**Mathematical notation** is a system of symbolic representations of mathematical objects and ideas. Mathematical notations are used in mathematics, the physical sciences, engineering, and economics. Mathematical notations include relatively simple symbolic representations, such as the numbers 0, 1 and 2; variables such as x, y and z; delimiters such as "(" and "|"; function symbols such as sin; operator symbols such as "+"; relational symbols such as "<"; conceptual symbols such as lim and *dy/dx*; equations and complex diagrammatic notations such as Penrose graphical notation and Coxeter–Dynkin diagrams.^{[1]}^{[2]}

- 1 Definition
- 2 Expressions
- 3 Precise semantic meaning
- 4 History
- 5 Non-Latin-based mathematical notation
- 6 See also
- 7 Notes
- 8 References
- 9 External links

A mathematical notation is a writing system used for recording concepts in mathematics.

- The notation uses symbols or symbolic expressions that are intended to have a precise semantic meaning.
- In the history of mathematics, these symbols have denoted numbers, shapes, patterns and change. The notation can also include symbols for parts of the conventional discourse between mathematicians, when viewing mathematics as a language.

The media used for writing are recounted below, but common materials currently include paper and pencil, board and chalk (or dry-erase marker), and electronic media. Systematic adherence to mathematical concepts is a fundamental concept of mathematical notation. For related concepts, see logical argument, mathematical logic, and model theory.

A mathematical expression is a *sequence* of symbols that can be evaluated. For example, if the symbols represent numbers, then the expressions are evaluated according to a conventional order of operations which provides for calculation, if possible, of any expressions within parentheses, followed by any exponents and roots, then multiplications and divisions, and finally any additions or subtractions, all done from left to right.

In a computer language, these rules are implemented by the compilers. For more on expression evaluation, see the computer science topics: eager evaluation, lazy evaluation, shortcut evaluation, and evaluation operator.

Modern mathematics needs to be precise, because ambiguous notations do not allow formal proofs. Suppose that we have statements, denoted by some formal sequence of symbols, about some objects (for example, numbers, shapes, patterns). Until the statement

A mathematical notation is a writing system used for recording concepts in mathematics.

- The notation uses symbols or symbolic expressions that are intended to have a precise semantic meaning.
- In the history of mathematics, these symbols have denoted numbers, shapes, patterns and change. The notation can also include symbols for parts of the conventional discourse between mathematicians, when viewing mathematics as a language.

The media used for writing are recounted below, but common materials currently include paper and pencil, board and chalk (or dry-erase marker), and electronic media. Systematic adherence to mathematical concepts is a fundamental concept of mathematical notation. For related concepts, see logical argument, mathematical logic, and model theory.

A mathematical expression is a *sequence* of symbols that can be evaluated. For example, if the symbols represent numbers, then the expressions are evaluated according to a conventional order of operations which provides for calculation, if possible, of any expressions within parentheses, followed by any exponents and roots, then multiplications and divisions, and finally any additions or subtractions, all done from left to right.

In a computer language, these rules are implemented by the compilers. For more on expression evaluation, see the computer science topics: eager evaluation, lazy evaluation, shortcut evaluation, and The media used for writing are recounted below, but common materials currently include paper and pencil, board and chalk (or dry-erase marker), and electronic media. Systematic adherence to mathematical concepts is a fundamental concept of mathematical notation. For related concepts, see logical argument, mathematical logic, and model theory.

A mathematical expression is a *sequence* of symbols that can be evaluated. For example, if the symbols represent numbers, then the expressions are evaluated according to a conventional mathematical expression is a *sequence* of symbols that can be evaluated. For example, if the symbols represent numbers, then the expressions are evaluated according to a conventional order of operations which provides for calculation, if possible, of any expressions within parentheses, followed by any exponents and roots, then multiplications and divisions, and finally any additions or subtractions, all done from left to right.

In a computer language, these rules are implemented by the compilers. For more on expression evaluation, see the computer science topics: In a computer language, these rules are implemented by the compilers. For more on expression evaluation, see the computer science topics: eager evaluation, lazy evaluation, shortcut evaluation, and evaluation operator.

Modern mathematics needs to be precise, because ambiguous notations do not allow formal proofs. Suppose that we have statements, denoted by some formal sequence of symbols, about some objects (for example, numbers, shapes, patterns). Until the statements can be shown to be valid, their meaning is not yet resolved. During the reasoning process, we might let the symbols refer to those denoted objects, perhaps in a model. The semantics of that object has a heuristic side and a deductive side. In either case, we might want to know the properties of that object, which we might then list in an intensional definition.

Those properties might then be expressed by some well-known and agreed-upon symbols from a table of mathematical symbols. This mathematical notation might include annotations such as

- "All x", "No x", "There is an x" (or its equivalent,
Those properties might then be expressed by some well-known and agreed-upon symbols from a table of mathematical symbols. This mathematical notation might include annotations such as

In different contexts, the same symbol or notation can be used to represent different concepts (just as multiple symbols can be used to represent the same concept).

^{[1]}Therefore, to fully understand a piece of mathematical writing, it is important to first check the definitions of the notations given by the author. This may be problematic, for instance, if the author assumes the reader is already familiar with the notation in use.## History