HOME
The Info List - Mary Ann Shadd





Mary Ann Shadd
Mary Ann Shadd
Cary (October 9, 1823 – June 5, 1893) was an American-Canadian anti-slavery activist, journalist, publisher, teacher, and lawyer. She was the first Black woman publisher in North America and the first woman publisher in Canada.[1] Shadd Cary was an abolitionist who became the first female African-American
African-American
newspaper editor in North America when she edited The Provincial Freeman in 1853.[2][3]

Contents

1 Early life 2 Social activism 3 Civil War and postbellum activism 4 Legacy 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links

Early life[edit] Mary Ann Shadd
Mary Ann Shadd
was born in Wilmington, Delaware, on October 9, 1823, the eldest of 13 children to Abraham Doras Shadd (1801–1882) and Harriet Burton Parnell, who were free African-Americans. Abraham D. Shadd was a grandson of Hans Schad, alias John Shadd, a native of Hesse-Cassel
Hesse-Cassel
who had entered the United States
United States
serving as a Hessian soldier with the British Army during the French and Indian War. Hans Schad was wounded and left in the care of two African-American
African-American
women, mother and daughter, both named Elizabeth Jackson. The Hessian soldier and the daughter were married in January 1756 and their first son was born six months later.[4] A. D. Shadd was a son of Jeremiah Shadd, John's younger son, who was a Wilmington butcher. Abraham Shadd was trained as a shoemaker[5] and had a shop in Wilmington and later in the nearby town of West Chester, Pennsylvania. In both places he was active as a conductor on the Underground Railroad
Underground Railroad
and in other civil rights activities, being an active member of the American Anti- Slavery
Slavery
Society, and, in 1833, named President of the National Convention for the Improvement of Free People of Colour in Philadelphia.[6] Growing up, her family's home frequently served as a refuge for fugitive slaves; however when it became illegal to educate African-American
African-American
children in the state of Delaware, the Shadd family moved to Pennsylvania, where Mary attended a Quaker Boarding School. In 1840, after being away at school, Mary Ann returned to West Chester and established a school for black children. She also later taught in Norristown, Pennsylvania, and New York City. Three years after the passage of the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850, A. D. Shadd moved his family to Canada, settling in North Buxton, Ontario. In 1858, he became the first black man to be elected to political office in Canada, when he was elected to the position of Counselor of Raleigh Township, Ontario. Social activism[edit]

