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Mawlid
Mawlid
or Mawlid
Mawlid
al-Nabi al-Sharif (Arabic: مَولِد النَّبِي‎ mawlidu n-nabiyyi, "Birth of the Prophet", sometimes simply called in colloquial Arabic مولد mawlid, mevlid, mevlit, mulud among other vernacular pronunciations; sometimes ميلاد mīlād) is the observance of the birthday of the Islamic prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
which is commemorated in Rabi' al-awwal, the third month in the Islamic calendar.[2] 12th Rabi' al-awwal[3] is the accepted date among most of the Sunni
Sunni
scholars, while Shi'a scholars regard 17th Rabi' al-awwal
Rabi' al-awwal
as the accepted date. The history of this celebration goes back to the early days of Islam when some of the Tabi`in (the successors of the Companions of the Prophet) began to hold sessions in which poetry and songs composed to honor the dignity and the righteous example of the Messenger of Allah were recited and sung to overflowing crowds in the major cities of Islamic Civilization.[4]. The Ottomans declared it an official holiday in 1588,[5] known as Mevlid Kandil.[6] The term Mawlid
Mawlid
is also used in some parts of the world, such as Egypt, as a generic term for the birthday celebrations of other historical religious figures such as Sufi saints.[7] Most denominations of Islam
Islam
approve of the commemoration of Muhammad's birthday;[8][9] however, some denominations including Wahhabism/Salafism, Deobandism and the Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
disapprove its commemoration, considering it an unnecessary religious innovation (bid'ah or bidat).[10] Mawlid
Mawlid
is recognized as a national holiday in most of the Muslim-majority countries of the world except Saudi Arabia and Qatar
Qatar
which are officially Wahhabi/Salafi.[11][12][13] Shaykh Faraz Rabbani states that the Mawlid
Mawlid
is generally approved of across the four Islamic schools of law and by mainstream Islamic scholarship.[14]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Date 3 History 4 Permissibility

4.1 Support 4.2 Opposition 4.3 Conflicted position

5 Observances 6 Mawlid
Mawlid
texts 7 Other uses 8 Gallery 9 See also 10 Further reading 11 References

11.1 Bibliography

12 External links

Etymology[edit]

Look up mawlid in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Mawlid
Mawlid
is derived from the Arabic root word (Arabic: ولد‎), meaning to give birth, bear a child, descendant.[15] In contemporary usage, Mawlid
Mawlid
refers to the observance of the birthday of Muhammad.[2] Along with being referred to as the celebration of the birth of Muhammad, the term Mawlid
Mawlid
also refers to the 'text especially composed for and recited at Muhammad's nativity celebration' or "a text recited or sung on that day".[16] Date[edit] The date of Muhammad's birth is a matter of contention since the exact date is unknown and is not definitively recorded in the Islamic traditions.[17][18][19][20] The issue of the correct date of the Mawlid
Mawlid
is recorded by Ibn Khallikan as constituting the first proven disagreement concerning the celebration.[21] Among the most recognisable dates, Sunni Muslims
Sunni Muslims
believe the date to have been on the twelfth of Rabi' al-awwal, whereas Shi'a Muslims
Shi'a Muslims
believe the date to have been on the seventeenth. History[edit]

Mawlid
Mawlid
an-Nabi procession at Boulac Avenue in 1904 at Cairo, Egypt.

The Garebeg festival celebrating Mawlid
Mawlid
in Yogyakarta, Java Island, Indonesia.

In early days of Islam, observation of Muhammad's birth as a holy day was usually arranged privately and later was an increased number of visitors to the Mawlid
Mawlid
house that was open for the whole day specifically for this celebration.[22] This celebration was introduced into the city Sabta by Abu 'l'Abbas al-Azafi as a way of strengthening the Muslim community and to counteract Christian festivals.[23] The early celebrations, included elements of Sufic influence, with animal sacrifices and torchlight processions along with public sermons and a feast.[8][24] The celebrations occurred during the day, in contrast to modern day observances, with the ruler playing a key role in the ceremonies.[25] Emphasis was given to the Ahl al-Bayt
Ahl al-Bayt
with presentation of sermons and recitations of the Qur'an. According to the hypothesis of Nico Kaptein of Leiden University, the Mawlid
Mawlid
was initiated by the Fatimids,[26] with Marion Holmes Katz adding "The idea that the celebration of the mawlid originated with the Fatimid dynasty has today been almost universally accepted among both religious polemicists and secular scholars."[27] This Shia
Shia
origin is frequently noted by those Sunnis who oppose Mawlid.[28] Among Sunnis, the Mawlid
Mawlid
celebration emerged in the 12th century,[29] and the first detailed description of a Sunni
Sunni
Mawlid
Mawlid
celebration was of one sponsored by emir Gökböri.[30] Permissibility[edit]

A banner with Maulid greetings in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

Mawlid
Mawlid
an-Nabawi celebrations in Dehli, India.

