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Matica
Matica
hrvatska (Latin: Matrix Croatica) is the oldest independent, non-profit and non-governmental Croatian national institution. It was founded on February 2, 1842 by the Croatian Count Janko Drašković and other prominent members of the Illyrian movement
Illyrian movement
during the Croatian National Revival (1835-1874). Its main goals are to promote Croatian national and cultural identity in the fields of art, science, spiritual creativity, economy and public life as well as to care for social development of Croatia.[2] Today, in the Palace of Matica
Matica
hrvatska in the centre of Zagreb
Zagreb
more than hundred book presentations, scientific symposia, round table discussions, professional and scientific lectures and concerts of classical music are being organized annually. Matica
Matica
Hrvatska is also one of the largest and most important book and magazine publishers in Croatia. Magazines issued by Matica
Matica
are Vijenac, Hrvatska revija
Hrvatska revija
and Kolo. Matica
Matica
Hrvatska also publishes many books in one of its most famous editions called Stoljeća hrvatske književnosti (Centuries of Croatian literature). As of 2015 Matica
Matica
has 120 branches in: Austria
Austria
(1), Belgium
Belgium
(1), Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
(17), Croatia
Croatia
(96), Germany
Germany
(1), Hungary
Hungary
(3) and Serbia
Serbia
(1).

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Matica
Matica
dalmatinska 2.2 First published books 2.3 During Bach's absolutism 2.4 Matica
Matica
ilirska and Yugoslav Academy of Sciences and Arts 2.5 Rapid development 2.6 After the First World War 2.7 During the Second World War 2.8 After the Second World War

3 Presidents 4 Publications 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links

Etymology[edit] The name Matica
Matica
is best translated as "The Centre", although the term matica in this context translates as "queen bee" or "parent body", and the adjective hrvatska refers to Croatia
Croatia
and/or Croats. According to this, the name of Matica
Matica
hrvatska can be literally translated into english as "Parent body of the Croats". History[edit]

Janko Drašković, Croatian politician who served as the 1st president of Matica
Matica
hrvatska

During the Croatian national revival there was a great need for the establishment of a book publishing company that would publish books with a nationalist content which were meant to be read on meetings of supporters of the Croatian national revival movement. According to this need Croatian parliament
Croatian parliament
issued a conclusion in 1849 that the Society for fostering national language and literature should be established while the Illyrian reading room decided to establish Matica
Matica
ilirska nothing has changed because neither Government in Vienna
Vienna
nor one in Budapest wanted to confirm the Statute of the Society which was a necessary step for society to become a legal entity in order for it to legally act. The reason for the refusal to accept Statute of the Society was that the Government feared that the establishment of a cultural national institution would threaten the existence of the multiethnicthe Austrian Empire. Therefore, Count Janko Drašković
Janko Drašković
proposed founding Matica
Matica
as a part of the Illyrian reading room (Ilirska čitaonica) that was founded on August 4, 1838. Matica
Matica
hrvatska was officially founded on February 10, 1842 in Zagreb as Matica
Matica
ilirska. It was stated that its main purpose was: "Publication of old classical Illyrian, especially those from Dubrovnik, and other useful books from the latest writers on organic (Croatian) language." Janko Drasković said at the opening ceremony: "The main purpose of our society is to disseminate science and literature in our national language and to give the opportunity to our young people to educate themselves in the spirit of patriotism. We have many old and famous books from the 16th and 17th century written by writers like Andrija Čubranović, Dinko Ranjina, Dinko Zlatarić, Ivan Gundulić, Junije Palmotić, Ignjat Đurđević
Ignjat Đurđević
and many others that should be published in an organic (Croatian) language."[3] From 1846 to 1886, with interruptions, Matica
Matica
ilirska had its headquarters in the National home palace (Palača Narodni dom). Matica
Matica
dalmatinska[edit] In 1862 the same organization as Matica
Matica
ilirska was founded in Dalmatia, which was at the time Austrian Crown land in Cisleithania part of the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
(since 1867 Austro-Hungarian Monarchy), as a result of the Congress of Vienna. Matica
Matica
dalmatinska had the same role in Dalmatia as Matica
Matica
ilirska had in Croatia
Croatia
and Slavonia. Its purpose was to care for croatian cultural and language in Dalmatia as well as to publish books and newspapers for the Croats
Croats
that lived in Dalmatia. Its first president was Croatian politician from Zadar
Zadar
Miho Klaić. In 1912 Matica
Matica
dalmatinska mergered into Matica
Matica
hrvatska.[4] First published books[edit] First two books published by Matica
Matica
were printed in Vienna
Vienna
in 1844 because of the censorship imposed by the central Government on Croatia. These books were Osman, historical-romantic epic about the events related to the life and reign of the Turkish Sultan Osman II, written by Ivan Gundulić
Ivan Gundulić
and completed with the special addition by Ivan Mažuranić
Ivan Mažuranić
and Teuta, drama about the Illyrian Queen Teuta
Teuta
and tragic discord in her state which caused its destruction and subtraction of the freedom of her people, written by Dimitrija Demeter.[3] During Bach's absolutism[edit] 1840s and 1850s were particularly difficult for Matica
Matica
ilirska. Although Statute of Matica
Matica
was finally approved in 1847 book publishing and cultural life of the nation were not a priority at the moment due to the Hungarian Revolution of 1848. It was especially hard for Matica
Matica
ilirska during the reign of Baron Alexander von Bach between 1850 and 1859, a period that is known in the history of the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
as neo-absolutism or Bach's absolutism. Bach encouraged centralization of the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
in favor of Vienna and Germanization. In Croatia, the Government and Parliament were abolished, Croatian counties lost their historical independence while German language
German language
became official. Matica
Matica
ilirska started to work as an independent organization in 1850 after the Illyrian reading room was abolished.[5] In this period Matica
Matica
was publishing magazine Neven (1852-1857).[3] Matica
Matica
ilirska and Yugoslav Academy of Sciences and Arts[edit]