Library resources about Mary Ann Shadd

Resources in your library Resources in other libraries

By Mary Ann Shadd

Online books Resources in your library Resources in other libraries

When the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850
Fugitive Slave Law of 1850
in the United States
United States
threatened to return free northern blacks and escaped slaves into bondage, Shadd and her brother Isaac moved to Canada
Canada
and settled in Windsor, Ontario, across the border from Detroit. This is where Shadd's symbolic effort to create free black settlements in Canada
Canada
began. While in Windsor, she founded a racially integrated school with the support of the American Missionary Association, published a pamphlet called, "Notes on Canada
Canada
West," which was a plea for emigration and discussed the benefits, as well as the opportunities, of blacks in the area,[7] and she also ran an anti-slavery newspaper called The Provincial Freeman, which made her the first female editor in North America.[5] Isaac managed the daily business affairs of the newspaper, and would go on to host gatherings to plan the raid on Harper's Ferry
Harper's Ferry
at his home. In Jane Rhodes’ biography of Cary, Mary Ann Shadd
Mary Ann Shadd
Cary: The Black Press and Protest in the Nineteenth Century, Rhodes noted that Cary was one of the first to advocate that African-Americans leave the United States
United States
and immigrate to Canada. Her newspaper operated from 1853 until 1860 providing strong editorial commentary, culture and information about things going on in other places. Cary, born free to free parents who helped slaves escape using the Underground Railroad, published her newspaper in Canada, but it also circulated in major northern cities across the United States. By observing the black press movement of this era and the publishers used the press to uplift their race in an attempt to freedom for all African-Americans, much can be gleaned from this period of history. These were the first newspapers to address African- Americans instead of whites and for the first time showed African-Americans as intellectually sound and capable of appreciating culture and education. These newspapers provided them with a means to take on their own political destinies. Cary, the first African-American
African-American
woman to publish and own a newspaper that distributed in North America, founded The Provincial Freeman in 1853. She published her final edition in 1861, right before the war would break out. Although white abolitionist newspapers featured articles against slavery primarily based on religious reasons, they did not offer African-Americans the opportunity to express themselves on its pages. Historians have pointed out that these newspapers’ archives are not complete, but still offer the best insight into the minds of African-Americans during this time. These newspapers included poetry, letters, travelogues and more. These newspapers worked to uplift the race and to change the perception that white Americans held about former slaves. “Black community leaders stressed that education, strong moral values, honest labor, thrift, and so forth would change the myths that whites had about black’s inferiority. Essentially, this meant the ascent from ignorance to literacy.” Cary and Douglass both used their papers to promote this line of thinking. The role of African-American
African-American
newspapers from 1850-1860 leaves much to be discovered. The mere fact that these newspaper owners were able to buy and operate equipment to produce weekly publications during a period when no one held a journalism degree or had any formal training is fascinating. However, the fact that African-Americans, many of whom were former slaves, were able to produce newspapers when few of their contemporaries could read or write is even more astounding.[8][9][10] Historians believe these newspapers and the portrayal of African –American leaders and their reactions to these critical political times in the United States
United States
are the only ones in existence. Mainstream newspapers, even those with abolitionist views, did not include comments from minorities. Still, historians believe Cary’s and Douglass’ newspapers were not only read by other African-Americans, but by Caucasians as well. In fact, Carol B. Conaway, writes in “Racial Uplift: The Nineteenth Century Thought of Black Newspaper Publisher
Publisher
Mary Ann Shadd
Mary Ann Shadd
Cary,” that these newspapers shifted the focus from whites to blacks in an empowering way. She writes that whites read these newspapers to monitor the dissatisfaction level of the treatment of African-Americans and to measure their tolerance for continued slavery in America. These newspapers used their mainstream counterparts after which to model their newspapers. According to research conducted by William David Sloan in his various historical textbooks, the first newspapers were about four pages and had one blank page to provide a place for people to write their own information before passing it along to friends and relatives. He goes even farther to discuss how the newspapers during these early days were the center of information for society and culture.[11][12][13][14][15][16][17] Mary Ann traveled around Canada
Canada
and the United States
United States
advocating for full racial integration through education and self-reliance. She promoted emigration to Canada
Canada
amongst freemen, publishing A Plea for Emigration; or Notes of Canada
Canada
West, in Its Moral, Social and Political Aspect: with Suggestions respecting Mexico, West Indies and Vancouver's Island for the Information of Colored Emigrants in 1852.[18] She attempted to participate in the 1855 Philadelphia Colored Convention, but the assembly debated whether to even let her sit as a delegate. Her advocacy of emigration made her a controversial figure and she was only admitted by a slim margin of 15 votes. According to Frederick Douglass's Paper, although she gave a speech at the Convention advocating for emigration, she was so well-received that the delegates voted to give her ten more minutes to speak. However, her presence at the Convention was largely elided from the minutes, likely because she was a woman.[19] Civil War and postbellum activism[edit]

Mary Ann Shadd Cary House
Mary Ann Shadd Cary House
in Washington, D.C.

