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Maues
Maues
(Greek: Μαύης; epigraphically ΜΑΥΟΥ Mauou; r. 85–60 BCE) was an Indo-Scythian
Indo-Scythian
king who invaded the Indo-Greek territories.[1]

Contents

1 Conqueror of Gandhara 2 Maues
Maues
and Buddhism 3 Other coins 4 Notes 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

Conqueror of Gandhara[edit]

Coin of Maues
Maues
depicting Balarama, 1st century BCE. British Museum.

Maues
Maues
had his capital in Sirkap
Sirkap
and minted most of his coins in Taxila. Maues
Maues
did not manage however to conquer the Punjab territories of the Indo-Greeks east of the Jhelum, which remained under Greek control. After his death the Indo-Greeks regained most of their territory. Maues
Maues
is mainly known through his coins, which are often very closely inspired from Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
coinage. He represented Greek and Indian deities, and used Greek and Kharoshti
Kharoshti
in coin legends. This tends to be indicative of a level of respect for Greek culture and a wish to assimilate it, rather than destroy it. Maues
Maues
probably ruled his conquered territories based on his military might, but otherwise maintained cohabitation with local Greek and Indian communities. It has been suggested that Maues
Maues
may have been a Scythian general hired by the Indo-Greeks, who would have briefly seized power, before the Indo-Greeks managed to take it back ("Crossroads of Asia").

Coin of Machene, Queen of Maues. Obv. Tyche, wearing mural crown. Legend BACIΛICCHC ΘEOTPOΠOY MAXHNHC "Godlike Queen Machene". Rev. Zeus
Zeus
with Nike, legend “Rajatirajasa mahatasa Moasa” in Kharoshthi "Great king of kings, Maues".

Maues
Maues
took the title of "Great King of Kings", an exceeded version of a traditional Persian royal title. One inscription is known which mentions Maues
Maues
(usually called the "Moga inscription", and starts with:

"In the seventy eighth, 78, year the Great King, the Great Moga, on the fifth, 5, day of the month Panemos, on this first, of the Kshaharata and Kshatrapa of Chukhsa - Liaka Kusuluka by name - his son Patika - in the town of Takshasila..." [2]

Maues
Maues
issued joint coins mentioning a queen Machene ("ΜΑΧΗΝΗ"). Machene may have been a daughter of one of the Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
houses.[3] An Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
king, Artemidoros, also issued coins where he describes himself as "Son of Maues". Maues
Maues
and Buddhism[edit]

Indian-standard coin of King Maues. The obverse shows a rejoicing elephant holding a wreath, symbol of victory. The Greek legend reads ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΝ ΜΕΓΑΛΟΥ ΜΑΥΟΥ (Great King of Kings Maues). The reverse shows the seated king Maues. Kharoshthi
Kharoshthi
legend: RAJATIRAJASA MAHATASA MOASA (Great King of Kings Maues).

A bronze coin of a half-obo of Maues
Maues
(ca 125-85 BC) issued in Swat (Chach, Pakistan). Obv: Zeus
Zeus
on a throne of face with the hand on a small Sol radiating. Legend: ΙΛΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΙΛΣΙΛΕΩΜ ΓΑΛΟΥΕΜΑΥ ΜΑΥ (ΟΥ) Rev: Goddess in front with a spear. Monogram on the left. Legend: Rajadirajasa Mahatasa Moasa (Rajadhiraja Maharaja Mohasya). Dimension: 22.84 x 22.52 mm Weight: 9.8 g.

Coin of King Maues. The obverse shows Herakles
Herakles
with a club resting on his arm, the protector deity of Demetrius. The Greek legend reads ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΝ ΜΕΓΑΛΟΥ ΜΑΥΟΥ ((of the) Great King of Kings Maues). The reverse shows a Buddhist lion. Kharoshthi
Kharoshthi
legend.

A few of the coins of Maues, struck according to the Indian square standard, seemingly depict a King in a cross-legged seated position. This may represent Maues
Maues
himself, or possibly one of his divinities. It has been suggested that this might also be one of the first representations of the Buddha on a coin, in an area where Buddhism
Buddhism
was flourishing at the time, but the seated personage seems to hold a sword horizontally, which favors the hypotheses of the depiction of the king Maues
Maues
himself. Also, Maues
Maues
struck some coins incorporating Buddhist symbolism, such as the lion, symbol of Buddhism
Buddhism
since the time of the Mauryan
Mauryan
king Ashoka. The symbolism of the lion had also been adopted by the Buddhist Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
king Menander II. Maues
Maues
therefore probably supported Buddhism, although whether sincerely or for political motives is unclear. His coins also included a variety of other religious symbols such as the bull of Shiva, indicating wide religious tolerance. Other coins[edit]

Maues
Maues
seated with elephant holding victory wreath.

Maues
Maues
with Zeus
Zeus
putting hand on radiate figure.

Maues
Maues
with Zeus
Zeus
Nikephros handing victory wreath to elephant.

Maues
Maues
with elephant holding wreath of victory and humped Indian bull.

Maues, with horse and Scythian bowcase.

Maues
Maues
on horse.

Notes[edit]

^ The Grandeur of Gandhara, Rafi-us Samad, Algora Publishing, 2011, p.64-67 [1] ^ Moga inscription ^ RC Senior " Indo-Scythian
Indo-Scythian
coins and history", Vol IV, p.xxxvi.