Among Muslim scholars, the legality of Mawlid
Mawlid
"has been the subject of intense debate" and has been described as "perhaps one of the most polemical discussions in Islamic law".[20] Traditionally, most Sunni and nearly all of the Shia
Shia
scholars have approved of the celebration of Mawlid,[8][9][31][32][33] while Wahhabi and Ahmadiyya[34] scholars oppose the celebration.[35] Support[edit] Examples of historic Sunni
Sunni
scholars who permitted the Mawlid
Mawlid
include the Shafi'i
Shafi'i
scholar Al-Suyuti (d 911 A.H.) who stated that:

My answer is that the legal status of the observance of the Mawlid
Mawlid
– as long as it just consists of a meeting together by the people, a recitation of apposite parts of the Qur'an, the recounting of transmitted accounts of the beginning of (the biography of) the Prophet – may God bless him and grant him peace – and the wonders that took place during his birth, all of which is then followed by a banquet that is served to them and from which they eat-is a good innovation (bid'a hasana), for which one is rewarded because of the esteem shown for the position of the Prophet – may God bless him and grant him peace – that is implicit in it, and because of the expression of joy and happiness on his – may God bless him and grant him peace – noble birth.[36]

The Shafi'i
Shafi'i
scholar Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani (d 852 A.H.) too approved of the Mawlid[37] and states that:

As for what is performed on the day of the Mawlid, one should limit oneself to what expresses thanks to God, such as the things that have already been mentioned: [Qur'anic] recitation, serving food, alms-giving, and recitation of praise [poems] about the Prophet – may God bless him and grant him peace – and asceticism which motivate people to perform good deeds and act in view of the next world.[38]

The Damascene Shafi'i
Shafi'i
scholar Abu Shama (d 665 A.H.) (who was a teacher of Imam al-Nawawi (d 676 A.H.)) also supports the celebration of the Mawlid[39][40] as does the Maliki
Maliki
scholar Ibn al-Hajj
Ibn al-Hajj
(d 737 A.H.) who spoke positively of the observance of the Mawlid
Mawlid
in his book al-Madhkal.[41] Likewise, the Shafi'i
Shafi'i
Egyptian scholar Ibn Hajar al-Haytami (d. 974 A.H.) was an avid supporter of the Mawlid
Mawlid
and wrote a text in praise of it.[42] This was supported and commented on by the Egyptian scholar and former head of Al-Azhar University
Al-Azhar University
Ibrahim al-Bajuri[42] and by the Hanafi
Hanafi
Syrian
Syrian
Mufti
Mufti
Ibn Abidin.[43] Another Hanafi
Hanafi
Mufti
Mufti
Ali al-Qari (d. 1014 A.H.) too supported the celebration of the Mawlid
Mawlid
and wrote a text on the subject[44] as did the Moroccan Maliki
Maliki
scholar Muḥammad ibn Jaʿfar al-Kattānī (d. 1345 A.H.).[45] Ibn al-Jazari (d. 833 A.H.), a Syrian
Syrian
Shafi'i
Shafi'i
scholar considers the celebration of the Mawlid
Mawlid
to be a means of gaining Paradise.[46] In the Muslim world, the majority of Sunni
Sunni
Islamic scholars are in favor of the Mawlid.[47] Examples include the former Grand Mufi of Al-Azhar University
Al-Azhar University
Ali Gomaa,[48] Muhammad
Muhammad
Alawi al-Maliki[49][50] of Saudi Arabia, Yusuf al-Qaradawi,[51][52] the primary scholar of the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
movement, Habib Ali al-Jifri,[53] Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri,[54][55] Muhammad
Muhammad
bin Yahya al-Ninowy[55][56] of Syria, Muhammad
Muhammad
Ibn Ahmad al-Khazraji, president of the Heritage and History Committee of the United Arab Emirates[57] and Zaid Shakir, all of whom subscribe to Sunni
Sunni
Islam, have given their approval for the observance of Mawlid. Opposition[edit] The Mawlid
Mawlid
was not accepted by Wahhabis and Salafis.[58] Taj al-Din al-Fakihani (d. 1331), an Egyptian Maliki, considered Mawlid
Mawlid
to be a blameworthy innovation that was either makruh or haram. This view was shared by fellow Egyptian Maliki
Maliki
Ibn al-Haj al-Abdari, who added that the celebration was never practiced by the Salaf.[59] However Ibn al-Haj affirms the auspicious qualities of the month of the Mawlid
Mawlid
in the most effusive terms[60] and considers Muhammad's date of birth as a particularly blessed time of the year.[61] The Maliki
Maliki
scholar Al-Shatibi
Al-Shatibi
considered Mawlid
Mawlid
an illegitimate innovation. [62] The Andalusian jurist Abu 'Abd Allah al-Haffar (d. 1408) opposed Mawlid, noting that had the Sahaba
Sahaba
celebrated it then its exact date would not be a matter of uncertainty.[63] The former Grand Mufti
Mufti
of Saudi Arabia, Abd al-Aziz ibn Baz, along with Hammud ibn 'Abd Allah al-Tuwayjiri (d. 1992), another Saudi scholar, in their opposition also argued that there were many worthy occasions in Muhammad's life which he never commemorated, such as the revelation of the first verses of the Qur'an, the Night Journey and the hijra.[64][50] The Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
fall into the group who oppose Mawlid; however, they hold gatherings called jalsa seerat-un-Nabi commemorating the life and legacy of Muhammad
Muhammad
oriented towards both Muslim and non-Muslim audiences. These gatherings are not held on any specific date, rather they may be held throughout the year.[65] Conflicted position[edit] Ibn Taymiyya's position on the Mawlid
Mawlid
has been described as "paradoxical" and "complex" by some academics. He ruled that it was a reprehensible (makrūh) devotional innovation and criticised those who celebrated the Mawlid
Mawlid
out of a desire to imitate the Christian celebration of Jesus' birthday.[66][67] At the same time, he recognised that some observe the Prophet's birthday out of a desire to show their love and reverence of the Prophet and thus deserve a great reward for their good intentions.[66][68][69][70] The Salafi writer Hamid al-Fiqi (d. 1959) criticised Ibn Taymiyya for holding this view and stating that "How can they receive a reward for this when they are opposing the guidance of God's Messenger (pbuh)?".[50] Observances[edit]