In 1856, she married Thomas F. Cary, a Toronto barber who was also involved with the Provincial Freeman. She had a daughter named Sarah and a son named Linton.[20] After her husband died in 1860, Shadd Cary and her children returned to the United States.[5] During the Civil War, at the behest of the abolitionist Martin Delany,[21] she served as a recruiting officer to enlist black volunteers for the Union Army in the state of Indiana. After the Civil War, she taught in black schools in Wilmington, before moving to Washington, D.C., where she taught in public schools and attended Howard University
Howard University
School of Law. She graduated as a lawyer at the age of 60 in 1883, becoming only the second black woman in the United States
United States
to earn a law degree.[5] She wrote for the newspapers National Era and The People's Advocate and in 1880, organized the Colored Women's Progressive Franchise. Shadd Cary joined the National Woman Suffrage Association, working alongside Susan B. Anthony
Susan B. Anthony
and Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
for women's suffrage, testifying before the Judiciary Committee of the House of Representatives, and becoming the first African-American
African-American
woman to vote in a national election.[22] She died in Washington, D.C., on June 5, 1893 from stomach cancer. She was interred at Columbian Harmony Cemetery.[23] Legacy[edit] Mary Ann Shadd
Mary Ann Shadd
Cary's former residence in the U Street Corridor
U Street Corridor
was declared a National Historic Landmark
National Historic Landmark
in 1976. In 1987 she was designated a Women's History Month
Women's History Month
Honoree by the National Women's History Project.[24] She was also honoured by Canada, being designated a Person of National Historic Significance.[21] See also[edit]

African American portal Feminism portal

African American history African American literature Black Canadians List of African American writers

References[edit]

^ "The Provincial Freeman". Archives of Ontario. Archived from the original on January 26, 2012.  ^ " Mary Ann Shadd
Mary Ann Shadd
Cary". A&E Networks Television. Retrieved March 15, 2013.  ^ Hill, Daniel G (Spring–Summer 1982). "The Black press". Polyphony: The Bulletin of the Multicultural History Society of Ontario. 4 (1): 43. Retrieved August 2, 2013.  ^ Scott P (July 1, 2010). "Abraham Doras Shadd". The Mill Creek Hundred History Blog. Retrieved April 26, 2014.  ^ a b c d " Mary Ann Shadd
Mary Ann Shadd
Cary". Historical Marker Database. Retrieved 24 September 2015.  ^ Ito, Gail. "Shadd, Abraham Doras (1801-1882)". BlackPast.org.  ^ Pope, Sarah Dillard. "Aboard the Underground Railroad--Mary Ann Shadd Cary House". www.nps.gov. Retrieved 2018-04-04.  ^ Carol B. Conaway, “Racially Integrated Education: The Antebellum Thought of Mary Ann Shadd
Mary Ann Shadd
Cary and Frederick Douglass.” Women’s Education 27, no. 2 (2010): 86. ^ Carol B. Conaway, “Racial Uplift: The Nineteenth Century Thought of Black Newspaper Publisher
Publisher
Mary Ann Shadd
Mary Ann Shadd
Cary.” Paper presented at the National Communications Association’s Annual Convention, Chicago, Ill., November 15-17, 2007. ^ Teresa A. Goddu, “Early African American Print Culture in Theory and Practice.” Early American Literature 45, no. 3 (2010): 733. ^ Jane Rhodes, “Race, money, politics and the Antebellum Black Press,” Journalism History 20, no. 3/4 (1994): 95. ^ Zachary J. Lechner, “Black Abolitionist Response to the Kansas Crisis, 1854-1856.” Kansas History 31, no. 1 (2008): 14. ^ Jane Rhodes, “Race, money, politics and the Antebellum Black Press,” Journalism History 20, no. 3/4 (1994): 95. ^ Rhodes, Jane. Mary Ann Shadd
Mary Ann Shadd
Cary: The Black Press and Protest in the Nineteenth Century. Bloomington: Indiana
Indiana
University Press, 1998. ^ Rhodes, Jane. “Race, Money, Politics and the Antebellum Black Press,” Journalism History 20 no. 3/4: 21-43. 1994. ^ Sloan, Wm. David. "The Revolutionary Press 1765-1783." In The Media In America A History, 149-151. Northport, AL: Vision Press, 2011. ^ Sloan, Wm. David. "The Antebellum Press 1827-1860." In Perspectives on Mass Communication History, edited by Thomas Andrew, 152-171. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1991. ^ "Aboard the Underground Railroad
Underground Railroad
- Mary Ann Shadd
Mary Ann Shadd
Cary House". National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior. Retrieved March 2, 2013.  ^ The Elevator, "The National Colored Convention," 1869. ^ Census of Nova Scotia, 1851. Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada: Nova Scotia Archives and Records Management, Nova Scotia Board of Statistics, 1851 ^ a b Shadd, Adrienne. " Mary Ann Shadd
Mary Ann Shadd
Cary: Abolitionist". Library and Archives Canada.  ^ "Cary, Mary Ann Shadd
Mary Ann Shadd
- National Women's Hall of Fame". National Women’s Hall of Fame. Retrieved 2018-04-04.  ^ Savage, Beth L. and Shull, Carol D. African American Historic Places. Washington, D.C.: Preservation Press, 1994, p. 136. ^ "Honorees: 2010 National Women's History Month". Women's History Month. National Women's History Project. 2010. Retrieved November 14, 2011. 

