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Marylebone
Marylebone
(/ˈmærɪləbən/ or /ˈmærələbən/[1], both appropriate for the Parish Church of St. Marylebone, /ˈmærɪbən/, /ˈmɑːrlɪbən/, or /ˈmærɪlɪboʊn/[2]) is an affluent inner-city area of central London, England, located within the City of Westminster
Westminster
and part of the West End. It is sometimes written as St. Marylebone, or archaically as Mary-le-Bone. Marylebone
Marylebone
is roughly bounded by Oxford Street
Oxford Street
to the south, Marylebone Road
Marylebone Road
to the north, Edgware Road
Edgware Road
to the west and Great Portland Street to the east.[3] A broader definition designates the historic area as Marylebone
Marylebone
Village and encompasses neighbouring Regent's Park, Baker Street
Baker Street
and the area immediately north of Marylebone
Marylebone
Road, containing Marylebone
Marylebone
Station, the original site of the Marylebone Cricket Club
Marylebone Cricket Club
at Dorset Square, and the neighbourhood known as Lisson Grove
Lisson Grove
as far as the border with St John's Wood. The area east of Great Portland Street
Great Portland Street
up to Cleveland Street, known as Fitzrovia
Fitzrovia
since the 1940s, is considered historically to be East Marylebone.[4]

Contents

1 History 2 Streets 3 Governance 4 Geography 5 Landmarks

5.1 Former landmarks

6 Transport

6.1 Tube stations 6.2 Railway stations 6.3 Bus

7 Education 8 References 9 External links

History[edit] See also: History of London Marylebone
Marylebone
gets its name from a church dedicated to St Mary, represented now by St Marylebone Parish Church
St Marylebone Parish Church
(1817); the original church was built on the bank of a small stream or "bourne", called the Tybourne or Tyburn.[5] This stream rose further north in what is now Swiss Cottage, eventually running along what is now Marylebone
Marylebone
Lane, which preserves its curve within the grid pattern. The church and the surrounding area later became known as St Mary at the Bourne, afterwards corrupted to Marybourne, Marybone, Mary-la-bonne (French was the language of the aristocracy at the time), and now Marylebone. The received pronunciation is 'mari-le-bn', however 'marli-bone' is commonly used.[6] It is a common misunderstanding that the name is a corruption of Marie la Bonne (French for "Mary the good"). The manor of Tyburn is mentioned in the Domesday Book
Domesday Book
(1086) as a possession of Barking Abbey
Barking Abbey
valued at 52 shillings, with a population no greater than 50. Early in the 13th century it was held by Robert de Vere, 3rd Earl of Oxford. At the end of the 15th century Thomas Hobson bought up the greater part of the manor; in 1544 his son Thomas exchanged it with Henry VIII,[7] who enclosed the northern part of the manor as a deer park, the distant origin of Regent's Park. Tyburn manor remained with the Crown until the southern part was sold in 1611 by James I, who retained the deer park, to Edward Forest,[8] who had held it as a fixed rental under Elizabeth I. Forest's manor of Marylebone
Marylebone
then passed by marriage to the Austen family. The deer park, Marylebone
Marylebone
Park Fields, was let out in small holdings for hay and dairy produce.[9]

Topographical survey of St. Marylebone, St. Pancras and Paddington. Engraving by B.R. Davies, 1145 x 950mm, dated 1834.

A map showing the wards of St Marylebone
Marylebone
Metropolitan Borough as they appeared in 1916.

In 1710, John Holles, Duke of Newcastle, purchased the manor for £17,500,[10] and his daughter and heir, Lady Henrietta Cavendish Holles, by her marriage to Edward Harley, Earl of Oxford, passed it into the family of the Earl of Oxford, one of whose titles was Lord Harley of Wigmore. She and the earl, realising the need for fashionable housing north of the Oxford Road (now Oxford St), commissioned the surveyor and builder John Prince to draw a master plan that set Cavendish Square
Cavendish Square
in a rational grid system of streets. The Harley heiress Lady Margaret Cavendish Harley married William, 2nd Duke of Portland, and took the property, including Marylebone
Marylebone
High Street, into the Bentinck family. Such place names in the neighbourhood as Cavendish Square
Cavendish Square
and Portland Place
Portland Place
reflect the Dukes of Portland landholdings and Georgian-era developments there. In 1879 the fifth Duke died without issue and the estate passed through the female line to his sister, Lucy Joan Bentinck, widow of the 6th Baron Howard de Walden. A large part of the area directly to the west was constructed by the Portman family and is known as the Portman Estate. Both estates have aristocratic antecedents and are still run by members of the aforementioned families. The Howard de Walden Estate
Howard de Walden Estate
owns, leases and manages the majority of the 92 acres (37 ha) of real estate in Marylebone
Marylebone
which comprises the area from Marylebone High Street
Marylebone High Street
in the west to Robert Adam's Portland Place
Portland Place
in the east and from Wigmore Street in the south to Marylebone Road
Marylebone Road
in the north.[11] In the 18th century the area was known for the raffish entertainments in Marylebone
Marylebone
Gardens, the scene of bear-baiting and prize fights by members of both sexes, and for the duelling grounds in Marylebone Fields.[12] The Crown repurchased the northern part of the estate in 1813. The Metropolitan Borough of St Marylebone
Metropolitan Borough of St Marylebone
was a metropolitan borough of the County of London
County of London
between 1899 and 1965, after which, with the Metropolitan Borough of Paddington
Metropolitan Borough of Paddington
and the Metropolitan Borough of Westminster
Westminster
it was merged into the City of Westminster. Marylebone
Marylebone
was the scene of the Balcombe Street siege
Balcombe Street siege
in 1975, when Provisional Irish Republican Army
Provisional Irish Republican Army
terrorists held two people hostage for almost a week. Streets[edit]