See also[edit]

Meo Yuezhi Ahir clans Greco-Bactrian Kingdom Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
Kingdom Indo-Parthian Kingdom Kushan Empire Kambojas Kamuia Aiyasi Kamuia Kharaosta Kamuio Arta (Kamuia)

References[edit]

"The Shape of Ancient Thought. Comparative studies in Greek and Indian Philosophies" by Thomas McEvilley (Allworth Press and the School of Visual Arts, 2002) ISBN 1-58115-203-5 "The Greeks in Bactria and India", W.W. Tarn, Cambridge University Press. "The Crossroads of Asia. Transformation in image and symbol" ISBN 0-9518399-1-8

External links[edit]

Coins of Maues Other coins of Maues Online catalogue of Maues
Maues
coins

Preceded by (In Arachosia, Gandhara
Gandhara
and Punjab) Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
King Archebios

(In Paropamisade) Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
King Hermaeus Indo-Scythian
Indo-Scythian
Ruler (85–60 BCE) Succeeded by (In Gandhara) Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
king: Artemidoros

(In Punjab) Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
king: Apollodotus II

(In the south) Indo-Scythian
Indo-Scythian
ruler: Vonones

v t e

Indo-Scythian
Indo-Scythian
kings, territories and chronology

Territories/ dates Western India Western Pakistan Balochistan Paropamisadae Arachosia Bajaur Gandhara Western Punjab Eastern Punjab Mathura

INDO-GREEK KINGDOM

90–85 BCE

Nicias Menander II Artemidoros

90–70 BCE

Hermaeus Archebius

85-60 BCE

INDO-SCYTHIAN KINGDOM Maues

75–70 BCE

Vonones Spalahores Telephos Apollodotus II

65–55 BCE

Spalirises Spalagadames Hippostratos Dionysios

55–35 BCE

Azes I Zoilos II

55–35 BCE

Azilises Azes II Apollophanes Indo-Scythian
Indo-Scythian
dynasty of the NORTHERN SATRAPS Hagamasha

25 BCE – 10 CE

Indo-Scythian
Indo-Scythian
dynasty of the APRACHARAJAS Vijayamitra (ruled 12 BCE - 15 CE)[n 1] Liaka Kusulaka Patika Kusulaka Zeionises Kharahostes (ruled 10 BCE– 10 CE)[n 2] Mujatria Strato II
Strato II
and Strato III Hagana

10-20CE

INDO-PARTHIAN KINGDOM Gondophares Indravasu INDO-PARTHIAN KINGDOM Gondophares Rajuvula

20-30 CE

Ubouzanes Pakores Vispavarma (ruled c.0-20 CE)[n 3] Sarpedones Bhadayasa Sodasa

30-40 CE

KUSHAN EMPIRE Kujula Kadphises Indravarma Abdagases ... ...

40-45 CE

Aspavarma Gadana ... ...

45-50 CE

Sasan Sases ... ...

50-75 CE

... ...

75-100 CE Indo-Scythian
Indo-Scythian
dynasty of the WESTERN SATRAPS Chastana

Vima Takto ... ...

100-120 CE Abhiraka

Vima Kadphises ... ...

120 CE Bhumaka Nahapana PARATARAJAS Yolamira Kanishka
Kanishka
I Great Satrap Kharapallana and Satrap Vanaspara for Kanishka
Kanishka
I

130-230 CE

Jayadaman Rudradaman I Damajadasri I Jivadaman Rudrasimha I Satyadaman Jivadaman Rudrasena I

Bagamira Arjuna Hvaramira Mirahvara

Vāsishka
Vāsishka
(c. 140 – c. 160) Huvishka
Huvishka
(c. 160 – c. 190) Vasudeva I
Vasudeva I
(c. 190 – to at least 230)

230-280 CE

Samghadaman Damasena Damajadasri II Viradaman Isvaradatta Yasodaman I Vijayasena Damajadasri III Rudrasena II Visvasimha

Miratakhma Kozana Bhimarjuna Koziya Datarvharna Datarvharna

INDO-SASANIANS Ardashir I, Sassanid king and "Kushanshah" (c. 230 – 250) Peroz I, "Kushanshah" (c. 250 – 265) Hormizd I, "Kushanshah" (c. 265 – 295)

Kanishka
Kanishka
II (c. 230 – 240) Vashishka (c. 240 – 250) Kanishka
Kanishka
III (c. 250 – 275)

280-300 Bhratadarman Datayola II

Hormizd II, "Kushanshah" (c. 295 – 300)

Vasudeva II
Vasudeva II
(c. 275 – 310)

300-320 CE

Visvasena Rudrasimha II Jivadaman

Peroz II, "Kushanshah" (c. 300 – 325)

Vasudeva III Vasudeva IV Vasudeva V Chhu
Chhu
(c. 310? – 325)

320-388 CE

Yasodaman II Rudradaman II Rudrasena III Simhasena Rudrasena IV

Shapur II
Shapur II
Sassanid king and "Kushanshah" (c. 325) Varhran I, Varhran II, Varhran III
Varhran III
"Kushanshahs" (c. 325 – 350) Peroz III "Kushanshah" (c. 350 –360) HEPHTHALITE/ HUNAS invasions

Shaka I
Shaka I
(c. 325 – 345) Kipunada (c. 345 – 375)

GUPTA EMPIRE Chandragupta I
Chandragupta I
Samudragupta

388-396 CE Rudrasimha III

Chandragupta II

^ From the dated inscription on the Rukhana reliquary ^ An Inscribed Silver Buddhist Reliquary of the Time of King Kharaosta and Prince Indravarman, Richard Salomon, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 116, No. 3 (Jul. - Sep., 1996), pp. 442 [2] ^ A Kharosthī Reliquary Inscription of the Time of the Apraca Prince Visnuvarma, by Richard Salomon, South Asian Studies 11 1995, Pages 27-32, Published onlin

.