Further reading[edit]

Beardon, Jim and Butler, Linda Jean, Shadd: The Life and Times of Mary". Toronto: NC Press Ltd, 1977. Rhodes, Jane, Mary Ann Shadd
Mary Ann Shadd
Cary: the Black Press and Protest in the Nineteenth Century. Bloomington: Indiana
Indiana
University Press, 1998.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mary Ann Shadd.

Biography at the Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online Biography from the site of Professor Scott Williams of the University of Buffalo Breaking The Ice, the Story of Mary Ann Shadd, documentary film at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
(archived February 3, 2009) Women in History: Mary Ann Shadd
Mary Ann Shadd
Cary (Lakewood Public Library) at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
(archived January 24, 2013) Abolitionist Newspapers of Ontario: The Provincial Freeman and Voice of the Fugitive

v t e

Hall of Fame of Delaware Women

Kim L. Allen Arsht, Roxana CannonRoxana Cannon Arsht Bachman, Martha G.Martha G. Bachman Bair, Myrna L.Myrna L. Bair Balick, Helen S.Helen S. Balick Banegas, Sister AscensionSister Ascension Banegas Bartell, Joy AnnJoy Ann Bartell Battell, Elizabeth EmpsonElizabeth Empson Battell Batten, Grace RuthGrace Ruth Batten Darlene Battle Beaman, Renee PalmoreRenee Palmore Beaman Beck, Grace PierceGrace Pierce Beck Sandra Ben Carolyn Berger Bhatia, Sujata KumariSujata Kumari Bhatia Biggs, Neda P.Neda P. Biggs Bissell, Emily P.Emily P. Bissell Blevins, PatriciaPatricia Blevins Boehmer, Cynthia M.Cynthia M. Boehmer Boozer, Julie K.Julie K. Boozer Brady, M. JaneM. Jane Brady Buchanan, Madaline ElliotMadaline Elliot Buchanan Burger, Carolyn S.Carolyn S. Burger Burkle, Evelyn P.Evelyn P. Burkle Burnett, Marguerite HillMarguerite Hill Burnett Cain, Eleanor L.Eleanor L. Cain Cannon, Annie JumpAnnie Jump Cannon Carey, Claire La MarClaire La Mar Carey Mary Ann Shadd
Mary Ann Shadd
Cary Carter, Mae RiedyMae Riedy Carter Cashman, Sister JeanneSister Jeanne Cashman Chandler, Imogene F.Imogene F. Chandler Chick, Linda L.Linda L. Chick Chowdhry, UmaUma Chowdhry Beatrice Coker Coleman, Alice Marie SmithAlice Marie Smith Coleman Conner, Louise T.Louise T. Conner Cook, Nancy W.Nancy W. Cook Cooke, VickyVicky Cooke Daniels, Pearl HerlihyPearl Herlihy Daniels Davis, HildaHilda Davis Davis, Vera GilbrideVera Gilbride Davis De Armond, Anna JanneyAnna Janney De Armond Del Pesco, Susan C.Susan C. Del Pesco del Tufo, Theresa L.I.Theresa L.I. del Tufo DeLuz, Lozelle JenkinsLozelle Jenkins DeLuz Doberstein, Audrey K.Audrey K. Doberstein Dorman, Felicia A.Felicia A. Dorman Dyson, PaulinePauline Dyson Eckman, JeanetteJeanette Eckman Edelsohn, MickiMicki Edelsohn Esterly, Katherine L.Katherine L. Esterly Frear, Esther SchauerEsther Schauer Frear Freebery, Sherry L.Sherry L. Freebery Frink, Lynne S.Lynne S. Frink Gildea, Sister Ann