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For a list of street of street names etymologies in this district see Street names of Marylebone. Marylebone
Marylebone
is characterised by major streets on a grid pattern such as Gloucester Place, Baker Street, Marylebone
Marylebone
High Street, Wimpole Street, Harley Street and Portland Place, with smaller mews between the major streets. Mansfield Street is a short continuation of Chandos Street built by the Adam brothers in 1770, on a plot of ground which had been underwater. Most of its houses are fine buildings with exquisite interiors, which if put on the market now would have an expected price in excess of £10 million. It has attracted people who understand attractive buildings – at Number 13 lived religious architect John Loughborough Pearson who died in 1897, and designer of Castle Drogo and Delhi Sir Edwin Lutyens, who died in 1944.[13] Immediately across the road at 61 New Cavendish Street
New Cavendish Street
lived Natural History Museum creator Alfred Waterhouse.[14] Queen Anne Street is an elegant cross-street which unites the northern end of Chandos Street with Welbeck Street. The painter JMW Turner moved to 47 Queen Anne Street in 1812 from 64 Harley Street, now divided into numbers 22 and 23, and owned the house until his death in 1851. It was known as "Turner's Den", becoming damp, dilapidated,[15] dusty, dirty, with dozens of Turner's works of art now in the National Gallery scattered throughout the house, walls covered in tack holes and a drawing room inhabited by cats with no tails. During the same period a few hundred yards to the east, Chandos House in Chandos Street was used as the Austro-Hungarian
Austro-Hungarian
Embassy and residence of the fabulously extravagant Ambassador Prince Paul Anton III Esterhazy,[16] seeing entertainment on a most lavish scale. The building is one of the finest surviving Adam houses in London, and now lets rooms. Wimpole Street
Wimpole Street
runs from Henrietta Place north to Devonshire Street, becoming Upper Wimpole en route – the latter where Arthur Conan Doyle opened his ophthalmic practice at number 2 in 1891. A six-floor Grade II 18th-century house at 57 Wimpole Street
Wimpole Street
is where Paul McCartney resided from 1964–66, staying on the top floor of girlfriend Jane Asher's family home in a room overlooking Browning Mews
Mews
in the back, and with John Lennon writing "I Want to Hold Your Hand" on a piano in the basement. At her father's house at number 50 lived for some time between 1840 and 1845, Elizabeth Barrett, then known as the author of a volume of poems, and who afterwards escaped and was better known as Elizabeth Barrett Browning. Today, at the bottom end of Wimpole at Wigmore can be found a sandwich shop named "Barrett's". Bentinck Street leaves Welbeck Street and touches the middle of winding Marylebone
Marylebone
Lane. Charles Dickens
Charles Dickens
lived at number 18 with his indebted father (on whom the character Wilkins Micawber was based) while working as a court reporter in the 1830s, and Edward Gibbon wrote much of The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire while living at number 7 from the early 1770s. James Smithson
James Smithson
wrote the will that led to the foundation of the Smithsonian Institution while living at number 9 in 1826, while number 10 was briefly graced by Chopin in 1848, who found his apartment too expensive and moved to Mayfair. More recently, Cambridge spies Anthony Blunt
Anthony Blunt
and Guy Burgess
Guy Burgess
lived at 5 Bentinck Street during the Second World War.[17] In 1960s two-some John Dunbar and TV repairman "Magic Alex" lived on the street, where the former introduced the latter to John Lennon in 1967. Manchester Square, west of Bentinck Street, has a central private garden with handsome plane trees, laid out in 1776. The mansion on the north side of the square, now the home of the Wallace Collection
Wallace Collection
that features world-class French eighteenth-century painting, porcelains and furniture, once housed the Spanish ambassador, whose chapel was in Spanish Place. From the north-west corner is Manchester Street, final home of Georgian-era prophet Joanna Southcott, who died there in 1814, having attracted a jeering mob with report of a miraculous birth and prediction the Day of Judgement would arrive in the year 2004. Marylebone
Marylebone
has some "Beatles" heritage, with a John Lennon flat at 34 Montagu Square, and the original Apple Corps headquarters at 95 Wigmore Street. Bulstrode Street, small and charming, is named after a Portman family estate in Buckinghamshire, itself named after a local family there made-good in Tudor days. Tucked away, with a few terraced houses, Bulstrode Street has been the home of minor health care professionals for hundreds of years. The RADA student and aspiring actress Vivien Leigh, aged twenty in 1933, gave birth at the Rahere Nursing Home, then at number 8, to her first child. The north end of Welbeck Street joins New Cavendish Street, the name of which changed from Upper Marylebone
Marylebone
Street after World War I. Number 13 in New Cavendish Street, at its junction with Welbeck Street and on the corner of Marylebone
Marylebone
Street, was the birthplace in 1882 of the orchestral conductor Leopold Stokowski, the son of a Polish cabinet maker. He sang as a boy in the choir of St Marylebone
Marylebone
Church. At the northern end of Marylebone High Street
Marylebone High Street
towards the Marylebone Road there is an area with a colourful history, which includes the former Marylebone
Marylebone
Gardens, whose entertainments including bare-knuckle fighting, a cemetery, a workhouse, and the areas frequented by Charles Wesley, all shut down by the close of the 18th century, where today there are mansion blocks and upper-end retail. At No. 1 Dorset Street resided mid-Victorian scientist Charles Babbage, inventor of the analytical engine. Babbage complained that two adjacent hackney-coach stands in Paddington
Paddington
Street ruined the neighbourhood, leading to the establishment of coffee and beer shops, and furthermore, the character of the new population could be inferred from the taste they exhibited for the noisiest and most discordant music.[18] A venue for chamber music, the Wigmore Hall, opened at 36 Wigmore Street
Wigmore Street
in 1901. It hosts over 400 events each year. Governance[edit] Marylebone
Marylebone
was formerly a part of the Metropolitan Borough of St Marylebone, and the St Marylebone
Marylebone
UK Parliament constituency (1918–1983). Geography[edit]