Sekaten
Sekaten
fair in Indonesia, a week-long celebration of Mawlid.

International Mawlid
Mawlid
Conference, Minar-e-Pakistan, Lahore, Pakistan.

Mawlid
Mawlid
is celebrated in almost all Islamic countries, and in other countries that have a significant Muslim population, such as India, the United Kingdom, Nigeria, Sri Lanka, France, Germany, Italy, Russia[71] and Canada.[72][73][74][75][76][77][78][79][80] The only exceptions are Qatar
Qatar
and Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
where it is not an official public holiday and is forbidden.[81][82][83] However, as a result of Wahhabi and other strict traditionalist Muslim influence, since the last decades of the late 20th century there has been a trend to "forbid or discredit" Mawlid
Mawlid
(along with similar festivals) in the Sunni
Sunni
Muslim world.[84][85] Often organized in some countries by the Sufi orders,[16] Mawlid
Mawlid
is celebrated in a carnival manner, large street processions are held and homes or mosques are decorated. Charity and food is distributed, and stories about the life of Muhammad
Muhammad
are narrated with recitation of poetry by children.[86][87] Scholars and poets celebrate by reciting Qaṣīda al-Burda
Qaṣīda al-Burda
Sharif, the famous poem by 13th-century Arabic Sufi Busiri. A general Mawlid
Mawlid
appears as "a chaotic, incoherent spectacle, where numerous events happen simultaneously, all held together only by the common festive time and space".[88] These celebrations are often considered an expression of the Sufi concept of the pre-existence of Muhammad
Muhammad
.[89] However, the main significance of these festivities is expression of love for Muhammad.[88] During Pakistan's Mawlid, the day starts with a 31-gun salute in federal capital and a 21-gun salute
21-gun salute
at the provincial capitals and religious hymns are sung during the day.[90] In many parts of Indonesia, the celebration of the Mawlid
Mawlid
al-nabi "seems to surpass in importance, liveliness, and splendour" the two official Islamic holidays
Islamic holidays
of Eid ul-Fitr
Eid ul-Fitr
and Eid al-Adha.[91] In Qayrawan, Tunisia, Muslims sing and chant hymns of praise to Muhammad, welcoming him in honor of his birth.[92] Also, generally in Tunisia, people usually prepare Assidat Zgougou
Assidat Zgougou
to celebrate the Mawlid.[93] Among non-Muslim countries, India
India
is noted for its Mawlid festivities.[94] The relics of Muhammad
Muhammad
are displayed after the morning prayers in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
at the Hazratbal Shrine, where night-long prayers are also held.[95] Mawlid
Mawlid
texts[edit] Along with being referred to as the celebration of the birth of Muhammad, the term Mawlid
Mawlid
also refers to the 'text especially composed for and recited at Muhammad's nativity celebration' or "a text recited or sung on that day".[16] These texts contain stories of the life of Muhammad, or at least some of the following chapters from his life, briefly summarized below:[16]