MargueriteSister Ann Marguerite Gildea Gilman, Muriel E.Muriel E. Gilman Ginns, Sallie TopkisSallie Topkis Ginns Gore, Genevieve W.Genevieve W. Gore Griffin, Patricia W.Patricia W. Griffin Haman, TeresaTeresa Haman Handloff, Norma B.Norma B. Handloff Margaret I. Handy Harris, Marian L.Marian L. Harris Hazeur, Kathryn YoungKathryn Young Hazeur Hawkins, Sally V.Sally V. Hawkins Debra Heffernan Henry, Margaret RoseMargaret Rose Henry Herr, Barbara ChaseBarbara Chase Herr Hilles, Florence BayardFlorence Bayard Hilles Hoffecker, Carol E.Carol E. Hoffecker Homer, Gloria WernickiGloria Wernicki Homer Johnson, Henrietta R.Henrietta R. Johnson Klopfenstein, Moonyeen L.Moonyeen L. Klopfenstein Knox, Sally J.Sally J. Knox Stephanie Louise Kwolek Rita Landgraf Leone, Lucile PetryLucile Petry Leone Laws, Ruth MitchellRuth Mitchell Laws Lowell, Gertrude M.Gertrude M. Lowell Lopez, Lolita A.Lolita A. Lopez Patricia Maichle Manning, Margaret R.Margaret R. Manning Maroney, Jane P.Jane P. Maroney Mather, Mary AskewMary Askew Mather McDermott, Christine MargaretChristine Margaret McDermott Catherine Devaney McKay Minner, Ruth AnnRuth Ann Minner Wilma Mishoe Mitchell, Jane E.Jane E. Mitchell Mitchell, Jane T.Jane T. Mitchell Morris, Emily G.Emily G. Morris Neal, ElizabethElizabeth Neal Janice Nevin Newton, Edith JacksonEdith Jackson Newton Annie Norman Nutter, Jeanne D.Jeanne D. Nutter Oates-Graham, RuthRuth Oates-Graham O’Leary, Renee G.Renee G. O’Leary Peterson, Karen E.Karen E. Peterson Chandra G. Pitts Pitts, JacquelinJacquelin Pitts Patricia H. Purcell Rapposelli, VivianVivian Rapposelli Rawls, BetsyBetsy Rawls Ridgely, Mabel L. FisherMabel L. Fisher Ridgely Robinson, Winifred J.Winifred J. Robinson Jane Richards Roth Ryan, Elizabeth H.Elizabeth H. Ryan Sawin, Nancy ChurchmanNancy Churchman Sawin Simonds, Beatrice "Bea"Beatrice "Bea" Simonds Sonia S. Sloan Ileana Smith Windsor, Harriet N. SmithHarriet N. Smith Windsor Soles, Ada LeighAda Leigh Soles Sorenson, Liane McDowellLiane McDowell Sorenson Steele, Cecile LongCecile Long Steele Stewart, Beverly LouiseBeverly Louise Stewart Stuart, Mary Ann SordenMary Ann Sorden Stuart Swensson, Evelyn DickensonEvelyn Dickenson Swensson Tarrant, Shirley M.Shirley M. Tarrant Tatnall, Frances D. SwiftFrances D. Swift Tatnall Theisen, Mary JornlinMary Jornlin Theisen Thomas, Helen R.Helen R. Thomas Timmons, Carol A.Carol A. Timmons Tobin, Judith GedneyJudith Gedney Tobin Hightower-Vandamm, Mae D.Mae D. Hightower-Vandamm Vernon, MabelMabel Vernon Vincent, Edith P.Edith P. Vincent Walsh, Loretta F.Loretta F. Walsh Ward, Mary SamMary Sam Ward Warner, Emalea PuseyEmalea Pusey Warner West, FrancesFrances West Val Whiting Williams, H. RuthH. Ruth Williams Williams, Lynn W.Lynn W. Williams Kendall M. Wilson Jamie L. Wolfe Latricia Odette Wright Woodruff, Valerie A.Valerie A. Woodruff Young, Pauline A.Pauline A. Young