Neighbouring areas of London

Lisson Grove St John's Wood Regent's Park

Paddington

Marylebone

Fitzrovia

Hyde Park Mayfair Soho

Areas and features of Marylebone
Marylebone
include:

All Souls Church, Langham Place
All Souls Church, Langham Place
(designed by John Nash) Asia House, New Cavendish Street Baker Street
Baker Street
(including the fictitious 221B Baker Street) Broadcasting House
Broadcasting House
( BBC
BBC
headquarters) Bryanston Square Duke Street, Marylebone Harley Street Hinde Street Methodist Chapel Holy Trinity Church, Marylebone
Marylebone
(designed by Sir John Soane) Hyde Park Langham Hotel, London
Langham Hotel, London
(built in the 1860s) London Business School, founded in 1964 Madame Tussaud's Manchester Square
Manchester Square
(Georgian square) Marble Arch Marylebone
Marylebone
High Street Montagu Square
Montagu Square
(Regency square) Regent's Park
Regent's Park
(which houses London Zoo) Royal Academy of Music Royal Institute of British Architects Selfridges
Selfridges
Department Store St. James's, Spanish Place St Peter, Vere Street
St Peter, Vere Street
(designed in 1722 by James Gibbs) University of Westminster Wallace Collection West London Mission at 19 Thayer Street Wigmore Hall Wigmore Street Wyndham Place

Landmarks[edit]

St Marylebone
Marylebone
Parish Church.

Former landmarks[edit]

Egton House, studio of BBC
BBC
Radio 1, demolished Queen's Hall, classical music concert venue destroyed by fire in World War II Marylebone Gardens
Marylebone Gardens
a former pleasure ground and venue for concerts, closed in 1778 St. George's Hall, a theatre built in 1867, demolished 1966. Yorkshire Stingo, a public house on Marylebone
Marylebone
Road. St Marylebone Grammar School
St Marylebone Grammar School
on the corner of Lisson Grove
Lisson Grove
and Marylebone
Marylebone
Road, now offices. Theatre Royal, Marylebone, a former music hall opened in 1832 at 71 Church Street, demolished in 1959.[19]

Transport[edit] Tube stations[edit]

Baker Street Bond Street Edgware Road
Edgware Road
(Bakerloo line) Edgware Road
Edgware Road
(Circle, District and Hammersmith
Hammersmith
& City lines) Marble Arch Marylebone Oxford Circus Regent's Park

Railway stations[edit]

Marylebone

Bus[edit] The area is served by routes 2, 13, 18, 27, 30, 74, 113, 139, 189, 205, 274, 453 and night routes N18 and N74. Education[edit] For education in Marylebone, see List of schools in the City of Westminster.