Ivan Kukuljević Sakcinski, Croatian politician who served as the 5th President of Matica
Matica
hrvatska.

When the Yugoslav Academy of Sciences and Arts was founded in 1866 Matica
Matica
ilirska joined with it so they could together print and publish literary and scientific books. However, due to many disagreements[6] these institutions gradually ended cooperation. During the presidency of Ivan Mažuranić
Ivan Mažuranić
Matica
Matica
started to publish literary-science magazine Književnik (1864 - 1866) and Vijenac
Vijenac
(1869-present).[3] Also Hrvatsko kolo (1905-1961; 1905-1948 and 1952-1961 as an annual anthology; 1948-1952 as a newspaper) and Glas Matice hrvatske (1906-1909) were being published. Rapid development[edit] After Matica
Matica
ilirska ended its cooperation with Yugoslav Academy of Sciences and Arts in 1874 it regained its full independence. In this period the president was Ivan Kukuljević Sakcinski
Ivan Kukuljević Sakcinski
during whose presidency Matica
Matica
ilirska changed its name in Matica
Matica
hrvatska because "the first name lost its role and attractiveness". In this period Matica
Matica
assert itself as the largest publisher in Croatia
Croatia
because it published approximately 250 books. Its goal became publishing fine literature and not science (published by the Academy) nor oral literature (published by Croatian Literary Society of St. Jerome). On March 17, 1900 Matica
Matica
hrvatska and Croatian Association of Artists founded Croatian Writers' Association.[7] In this period Matica published works on many subject like: Croatian and world history (Tadija Smičiklas, Croatian history in two volumes); geography; paper manufacturing; printing; electricity; magnetism, ores; physics; chemistry; history of literature and art history. Matica
Matica
also published classic novels written by best Croatian writers from Literary modernism
Literary modernism
as well as of those from Literary realism. These writers are: August Šenoa, Josip Eugen Tomić, Eugen Kumičić, Janko Leskovar and Vjenceslav Novak
Vjenceslav Novak
(modernism); Petar Preradović, Stanko Vraz, Luka Botić and Franjo Marković
Franjo Marković
(realism). Two anthologies of Croatian poetry written by August Šenoa
August Šenoa
and Hugo Badalić
Hugo Badalić
were published as well.[3] By the end of the 19th century Matica
Matica
had had more than 400 sales representatives and nearly 10.000 subscribers. After the First World War[edit] After the First World War Croatia
Croatia
became a part of the new state Yugoslavia. During this post-war period Matica
Matica
experienced a crisis which was manifested in a decline of the revenue that was caused by the decrease of purchasing power of the people due to war while the state wasn't giving any money assistance. However, despite this Matica published many book written by the prominent Croatian writers such as: Miroslav Krleža, August Cesarec, Vladimir Nazor, Milutin Cihlar Nehajev, Tin Ujević, Nikola Šop, Ivo Kozarčanin, Mile Budak, Ivan Goran Kovačić, Dragutin Tadijanović, Dobriša Cesarić, Mate Balota, Ivana Brlić-Mažuranić
Ivana Brlić-Mažuranić
and Sida Košutić. After 1928 Matica started to publish magazine Hrvatska revija
Hrvatska revija
(1928-present). From 1931 to 1940 Matica
Matica
was publishing or supported publishing of Omladina[8] and Nastavni vjesnik, magazines for high school teachers and students, as well as magazines Hrvatska misao (Sarajevo, 1943-1944) and Hrvatski sjever (Osijek, 1944). From 1936 to 1943 Matica
Matica
founded its first branches in Zagreb, Čakovec, Osijek, Sisak, Karlovac, Samobor, Varaždin, Vinkovci, Vukovar, Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
and Sarajevo. During the Second World War[edit] On January 11, 1941 Government of the Banovina of Croatia