v t e

Inductees to the National Women's Hall of Fame

1970–1979

1973

Jane Addams Marian Anderson Susan B. Anthony Clara Barton Mary McLeod Bethune Elizabeth Blackwell Pearl S. Buck Rachel Carson Mary Cassatt Emily Dickinson Amelia Earhart Alice Hamilton Helen Hayes Helen Keller Eleanor Roosevelt Florence Sabin Margaret Chase Smith Elizabeth Cady Stanton Helen Brooke Taussig Harriet Tubman

1976

Abigail Adams Margaret Mead Mildred "Babe" Didrikson Zaharias

1979

Dorothea Dix Juliette Gordon Low Alice Paul Elizabeth Bayley Seton

1980–1989

1981

Margaret Sanger Sojourner Truth

1982

Carrie Chapman Catt Frances Perkins

1983

Belva Lockwood Lucretia Mott

1984

Mary "Mother" Harris Jones Bessie Smith

1986

Barbara McClintock Lucy Stone Harriet Beecher Stowe

1988

Gwendolyn Brooks Willa Cather Sally Ride Ida B. Wells-Barnett

1990–1999

1990

Margaret Bourke-White Barbara Jordan Billie Jean King Florence B. Seibert

1991

Gertrude Belle Elion

1993

Ethel Percy Andrus Antoinette Blackwell Emily Blackwell Shirley Chisholm Jacqueline Cochran Ruth Colvin Marian Wright Edelman Alice Evans Betty Friedan Ella Grasso Martha Wright Griffiths Fannie Lou Hamer Dorothy Height Dolores Huerta Mary Jacobi Mae Jemison Mary Lyon Mary Mahoney Wilma Mankiller Constance Baker Motley Georgia O'Keeffe Annie Oakley Rosa Parks Esther Peterson Jeannette Rankin Ellen Swallow Richards Elaine Roulet Katherine Siva Saubel Gloria Steinem Helen Stephens Lillian Wald Madam C. J. Walker Faye Wattleton Rosalyn S. Yalow Gloria Yerkovich

1994

Bella Abzug Ella Baker Myra Bradwell Annie Jump Cannon Jane Cunningham Croly Catherine East Geraldine Ferraro Charlotte Perkins Gilman Grace Hopper Helen LaKelly Hunt Zora Neale Hurston Anne Hutchinson Frances Wisebart Jacobs Susette La Flesche Louise McManus Maria Mitchell Antonia Novello Linda Richards Wilma Rudolph Betty Bone Schiess Muriel Siebert Nettie Stevens Oprah Winfrey Sarah Winnemucca Fanny Wright

1995

Virginia Apgar Ann Bancroft Amelia Bloomer Mary Breckinridge Eileen Collins Elizabeth Hanford Dole Anne Dallas Dudley Mary Baker Eddy Ella Fitzgerald Margaret Fuller Matilda Joslyn Gage Lillian Moller Gilbreth Nannerl O. Keohane Maggie Kuhn Sandra Day O'Connor Josephine St. Pierre Ruffin Pat Schroeder Hannah Greenebaum Solomon