The Ancestors of Muhammad The Conception of Muhammad The Birth of Muhammad Introduction of Halima Life of Young Muhammad
Muhammad
in Bedouins Muhammad's orphanhood Abu Talib's nephew's first caravan trip Arrangement of Marriage between Muhammad
Muhammad
and Khadija Al-Isra' Al-Mi'radj, or the Ascension to heaven Al-Hira, first revelation The first converts to Islam The Hijra Muhammad's death

These text are only part of the ceremonies. There are many different ways that people celebrate Mawlid, depending on where they are from. There appears to be a cultural influence upon what kind of festivities are a part of the Mawlid
Mawlid
celebration. In Indonesia, it is common the congregation recite Simthud Durar, especially among Arab Indonesians. Other uses[edit] Main article: Urs In some countries, such as Egypt
Egypt
and Sudan, Mawlid
Mawlid
is used as a generic term for the celebration of birthdays of local Sufi saints and not only restricted to the observance of the birth of Muhammad.[96] Around 3,000 Mawlid
Mawlid
celebrations are held each year. These festivals attract an international audience, with the largest one in Egypt attracting up to three million people honouring Ahmad al-Badawi, a local 13th-century Sufi saint.[7] Gallery[edit]

Birth Place of the Islamic prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
in Mecca, Saudi Arabia

Mawlid
Mawlid
an-Nabawi celebrations in Cairo
Cairo
in 1878

The Ottoman flag is raised during Mawlid
Mawlid
an-Nabi celebration of Mohammad's birthday in 1896 in the field of municipal Libyan
Libyan
city of Benghazi

An illuminated view of Presidency and Parliament House decorated with colorful lights in connection with Eid-e-Milad-un-Nabi celebrations in Pakistan

Under supervision of Shaykh Sufi Riaz Ahmed Naqshbandi Aslami, 2007

See also[edit]

Islam
Islam
portal

Criticism of Muhammad Dua Durood Hamd Haḍra Madih nabawi Mehfil Na'at Nasheed Mawlid
Mawlid
al-Barzanjī Arabic music Islamic music Islamic poetry Mid-Sha'ban Sufi music Sufi poetry Sufism History of Sufism Ya Muhammad

Further reading[edit]

Hagen, Gottfried (2014), " Mawlid
Mawlid
(Ottoman)", in Muhammad
Muhammad
in History, Thought, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of the Prophet of God (2 vols.), Edited by C. Fitzpatrick and A. Walker, Santa Barbara, ABC-CLIO. Malik, Aftab Ahmed (2001). The Broken Chain: Reflections Upon the Neglect of a Tradition. Amal Press. ISBN 0-9540544-0-7.  Picken, Gavin (2014), "Mawlid", in Muhammad
Muhammad
in History, Thought, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of the Prophet of God (2 vols.), Edited by C. Fitzpatrick and A. Walker, Santa Barbara, ABC-CLIO. Tahir-ul-Qadri, Muhammad
Muhammad
(2014). Mawlid
Mawlid
al-Nabi: Celebration and Permissibility. Minhaj-ul- Quran
Quran
Publications. ISBN 978-1908229144.  Ukeles, Raquel. "The Sensitive Puritan? Revisiting Ibn Taymiyya's Approach to Law and Spirituality in Light of 20th-century Debates on the Prophet's Birthday (mawlid al-nabī)." Ibn Taymiyya and His Times, ed. Youssef Rapport and Shahab Ahmed, 319–337. Karachi: Oxford University Press, 2010.