Croatia
made a decision that the Steering and Supervisory Board of Matica
Matica
would be dismissed and Commissariat led by Ante Martinović established. After the Nazi invasion of Yugoslavia, Nazi-puppet state, so-called Independent State of Croatia
Croatia
(NDH) was established on the Croatian territory. During this period of occupation Matica
Matica
has published books written by many domestic and foreign writers, and literature for young people. NDH Government made a decision that the Commissariat would be dismissed. Although the new Government led by Ustaše
Ustaše
demanded from Matica
Matica
to publish works which were in line with, at the time, official (Nazi) ideology, Matica
Matica
refused to do so and maintained the principles of justice, freedom, art and humanism on which it is based. After the Second World War[edit] From 1945 to 1991 Matica
Matica
was active in SR Croatia
Croatia
that was member of the Yugoslav Federation since the end of World War II. It was difficult for Matica
Matica
to work due to the negative attitude of the central government in Belgrade
Belgrade
to the institution with a national character because Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
was distinctly multi-ethnic state and it was considered that any over-emphasis of nationalism could undermine the [apparent] unity of the people of Yugoslavia. Matica's buildings were nationalized and also many other publishers appeared. But regardless these difficulties Matica
Matica
continued to actively publishing various books, anthologies about Rijeka, Zadar
Zadar
and the Croatian National Revivall, anthology of legal texts, philosophical texts, art monographs etc. In December 1954 Novi Sad Agreement
Novi Sad Agreement
was signed. Matica
Matica
hrvatska and Matica
Matica
srpska published an orthography manual in 1960. Although widely praised by all levels of Serbian and Yugoslav party officials and intellectuals, the orthography was roundly criticized by Croatian intellectuals, who saw the work as too Serb-centric. Their criticisms stemmed mainly from an analysis of the case of larger differences between the two languages, claiming that the dictionary favored the eastern variant of the language over the Croatian. In 1960 Matica founded its Publishing Institute (Nakladni institut). Matica
Matica
continued establishing its branches. In this period 55 branches were established. (Split (1953), Dubrovnik, Rijeka, Zadar
Zadar
(1954), Vinkovci
Vinkovci
(1959), Osijek, Požega (1961), Pula, Šibenik
Šibenik
(1962), Pakrac, Sisak, Čakovec, Županja
Županja
(1964), Karlovac, Umag, Poreč, Slavonski Brod, Križevci (1965), Varaždin, Koprivnica, Gospić (1966), Pazin, Rovinj
Rovinj
(1969), Korčula, Jastrebarsko, Metković, Đakovo, Imotski, Orahovica
Orahovica
(1970), Donji Miholjac, Bjelovar, Našice, Drniš, Otok, Ilok, Omiš, Virovitica, Nova Gradiška, Zaprešić, Blato, Petrinja, Samobor, Valpovo, Makarska, Novska, Kutina, Ozalj, Krapina, Podravska Slatina, Trogir, Ploče, Kaštel Sućurac, Sinj
Sinj
and Ogulin
Ogulin
(1971).) Matica
Matica
hrvatska has had an important role in the standardization and promotion of the Croatian language. In 1971, during the Croatian Spring it ended the Novi Sad agreement
Novi Sad agreement
and began to print Croatian works. Soon after December 20, 1971, its work was banned by the communist authorities. It resumed work after the 1990 multi-party election, but before Croatian independence (officially on December 8, 1990). With the Croatian language
Croatian language
no longer subject to political maneuvering, the organization has since opened over 130 local branches in Croatia
Croatia
and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Presidents[edit]

