecraft

NASA

Mercury Gemini Skylab

US Air Force

Blue Gemini

v t e

Douglas and McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas
airliners

Piston-engined

M-1 M-2 M-3 M-4 Dolphin DF DC-1 DC-2 DC-3 DC-4E DC-4 DC-5 DC-6 DC-7

Jet-engined

DC-8 DC-9

MD-80 MD-90 MD-95

DC-10

MD-11

Not developed

C-74 Globemaster DC-7D DC-8 piston airliner DC-9 Model 2229 MD-91X / -92X / -94X MD-12 / -XX DC-10-60 High Speed Civil Transport

v t e

Boeing

Companies

Boeing
Boeing
Aircraft
Aircraft
Holding Company Boeing
Boeing
Australia Boeing
Boeing
Canada Boeing
Boeing
Capital Boeing
Boeing
Commercial Airplanes Boeing
Boeing
Defense, Space & Security Boeing
Boeing
Phantom Works Boeing
Boeing
Rotorcraft Systems Boeing
Boeing
UK HRL Laboratories Jeppesen McDonnell Douglas Narus Spectrolab United Launch Alliance

People

William M. Allen James A. Bell John H. Biggs William Boeing John Bryson Arthur D. Collins Jr. Philip M. Condit William M. Daley Kenneth Duberstein Lynn Good Edgar Gott Philip G. Johnson Caroline Kennedy John McDonnell James McNerney Susan Schwab Frank Shrontz Harry Stonecipher Malcolm T. Stamper Thornton Wilson Mike S. Zafirovski

Projects

BCT Modernization Boeing
Boeing
Black Boeing
Boeing
7x7 series Boeing
Boeing
hydrofoils Boeing
Boeing
Jetfoils Connexion by Boeing Future Combat Systems

Facilities

Boeing
Boeing
Everett Factory Boeing
Boeing
Plant 1 Boeing
Boeing
Plant 2 Boeing
Boeing
Renton Factory Boeing
Boeing
South Carolina Boeing
Boeing
Store Future of Flight Aviation Center & Boeing
Boeing
Tour Michoud Assembly Facility Plant 42

Other

Boeing
Boeing
strike of 1948 Boeing
Boeing
Technical Fellowship Competition between Airbus
Airbus
and Boeing

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 158243761 ISNI: 0000 0001 2113 8613 GND: 272845-X SUDOC: 050329049 BNF:

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