St Marylebone School
St Marylebone School
(comprehensive specialist school in Performing Arts, Maths & Computing for girls founded in 1791) Sylvia Young Theatre School
Sylvia Young Theatre School
(fee paying performing arts school) St Vincent's RC Primary School (Catholic Voluntary Aided Mixed School) Francis Holland School (independent day school for girls) Portland Place
Portland Place
School (independent secondary school) The Royal Academy of Music
Royal Academy of Music
on Marylebone
Marylebone
Road The University of Westminster
University of Westminster
on Marylebone Road
Marylebone Road
and upper Regent Street Regent's College, whose campus is within the grounds of Regent's Park, which houses:European Business School London; British American College London; Regent's Business School; School of Psychotherapy and Counselling; Webster Graduate School; Internexus, a provider of English language courses. L'Ecole Internationale Franco-Anglaise (international school providing English-French bilingual education)

References[edit]

^ BBC
BBC
Pronouncing Dictionary of British Names ^ "Rail announcements". Archived from the original on 31 October 2015.  ^ Marylebone
Marylebone
Association Archived 22 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "History of St Marylebone, in Westminster
Westminster
and Middlesex – Map and description". visionofbritain.org.uk.  ^ "Maryburne rill", in Harrison's Description of England
England
1586, noted by Henry Benjamin Wheatley and Peter Cunningham, London Past and Present: its history, associations, and traditions, Volume 2, p. 509. ^ Smith, Thomas (1833). A Topographical and Historical Account of the Parish of St. Mary-le-Bone. London: John Smith. p. 3.  ^ Wheatley and Cunningham, p. 509. ^ 'The Regent's Park', Old and New London 5 (1878:262–286). Retrieved 3 July 2010 ^ Weinreb, B. and Hibbert, C. (ed) (1995) The London Encyclopedia Macmillan ISBN 0-333-57688-8 ^ Wheatley and Cunningham; they note the annual rents brought in £900. ^ The Howard de Walden Estate
Howard de Walden Estate
Archived 22 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Wheatley and Cunningham, p. 511. ^ "LUTYENS, Sir Edwin Landseer (1869-1944) & PEARSON, John Loughborough (1817-1897) English Heritage". www.english-heritage.org.uk. Retrieved 27 March 2016.  ^ "WATERHOUSE, Alfred (1830-1905) English Heritage". www.english-heritage.org.uk. Retrieved 27 March 2016.  ^ Gayford, Martin. "JMW Turner: the man behind the masterpieces". The Daily Telegraph.  ^ "Austrian Foreign Ministry -> Embassy -> London -> History of the Austrian Embassy". www.bmeia.gv.at. Archived from the original on 15 December 2012. Retrieved 27 March 2016.  ^ Lownie, Andrew (2015). Stalin's Englishman: The Lives of Guy Burgess. London: Hodder and Stoughton. pp. 114–115.  ^ Babbage's pamphlet Street Nuisances (1864) http://www.hrc.wmin.ac.uk/theory-babbagesdancer2.html Retrieved 4 August 2017 ^ " Westminster
Westminster
Green Plaques Scheme – review of criteria and funding" (PDF). City of Westminster. 12 January 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 July 2015. Retrieved 7 July 2015. Theatre Royal Marylebone
Marylebone
71 Church Street, NW8; 1832–1959 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Marylebone.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1905 New International Encyclopedia article Marylebone.

London/Mayfair- Marylebone
Marylebone
travel guide from Wikivoyage Marylebone
Marylebone
Village Hampstead
Hampstead
and Marylebone
Marylebone
by G. E. Mitton at Project Gutenberg Description and history of St Marylebone
Marylebone
from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition The St Marylebone
Marylebone
Society, an amenities society formed in 1948 for people who live and work in North Marylebone
Marylebone
(north of the Marylebone Road) Marylebone
Marylebone
Association[permanent dead link]. The amenities society for Marylebone
Marylebone
representing its residents, businesses and people who live and/or work in Marylebone
Marylebone
The Association's area is bounded by Oxford Street (South), Edgware Road
Edgware Road
(West), Marylebone Road
Marylebone Road
(North) and Great Portland Street (East). Marylebone
Marylebone
Online, an online publication & guide to the Marylebone area

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