References[edit]

^ " Mawlid
Mawlid
in Africa". Muhammad
Muhammad
(pbuh) – Prophet of Islam. Retrieved 2016-02-02.  ^ a b Mawlid. Reference.com ^ The Sealed Nectar.  ^ Template:Http://www.islamicsupremecouncil.org/understanding-islam/spirituality/1--mawlid-an-nabi-celebration-of-prophet-muhammads-s-birthday.html ^ Shoup, John A. (2007-01-01). Culture and Customs of Jordan. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 35. ISBN 9780313336713.  ^ Manuel Franzmann, Christel Gärtner, Nicole Köck Religiosität in der säkularisierten Welt: Theoretische und empirische Beiträge zur Säkularisierungsdebatte in der Religionssoziologie Springer-Verlag 2009 ISBN 978-3-531-90213-5 page 351 ^ a b "In pictures: Egypt's biggest moulid". BBC News. Retrieved 28 February 2016.  ^ a b c Schussman, Aviva (1998). "The Legitimacy and Nature of Mawid al-Nabī: (analysis of a Fatwā)". Islamic Law and Society. 5 (2): 214–234. doi:10.1163/1568519982599535.  ^ a b McDowell, Michael; Brown, Nathan Robert (2009-03-03). World Religions At Your Fingertips. Penguin. p. 106. ISBN 9781101014691.  ^ http://islamqa.info/en/249 Muhammed Salih Al-Munajjid. ^ March, Luke (24 June 2010). Russia and Islam. Routledge. p. 147. Retrieved 10 May 2015.  ^ Merkel, Udo (2015-02-11). Identity Discourses and Communities in International Events, Festivals and Spectacles. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 203. ISBN 9781137394934.  ^ Woodward, Mark (2010-10-28). Java, Indonesia
Indonesia
and Islam. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 169. ISBN 9789400700567.  ^ Rabbani, Faraz (25 November 2010). "Innovation (Bid`a) and Celebrating the Prophet's Birthday (Mawlid)". SeekersHub.org. Retrieved 26 January 2017. Again, if we follow the recourse that Allah Most High has given us: returning matters we’re not clear of to the people of knowledge, then we see that the mawlid, for example, has been carefully considered and generally approved of right across the four schools of mainstream Islamic law. In Singapore, it was a national holiday once but it was removed from Singapore
Singapore
holidays to improve business competitives.If someone doesn’t feel comfortable with that, it is fine, but condemning a mainstream action approved by mainstream Islamic scholarship is the basis of division, and contrary to established principles.  ^ Arabic: قاموس المنجد‎ – Moungued Dictionary (paper), or online: Webster's Arabic English Dictionary Archived 12 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b c d Knappert, J. "The Mawlid". S.O.A.S.  ^ Sanjuán, Alejandro García, ed. (2007). Till God Inherits the Earth: Islamic Pious Endowments in Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
(9–15th Centuries) (illustrated ed.). BRILL. p. 235. ISBN 9789004153585.  ^ Annemarie Schimmel
Annemarie Schimmel
(1994). Deciphering the signs of God: a phenomenological approach to Islam
Islam
(illustrated ed.). Edinburgh University Press. p. 69.  ^ Eliade, Mircea, ed. (1987). The Encyclopedia of religion, Volume 9 (illustrated ed.). Macmillan. p. 292. ISBN 9780029098004.  ^ a b Fitzpatrick, Coeli; Walker, Adam Hani, eds. (2014). Muhammad
Muhammad
in History, Thought, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of the Prophet of God [2 volumes] (illustrated ed.). ABC-CLIO. p. 368. ISBN 9781610691789.  ^ N. J. G. Kaptein (1993). Muḥammad's Birthday Festival: Early History in the Central Muslim Lands and Development in the Muslim West Until the 10th/16th Century. BRILL. p. 74. ISBN 9789004094529.  ^ Fuchs, H.; Knappert J. (2007). " Mawlid
Mawlid
(a.), or Mawlud". In P. Bearman; T. Bianquis; C. E. Bosworth. Encyclopedia of Islam. Brill. ISSN 1573-3912.  ^ "Mawlid". Encyclopedia of Islam, Second Edition. BrillOnline Reference Works.  ^ "Mawlid". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 2007.  ^ Kaptein (1993), p. 30 ^ Katz (2007), p. 2 ^ Katz (2007), p. 3 ^ Katz (2007), p. 113 ^ Katz (2007), p. 50 ^ Katz (2007), p. 67 ^ Katz (2007), p. 169 ^ http://www.masud.co.uk/ISLAM/misc/verdict.htm ^ " Mawlid
Mawlid
al-Nabi: Celebrations across the Middle East". Middle East Eye. Retrieved 2016-02-28.  ^ https://www.alislam.org/friday-sermon/printer-friendly-summary-2009-03-13.html True Commemoration of the blessed life of the Holy Prophet (pbuh) ^ [1] ^ Kaptein (1993), p. 49 ^ Katz (2007), p. 108 ^ Katz (2007), p. 64 ^ Katz (2007), p. 63 ^ Rapoport, Yosef (2010). Ibn Taymiyya and His Times. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 328. ISBN 9780199402069.  ^ Kaptein (1993), p. 58 ^ a b Spevack, Aaron (2014-09-09). The Archetypal Sunni
Sunni
Scholar: Law, Theology, and Mysticism in the Synthesis of al-Bajuri. SUNY Press. p. 77. ISBN 9781438453729.  ^ Katz (2007), p. 170 ^ Katz (2007), p. 112 ^ Katz, Marion Holmes (2007-05-07). The Birth of The Prophet Muhammad: Devotional Piety in Sunni