1996

Louisa May Alcott Charlotte Anne Bunch Frances Xavier Cabrini Mary A. Hallaren Oveta Culp Hobby Wilhelmina Cole Holladay Anne Morrow Lindbergh Maria Goeppert-Mayer Ernestine Louise Potowski Rose Maria Tallchief Edith Wharton

1998

Madeleine Albright Maya Angelou Nellie Bly Lydia Moss Bradley Mary Steichen Calderone Mary Ann Shadd
Mary Ann Shadd
Cary Joan Ganz Cooney Gerty Cori Sarah Grimké Julia Ward Howe Shirley Ann Jackson Shannon Lucid Katharine Dexter McCormick Rozanne L. Ridgway Edith Nourse Rogers Felice Schwartz Eunice Kennedy Shriver Beverly Sills Florence Wald Angelina Grimké
Angelina Grimké
Weld Chien-Shiung Wu

2000–2009

2000

Faye Glenn Abdellah Emma Smith DeVoe Marjory Stoneman Douglas Mary Dyer Sylvia A. Earle Crystal Eastman Jeanne Holm Leontine T. Kelly Frances Oldham Kelsey Kate Mullany Janet Reno Anna Howard Shaw Sophia Smith Ida Tarbell Wilma L. Vaught Mary Edwards Walker Annie Dodge Wauneka Eudora Welty Frances E. Willard

2001

Dorothy H. Andersen Lucille Ball Rosalynn Carter Lydia Maria Child Bessie Coleman Dorothy Day Marian de Forest Althea Gibson Beatrice A. Hicks Barbara Holdridge Harriet Williams Russell Strong Emily Howell Warner Victoria Woodhull

2002

Paulina Kellogg Wright Davis Ruth Bader Ginsburg Katharine Graham Bertha Holt Mary Engle Pennington Mercy Otis Warren

2003

Linda G. Alvarado Donna de Varona Gertrude Ederle Martha Matilda Harper Patricia Roberts Harris Stephanie L. Kwolek Dorothea Lange Mildred Robbins Leet Patsy Takemoto Mink Sacagawea Anne Sullivan Sheila E. Widnall

2005

Florence Ellinwood Allen Ruth Fulton Benedict Betty Bumpers Hillary Clinton Rita Rossi Colwell Mother Marianne Cope Maya Y. Lin Patricia A. Locke Blanche Stuart Scott Mary Burnett Talbert

2007

Eleanor K. Baum Julia Child Martha Coffin Pelham Wright Swanee Hunt Winona LaDuke Elisabeth Kübler-Ross Judith L. Pipher Catherine Filene Shouse Henrietta Szold

2009

Louise Bourgeois Mildred Cohn Karen DeCrow Susan Kelly-Dreiss Allie B. Latimer Emma Lazarus Ruth Patrick Rebecca Talbot Perkins Susan Solomon Kate Stoneman

2010–2019

2011

St. Katharine Drexel Dorothy Harrison Eustis Loretta C. Ford Abby Kelley
Abby Kelley
Foster Helen Murray Free Billie Holiday Coretta Scott King Lilly Ledbetter Barbara A. Mikulski Donna E. Shalala Kathrine Switzer

2013

Betty Ford Ina May Gaskin Julie Krone Kate Millett Nancy Pelosi Mary Joseph Rogers Bernice Sandler Anna Schwartz Emma Willard

2015

Tenley Albright Nancy Brinker Martha Graham Marcia Greenberger Barbara Iglewski Jean Kilbourne Carlotta Walls LaNier Philippa Marrack Mary Harriman Rumsey Eleanor Smeal

2017

Matilda Cuomo Temple Grandin Lorraine Hansberry Victoria Jackson Sherry Lansing Clare Boothe Luce Aimee Mullins Carol Mutter Janet Rowley Alice Waters

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 59931033 LCCN: n78036251 ISNI: 0000 0000 7374 9275 GND: 121063283 SUDOC: 139133542 SN

.