Matica
Matica
hrvatska in Zagreb

President[9] Term in Office

# Portrait Name Took Office Left Office

1

Janko Drašković 1842 1850

2

Ambroz Vranyczany 1851 1858

3

Ivan Mažuranić 1858 1872

4

Matija Mesić 1872 1874

5

Ivan Kukuljević Sakcinski 1874 1889

6

Tadija Smičiklas 1889 1901

7

Ivan Trnski 1901

8

Đuro Arnold 1902 1908

9

Oton Kučera 1909 1916

10

Krsto Pavletić 1917 1918

11

Fran Tućan 1918 1920

12

Dragutin Domjanić 1921 1926

13

Albert Bazala 1927

14

Filip Lukas 1928 1945

15

Mihovil Nikolić 1945 1949

16

Gustav Krklec 1950 1954

17

Jakša Ravlić 1954 1968

18

Hrvoje Iveković 1968 1970

19

Ljudevit Jonke 1970 1971

20

Petar Šegedin 1990

21

Vlado Gotovac 1990 1996

22

Josip Bratulić 1996 2002

23

Igor Zidić 2002 2014

24

Stjepan Damjanović 2014 Incumbent

Publications[edit]

Hrvatska revija Kolo Vijenac

See also[edit]

Croatia
Croatia
portal

Matica
Matica
srpska Matica
Matica
crnogorska Matica
Matica
slovenská Slovenska matica Matice česká

References[edit]

^ " Matica
Matica
hrvatska - Vijenac
Vijenac
530 - Stjepan Damjanović
Stjepan Damjanović
novi predsjednik Matice hrvatske". matica.hr.  ^ " Matica
Matica
hrvatska - O Matici hrvatskoj - O Matici hrvatskoj". matica.hr.  ^ a b c d e " Matica
Matica
hrvatska - O Matici hrvatskoj - 1842 - 1997". matica.hr.  ^ "OGRANAK MATICE HRVATSKE U ZADRU - O nama". ogranakmaticehrvatskeuzadru.hr.  ^ " Matica
Matica
hrvatska". arhinet.arhiv.hr (in Croatian). Croatian State Archives. Retrieved 17 January 2017.  ^ " Matica
Matica
hrvatska - Kolo 3, 2007. - Začeci hrvatske tehnologije – grof Janko Drašković". matica.hr.  ^ Zdravko Pondelak. "Društvo hrvatskih književnika". enciklopedija.hr.  ^ Was published until 1939 ^ Predsjednici Matice hrvatske 1842-2003. (in Croatian)

Further reading[edit]

Ravlić, Jakša (1963). "Ilirska čitaonica u Zagrebu" (PDF) (in Croatian). Retrieved 19 September 2015. 

External links[edit]

Official website (in Croatian) Kronologija Matice hrvatske (

.