Sunni
Islam. Routledge. p. 102. ISBN 9781135983949. there is no doubt that the Prophet's (s) recompense to someone who does something for him will be better, more momentous, more copious, greater and more abundant than [that person's] action, because gifts correspond to the rank of those who give them and presents vary according to their bestowers; it is the custom of kings and dignitaries to recompense small things with the greatest of boons and the most splendid treasures, so what of the master of the kings of this world and the next?  ^ Katz, Marion Holmes (2007-05-07). The Birth of The Prophet Muhammad: Devotional Piety in Sunni
Sunni
Islam. Routledge. p. 109. ISBN 9781135983949. If Abu Lahab, the unbeliever whose condemnation was revealed in the Qur'an, was rewarded (juziya) in hell for his joy on the night of the Prophet's birth, what is the case of a Muslim monotheist of the community of Muhammad
Muhammad
the Prophet who delights in his birth and spends all that he can afford for love of him? By my life, his reward (jaza ') from the Beneficent God can only be that He graciously causes him to enter the gardens of bliss!  ^ Katz (2007), p. 169: "In the eighteenth and nineteenth century, the celebration of the Prophet's (s) birthday and the recitation of mawlid texts were ubiquitous practices endorsed by the majority of mainstream Sunni
Sunni
scholars... by the modern period the celebration of the Mawlid
Mawlid
was overwhelmingly accepted and practiced at all levels of religious education and authority. Prominent elite scholars continued to contribute to the development of the tradition." ^ Gomaa, Sheikh Ali (2011-01-01). Responding from the Tradition: One Hundred Contemporary Fatwas by the Grand Mufti
Mufti
of Egypt. Fons Vitae. ISBN 9781891785443.  ^ Katz (2007), p. 253 ^ a b c Rapoport, Yosef (2010). Ibn Taymiyya and His Times. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 322. ISBN 9780199402069.  ^ Shaykh Qardawi Approves of Celebrating Mawlid. Yusuf Al-Qardawi. ^ "Shaykh Qardawi Approves of Celebrating Mawlid". www.sunnah.org. Retrieved 2016-03-26.  ^ http://www.alhabibali.com/audioVideo_details/ln/en/avid/780[permanent dead link] ^ Tahir-ul-Qadri, Dr Muhammad
Muhammad
(2014-05-01). Mawlid
Mawlid
Al-nabi: Celebration and Permissibility. Minhaj-UL- Quran
Quran
Publications. ISBN 9781908229144.  ^ a b "Milad-un-Nabi gets colourful, elaborate – Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 2016-03-26.  ^ "Mass Moulood celebrated in Green Point IOL". IOL. Retrieved 2016-06-03.  ^ Katz (2007), p. 203 ^ Bowering, Gerhard; Crone, Patricia; Kadi, Wadad; Stewart, Devin J.; Zaman, Muhammad
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Qasim; Mirza, Mahan (2012-11-28). The Princeton Encyclopedia of Islamic Political Thought. Princeton University Press. p. 335. ISBN 140083855X.  ^ Katz (2007), p. 71 ^ Katz (2007), p. 201 ^ Katz (2007), p. 65 ^ Katz (2007), p. 73 ^ Marion Holmes Katz (2007). The Birth of The Prophet Muhammad: Devotional Piety in Sunni
Sunni
Islam. Routledge. pp. 159–60. ISBN 9781135983949.  ^ Marion Holmes Katz (2007). The Birth of The Prophet Muhammad: Devotional Piety in Sunni
Sunni
Islam. Routledge. pp. 203–4. ISBN 9781135983949.  ^ audiences.https://www.alislam.org/v/k-Seerat-un-Nabi.html?page=1 Seerat-un-Nabi ^ a b Marion Holmes Katz (2007). The Birth of The Prophet Muhammad: Devotional Piety in Sunni
Sunni
Islam. Routledge. p. 117. ISBN 9781135983949. The rationale of expressing love for the Prophet was so compelling that it occasionally forced even opponents of the mawlid celebration to qualify their disapproval. Ibn Taymiya remarks that people may celebrate the mawlid either in order to emulate the Christians' celebration of Jesus's birthday, or "out of love (mahabba) and reverence (ta'zim) for the Prophet." Although the first motive is manifestly invalid, Ibn Taymiya acknowledges the latter intention as legitimate; one who acts on this motivation may be rewarded for his love and his effort, although not for the sinful religious innovation in itself.  ^ Rapoport, Yosef (2010). Ibn Taymiyya and His Times. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 324–325. ISBN 9780199402069. At the same time, Ibn Taymiyya recognizes that people observe the mawlid for different reasons and should be recompessed according to their intentions. Some, for example, observe the mawlid out of a desire to imitate the Christian celebration of Jesus's birthday on Christmas. This intention is reprehensible  ^ Islamic Law in Theory: Studies on Jurisprudence in Honor of Bernard Weiss. BRILL. 2014-05-09. ISBN 9789004265196. Not only does Ibn Taymiyyah recognize the pious elements within devotional innovations, but he asserts that sincere practitioners of these innovations merit a reward. As I argue elsewhere, Ibn Taymiyyah's paradoxical position stems from a practical awareness of the way that Muslims of his day engaged in devotional practices. Ibn Taymiyya states that: "There is no doubt that the one who performs these [innovated festivals], either because of his own interpretation and independent reasoning or his being a blind imitator (muqallid) of another, receives a reward for his good purpose and for the aspects of his acts that confirm with the lawful and he is forgiven for those aspects that fall under the scope of the innovated if his independent reasoning or blind obedience is pardonable."  ^ Ahmed, editors, Yossef Rapoport, Shahab (2010). Ibn Taymiyya and his times. Karachi: Oxford University Press. p. 320. ISBN 9780195478341. At the same time he recognized that some observe the Prophet's (s) birthday out of a desire to show their love of the Prophet and thus deserve a great reward for their good intentions. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Woodward, Mark (2010-10-28). Java, Indonesia
Indonesia
and Islam. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 170. ISBN 9789400700567. The Mawlid
Mawlid
is among the most commonly mentioned examples of praiseworthy innovation. This view is shared even by some of the most strident opponents of most other modalities of popular Islam. Ibn Taymiyyah, the Kurdish reformer who most Indonesian and other Islamists take as their spiritual ancestor and mentor, was subdued in his critique of the Mawlid. His position was that those who performed it with pious intent and out of love for the Prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
(s) would be rewarded for their actions, and forgiven any sin from bid'ah that they might incur.  ^ " Mawlid
Mawlid
celebration in Russia". Islamdag.info. Retrieved 20 November 2011.  ^ "q News". q News. Archived from the original on 28 September 2011. Retrieved 20 November 2011.  ^ "Arts Web Bham". Arts Web Bham. 14 August 1996. Retrieved 20 November 2011.  ^ "Buildings of London". Buildings of London. Retrieved 20 November 2011.  ^ Js Board Archived 17 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "United Kingdom". Sunni
Sunni
Razvi Society. Archived from the original on 25 February 2001.  ^ Bednikoff, Emilie. "Montreal Religious Sites Project". Mrsp.mcgill.ca. Retrieved 20 November 2011.  ^ "Muslim Media Network". Muslim Media Network. Archived from the original on 15 July 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2011.  ^ Canadian Mawlid
Mawlid
Archived 9 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Religion & Ethics – Milad un Nabi". BBC. 7 September 2009. Retrieved 20 November 2011.  ^ "Moon Sighting". Moon Sighting. 20 June 2011. Retrieved 20 November 2011.  ^ Jestice, Phyllis G., ed. (2004). Holy People of the World: A Cross-Cultural Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 410. ISBN 9781576073551.  ^ Elie Podeh (2011). The Politics of National Celebrations in the Arab Middle East (illustrated ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 256–7. ISBN 9781107001084.  ^ Reuven Firestone (2010). An Introduction to Islam
Islam
for Jews (revised ed.). Jewish Publication Society. p. 132. ISBN 9780827610491.  ^ Marion Holmes Katz (2007). The Birth of The Prophet Muhammad: Devotional Piety in Sunni
Sunni
Islam. Routledge. p. 184. ISBN 9781135983949.  ^ "Festivals in India". Festivals in India. Retrieved 20 November 2011.  ^ Pakistan
Pakistan
Celebrate Eid Milad-un-Nabi with Religious Zeal, Fervor Archived 14 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine.. Pakistan
Pakistan
Times. 2007-04-02. ^ a b Schielke, Samuli (2012). "Habitus of the authentic, order of the rational: contesting saints' festivals in contemporary Egypt". Critique: Critical Middle Eastern Studies. 12 (2).  ^ Knappert, J. "The Mawlid". S.O.A.S.: 209–215.  ^ Pakistan
Pakistan
with Muslims world-over celebrate Eid Milad-un-Nabi tomorrow Archived 4 November 2005 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Herman Beck, Islamic purity at odds with Javanese identity: the Muhammadiyah and the celebration of Garebeg Maulud ritual in Yogyakarta, Pluralism and Identity: Studies in Ritual Behaviour, eds Jan Platvoet and K. van der Toorn, BRILL, 1995, pg 262 ^ Speight, Marston (1980). "The nature of Christian and Muslim festivals". The Muslim World. 70 (3–4): 260–266. doi:10.1111/j.1478-1913.1980.tb03417.x.  ^ How Does Tunisia Celebrate Al Mawlid? Tunisia Live ^ "Milad Celebrated". The Times of India. 14 May 2003. Retrieved 20 November 2011.  ^ TajaNews Archived 14 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Kaptein (2007)

Bibliography[edit]

Kaptein, N. J. G. (1993). Muhammad's Birthday Festival: Early History in the Central Muslim Lands and Development in the Muslim West Until the 10th/16th Century. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-09452-9.  Kaptein, N. J. G. (2007). "Mawlid". In P. Bearman; T. Bianquis; C. E. Bosworth; E. van Donzel; W. P. Heinrichs. Encyclopedia of Islam. Brill.  Katz, Marion Holmes (2007). The Birth of The Prophet Muhammad: Devotional Piety in Sunni
Sunni
Islam. Routledge. ISBN 9781135983949. 

External links[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: The Birth of the Prophet

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mawlid.

Mawlid
Mawlid
from the Encyclopedia of the Orient The Mawlid: The Conservative View The Mawlid: A Time to Celebrate

v t e

Islamic holidays
Islamic holidays
and observances

The two Eids

Eid al-Fitr Eid al-Adha

Other holidays and observances

Day of Arafah Day of Ashura Islamic New Year Arba'een1 Mawlid Lailat al Miraj Mid-Sha'ban Ramadan Laylat al-Qadr Eid al-Ghadir1 Mubahala1 Promised Messiah Day2 Promised Reformer Day2 Caliphate Day2

1 Shia
Shia
Muslim only 2 Ahmadi Muslim only

v t e

Holidays, observances, and celebrations in Algeria

January

New Year's Day
New Year's Day
(1) Yennayer
Yennayer
(12)

February

Valentine's Day
Valentine's Day
(14) Tafsut (28)

March

International Women's Day
International Women's Day
(8) Victory Day (19) World Water Day
World Water Day
(22) Maghrebi Blood Donation Day (30) Spring vacation (2 last weeks)

April

April Fools' Day
April Fools' Day
(1) Knowledge Day (16) Berber Spring (20) Earth Day
Earth Day
(22) Election Day (Thursday)

May

International Workers' Day
International Workers' Day
(1) World Press Freedom Day (3) Mother's Day
Mother's Day
(last Sunday)

June–July–August

Summer vacation (varies)

June

Children's Day
Children's Day
(1) Father's Day
Father's Day
(21)

July

Independence Day (5)

September

International Day of Peace
International Day of Peace
(21)

October

International Day of Non-Violence
International Day of Non-Violence
(2) Halloween
Halloween
(31)

November

Revolution Day (1)

December

Christmas Eve
Christmas Eve
(24) Christmas
Christmas
(25) New Year's Eve
New Year's Eve
(31) Winter vacation (2 last weeks)

Varies (year round)

Hijri New Year's Day
New Year's Day
(Muharram 1) Ashura
Ashura
(Muharram 10) Mawlid
Mawlid
(Rabi' al-Awwal 12) Ramadan
Ramadan
( Ramadan
Ramadan
1) Laylat al-Qadr
Laylat al-Qadr
( Ramadan
Ramadan
27) Eid al-Fitr
Eid al-Fitr
(Shawwal 1) Day of Arafah
Day of Arafah
(Dhu al-Hijjah 9) Eid al-Adha
Eid al-Adha
(Dhu al-Hijjah 10) Holi
Holi
(varies)

Bold indicates major holidays commonly celebrated in Algeria, which often represent the major celebrations of the month. See also: Lists of holidays.

v t e

Public holidays in Pakistan

Kashmir Solidarity Day Pakistan
Pakistan
Day Labour Day Independence Day Iqbal Day Quaid-e-Azam Day Eid ul-Adha Eid-ul-Fitr Milad al-Nabi Day of Ashura Isra and Mi'raj

.